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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533783/progress-on-azadirachta-indica-based-biopesticides-in-replacing-synthetic-toxic-pesticides
#1
REVIEW
Suman Chaudhary, Rupinder K Kanwar, Alka Sehgal, David M Cahill, Colin J Barrow, Rakesh Sehgal, Jagat R Kanwar
Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alternate environmentally friendly pesticides/insecticides that would aid an efficient pest management system and also prevent chronic exposures leading to diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526047/the-paradigm-of-eave-tubes-scaling-up-house-improvement-and-optimizing-insecticide-delivery-against-disease-transmitting-mosquitoes
#2
Fredros Okumu
Control of mosquito-borne diseases is greatly compromised by spread of insecticide resistance, high implementation costs and sub-optimal compliance among users. Improved housing has potential to reduce malaria transmission nearly as much as long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), while also preventing other arthropod-borne diseases and improving overall well-being. Yet, it is hardly promoted as mainstream intervention, partly because of high costs, minimal communal benefits to people in non-improved houses, and low scalability...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523490/ivermectin-lipid-based-nanocarriers-as-novel-formulations-against-head-lice
#3
Gabriela Ullio-Gamboa, Santiago Palma, Jean Pierre Benoit, Daniel Allemandi, María Inés Picollo, Ariel Ceferino Toloza
The use of pyrethroids to control the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), has suffered considerable loss of efficacy due to the evolution of resistance. Thus, the development of efficiently insecticide delivery systems is imperative for the control of head lice. We studied the insecticidal activity of ivermectin-loaded lipid nanocapsules (IVM-LNC) against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. The LNC, prepared by a phase inversion procedure, were characterized in terms of size, surface potential, and physical stability...
May 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518067/remote-sensing-evaluation-of-two-spotted-spider-mite-damage-on-greenhouse-cotton
#4
Daniel E Martin, Mohamed A Latheef
The objective of this study was to evaluate a ground-based multispectral optical sensor as a remote sensing tool to assess foliar damage caused by the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, on greenhouse grown cotton. TSSM is a polyphagous pest which occurs on a variety of field and horticultural crops. It often becomes an early season pest of cotton in damaging proportions as opposed to being a late season innocuous pest in the mid-southern United States. Evaluation of acaricides is important for maintaining the efficacy of and preventing resistance to the currently available arsenal of chemicals and newly developed control agents...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511659/antiplasmodial-activity-of-indigofera-spicata-root-extract-against-plasmodium-berghei-infection-in-mice
#5
Eshetie Melese Birru, Mestayet Geta, Abyot Endale Gurmu
BACKGROUND: In addition to pharmacovigilance and pharmaco-economic concerns, resistance to anti-malarial medicines has been documented in all classes of anti-malarials and this is further worsened by resistance to common insecticides by malaria vector, which is a major threat to malaria control. As a means of facing the challenges of searching for new anti-malarial agents, the current study focused on evaluation of anti-malarial activity of root extract of Indigofera spicata. METHODS: Chloroquine-sensitive rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain) was used to infect the Swiss Albino mice in 4-day suppressive and curative models...
May 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507198/modern-vector-control
#6
Neil F Lobo, Nicole L Achee, John Greico, Frank H Collins
The rapid spread of mosquito resistance to currently available insecticides, and the current lack of an efficacious malaria vaccine are among many challenges that affect large-scale efforts for malaria control. As goals of malaria elimination and eradication are put forth, new vector-control paradigms and tools and/or further optimization of current vector-control products are required to meet public health demands. Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent malaria transmission and present gains against malaria mortality and morbidity may be maintained as long as vector-intervention strategies are sustained and adapted to underlying vector-related transmission dynamics...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507193/current-and-future-prospects-for-preventing-malaria-transmission-via-the-use-of-insecticides
#7
Hilary Ranson
Malaria vectors have developed resistance to all classes of insecticides that are used to target the adult mosquito to prevent parasite transmission. The number of resistant mosquito populations has increased dramatically in recent years, most likely as a result of the scale-up of vector control activities, and the intensity of this resistance is increasing rapidly and compromising the performance of vector control tools. Bednets and indoor residual spray formulations containing alternative active ingredients have shown promise in field trials but are still several years away from implementation...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506564/contamination-of-cockroaches-insecta-blattaria-to-medically-fungi-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
H Nasirian
INTRODUCTION: Fungal infections have emerged worldwide. Cockroaches have been proved vectors of medically fungi. METHODS: A systematic meta-analysis review about cockroach fungal contamination was investigated. Relevant topics were collected between January 2016 and January 2017. After a preliminary review among 392 collected papers, 156 were selected to become part of the detailed systematic meta-analysis review. RESULTS: Cockroaches contaminated to 38 fungi species belonging to 19 families and 12 orders...
May 11, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506253/genome-wide-identification-of-lncrnas-associated-with-chlorantraniliprole-resistance-in-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#9
Bin Zhu, Manyu Xu, Haiyan Shi, Xiwu Gao, Pei Liang
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are now considered important regulatory factors, with a variety of biological functions in many species including insects. Some lncRNAs have the ability to show rapid responses to diverse stimuli or stress factors and are involved in responses to insecticide. However, there are no reports to date on the characterization of lncRNAs associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella. RESULTS: Nine RNA libraries constructed from one susceptible (CHS) and two chlorantraniliprole-resistant P...
May 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501730/larvicidal-activity-of-vegetable-oils-and-esterified-compounds-against-culex-quinquefasciatus-diptera-culicidae
#10
José A Ribeiro-Neto, Maria Eduarda A Pinto, Vanessa V Ferreira, Jacqueline D Tibúrcio, Fernando P Varotti, Dihego O Azevedo, Ezequias P Siqueira-Filho, José E Serrão, Luciana A Santos Lima, Stenio Nunes Alves
Control of Culex quinquefasciatus using chemical insecticides may result in the selection of resistant mosquito strains. Thus, the use of plant-derived products has been studied as alternative for the mosquito control. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils may result in compounds with larvicidal potential against C. quinquefasciatus. However, little is known about the morphological, physiological or biochemical effects that these FAMEs may have on mosquito larvae...
May 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500788/unraveling-the-importance-of-the-malaria-parasite-helicases
#11
REVIEW
Renu Tuteja
Malaria is a human parasitic disease caused by infection from Plasmodium species, particularly Plasmodium falciparum. Each year millions of people are infected with malaria and large numbers of deaths result due to this deadly infection. P. falciparum contains 14 chromosomes, nearly 5400 genes and a multistage life cycle in humans and mosquitoes. The control of malaria is still a challenge as the parasite is continuously developing resistance to available anti-malarial drugs and the mosquito vector is developing resistance to insecticides...
May 13, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499699/malaria-vector-control-still-matters-despite-insecticide-resistance
#12
REVIEW
Haoues Alout, Pierrick Labbé, Fabrice Chandre, Anna Cohuet
Mosquito vectors' resistance to insecticides is usually considered a major threat to the recent progresses in malaria control. However, studies measuring the impact of interventions and insecticide resistance reveal inconsistencies when using entomological versus epidemiological indices. First, evaluation tests that do not reflect the susceptibility of mosquitoes when they are infectious may underestimate insecticide efficacy. Moreover, interactions between insecticide resistance and vectorial capacity reveal nonintuitive outcomes of interventions...
May 9, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497882/identification-of-the-2-tridecanone-cis-acting-element-in-the-promoter-of-cytochrome-p450-cyp6b7-in-helicoverpa-armigera
#13
Li Xu, Dong-Zhi Li, Yuan-Yuan Luo, Jian-Ying Qin, Li-Hong Qiu
The expression level of cytochrome P450 genes in insects can be induced by plant allelochemicals, which is important for insects to adapt to host plants. Cytochrome P450 CYP6B7 has been reported to be involved in pyrethroid insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera, and its transcription level was induced by some inducers. Currently, the regulatory mechanism of the induced expression of CYP6B7 remains unknown, although it is very important for understanding the detoxification mechanism to allelochemicals in host plants...
May 12, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496260/overexpression-of-a-cytochrome-p450-and-a-udp-glycosyltransferase-is-associated-with-imidacloprid-resistance-in-the-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#14
Emine Kaplanoglu, Patrick Chapman, Ian M Scott, Cam Donly
Current control of insect pests relies on chemical insecticides, however, insecticide resistance development by pests is a growing concern in pest management. The main mechanisms for insecticide resistance typically involve elevated activity of detoxifying enzymes and xenobiotic transporters that break-down and excrete insecticide molecules. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an insect pest notorious for its capacity to develop insecticide resistance rapidly...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495035/selection-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-strains-toxic-to-cotton-boll-weevil-anthonomus-grandis-coleoptera-curculionidae-larvae
#15
Melisa P Pérez, Diego H Sauka, María I Onco, Marcelo F Berretta, Graciela B Benintende
Preliminary bioassays with whole cultures (WC) of 124 Bacillus thuringiensis strains were performed with neonate larvae of Anthonomus grandis, a major cotton pest in Argentina and other regions of the Americas. Three exotic and four native strains were selected for causing more than 50% mortality. All of them were β-exotoxin producers. The native strains shared similar morphology of parasporal crystals, similar protein pattern and identical insecticidal gene profiles. These features resembled Lepidoptera-toxic strains...
May 8, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494013/modeling-spatial-variation-in-risk-of-presence-and-insecticide-resistance-for-malaria-vectors-in-laos
#16
Marc Souris, Sébastien Marcombe, Julie Laforet, Paul T Brey, Vincent Corbel, Hans J Overgaard
Climatic, sociological and environmental conditions are known to affect the spatial distribution of malaria vectors and disease transmission. Intensive use of insecticides in the agricultural and public health sectors exerts a strong selective pressure on resistance genes in malaria vectors. Spatio-temporal models of favorable conditions for Anopheles species' presence were developed to estimate the probability of presence of malaria vectors and insecticide resistance in Lao PDR. These models were based on environmental and meteorological conditions, and demographic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490535/vaccines-to-accelerate-malaria-elimination-and-eventual-eradication
#17
Julie Healer, Alan F Cowman, David C Kaslow, Ashley J Birkett
Remarkable progress has been made in coordinated malaria control efforts with substantial reductions in malaria-associated deaths and morbidity achieved through mass administration of drugs and vector control measures including distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated bednets and indoor residual spraying. However, emerging resistance poses a significant threat to the sustainability of these interventions. In this light, the malaria research community has been charged with the development of a highly efficacious vaccine to complement existing malaria elimination measures...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490350/efficacy-of-the-vegetative-cells-of-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-for-biological-control-of-insecticide-resistant-aedes-aegypti
#18
Paula Andrea Rojas-Pinzón, Jenny Dussán
BACKGROUND: The control of Aedes aegypti is usually based on chemical insecticides, but the overuse of these compounds has led to increased resistance. The binary toxin produced by Lysinibacillus sphaericus in the final stages of sporulation is used for mosquito control due to its specificity against the culicid larvae; however, it has been proved that Ae. aegypti is refractory for this toxin. Currently, there is no evidence of the use of L. sphaericus vegetative cells for mosquito biocontrol...
May 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485098/production-of-a-fungal-furocoumarin-by-a-polyketide-synthase-gene-cluster-confers-the-chemo-resistance-of-neurospora-crassa-to-the-predation-by-fungivorous-arthropods
#19
Yanxia Zhao, Jianing Ding, Weihua Yuan, Jinjin Huang, Wenxiu Huang, Yan Wang, Weifa Zheng
The formation of sexual fruiting bodies and production of polyketides are believed to be the most important strategies for fungal survival in environmental insults. In Neurospora crassa, the backbone gene of polyketide synthase gene cluster 6 (pks-6), which is expressed at lower level under vegetative growth, is highly expressed during perithecia development. Intriguingly, deletion of pks-6 does not affect perithecia maturation. How the expression of pks-6 correlates with fungal sexual development remains to be established...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485040/assessing-the-effect-of-selection-with-deltamethrin-on-biological-parameters-and-detoxifying-enzymes-in-aedes-aegypti-l
#20
Leslie C Alvarez-Gonzalez, Arelis Briceño, Gustavo Ponce-Garcia, O Karina Villanueva-Segura, Jesus A Davila-Barboza, Beatriz Lopez-Monroy, Selene M Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Yamili Contreras-Perera, Iram P Rodriguez-Sanchez, Adriana E Flores
BACKGROUND: Resistance to insecticides through one or several mechanisms has a cost for the insect in various parameters of its biological cycle. The present study evaluated the effect of deltamethrin on detoxifying enzymes and biological parameters in a population of Aedes aegypti selected for 15 generations. The enzyme activities of alpha- and beta-esterases, mixed-function oxidases and glutathione-S-transferases were determined during selection, along with biological parameters. RESULTS: Overexpression of mixed-function oxidases as a mechanism of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin was found...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
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