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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785484/challenges-in-malaria-management-and-a-glimpse-at-some-nanotechnological-approaches
#1
Adrian Najer, Cornelia G Palivan, Hans-Peter Beck, Wolfgang Meier
Malaria is a devastating infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes, affecting millions of people and killing about half a million children each year. Despite tremendous progress in the control and elimination of malaria within the past years, there are still considerable challenges to be solved. To name a few, drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and the difficulty to formulate a potent malaria vaccine need to be addressed with new strategies to achieve the final goal of malaria eradication...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784773/associated-patterns-of-insecticide-resistance-in-field-populations-of-malaria-vectors-across-africa
#2
Penelope A Hancock, Antoinette Wiebe, Katherine A Gleave, Samir Bhatt, Ewan Cameron, Anna Trett, David Weetman, David L Smith, Janet Hemingway, Michael Coleman, Peter W Gething, Catherine L Moyes
The development of insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors threatens the continued efficacy of important vector control methods that rely on a limited set of insecticides. To understand the operational significance of resistance we require quantitative information about levels of resistance in field populations to the suite of vector control insecticides. Estimation of resistance is complicated by the sparsity of observations in field populations, variation in resistance over time and space at local and regional scales, and cross-resistance between different insecticide types...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782023/double-stranded-rna-oral-delivery-methods-to-induce-rna-interference-in-phloem-and-plant-sap-feeding-hemipteran-insects
#3
Saikat Kumar B Ghosh, Wayne B Hunter, Alexis L Park, Dawn E Gundersen-Rindal
Phloem and plant sap feeding insects invade the integrity of crops and fruits to retrieve nutrients, in the process damaging food crops. Hemipteran insects account for a number of economically substantial pests of plants that cause damage to crops by feeding on phloem sap. The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) are hemipteran insect pests introduced in North America, where they are an invasive agricultural pest of high-value specialty, row, and staple crops and citrus fruits, as well as a nuisance pest when they aggregate indoors...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778876/genome-sequence-analysis-of-a-novel-bacillus-thuringiensis-strain-blb406-active-against-aedes-aegypti-larvae-a-novel-potential-bioinsecticide
#4
Raida Zribi Zghal, Kais Ghedira, Jihen Elleuch, Marwa Kharrat, Slim Tounsi
BLB406 is a novel isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis with a larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae. It displays original plasmidic and crystal protein patterns. The present work reported molecular and bioinformatic analyses for the genome sequence of BLB406 using MiSeq Illumina next-generation sequencing technology. The reads were assembled by Velvet tool. Using RAST program and PGAAP the genome of BLB406 strain was shown to contain 6297 genes corresponding to 5924 protein coding sequences. The BLB406 genome investigation with BtToxin_scanner program shows that this strain has an original and different combination of toxins compared to the published ones: five cry genes (cry11, cry22, cry2, cry60, cry64) and two distinct vegetative insecticidal vip4 genes...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777666/analysis-of-cross-resistance-to-vip3-proteins-in-eight-insect-colonies-from-four-insect-species-selected-for-resistance-to-bacillus-thuringiensis-insecticidal-proteins
#5
Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Yuequin Wang, Yudong Quan, Kanglai He, Tom Walsh, Bill James, Sharon Downes, Wendy Kain, Ping Wang, Kathy Leonard, Tom Morgan, Brenda Oppert, Juan Ferré
Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3 proteins are synthesized and secreted during the vegetative growth phase. They are activated by gut proteases, recognize and bind to midgut receptors, form pores and lyse cells. We tested the susceptibility to Vip3Aa and Vip3Ca of Cry1A-, Cry2A-, Dipel- and Vip3-resistant insect colonies from different species to determine whether resistance to other insecticidal proteins confers cross-resistance to Vip3 proteins. As expected, the colonies resistant to Cry1A proteins, Dipel (Helicoverpa armigera, Trichoplusia ni, Ostrinia furnacalis and Plodia interpunctella) or Cry2Ab (H...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777111/knockdown-of-rna-interference-pathway-genes-impacts-the-fitness-of-western-corn-rootworm
#6
Courtney Davis-Vogel, Angel Ortiz, Lisa Procyk, Jonathan Robeson, Adane Kassa, Yiwei Wang, Emily Huang, Carl Walker, Amit Sethi, Mark E Nelson, Dipali G Sashital
Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is a serious agricultural pest known for its high adaptability to various management strategies, giving rise to a continual need for new control options. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal RNAs represents a novel mode of action for rootworm management that is dependent on the RNA interference (RNAi) pathways of the insect for efficacy. Preliminary evidence suggests that western corn rootworm could develop broad resistance to all insecticidal RNAs through changes in RNAi pathway genes; however, the likelihood of field-evolved resistance occurring through this mechanism remains unclear...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776379/development-of-a-rapid-field-applicable-molecular-diagnostic-for-knockdown-resistance-kdr-markers-in-an-gambiae
#7
Vera T Unwin, Shaun Ainsworth, Emily J Rippon, El Hadji Amadou Niang, Mark J I Paine, David Weetman, Emily R Adams
BACKGROUND: The spread of insecticide resistance (IR) is a major threat to vector control programmes for mosquito-borne diseases. Early detection of IR using diagnostic markers could help inform these programmes, especially in remote locations where gathering reliable bioassay data is challenging. Most current molecular tests for genetic IR markers are only suitable for use in well-equipped laboratory settings. There is an unmet need for field-applicable diagnostics. METHODS: A single-cartridge test was designed to detect key IR mutations in the major African vector of malaria, Anopheles gambiae...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776361/emergence-of-knock-down-resistance-in-the-anopheles-gambiae-complex-in-the-upper-river-region-the-gambia-and-its-relationship-with-malaria-infection-in-children
#8
Anne L Wilson, Margaret Pinder, John Bradley, Martin J Donnelly, Majidah Hamid-Adiamoh, Lamin B S Jarju, Musa Jawara, David Jeffries, Ballah Kandeh, Emily J Rippon, Kolawole Salami, Umberto D'Alessandro, Steven W Lindsay
BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance threatens malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Knockdown resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) is commonly caused by mutations in the gene encoding a voltage-gated sodium channel which is the target site for the insecticide. The study aimed to examine risk factors for knockdown resistance in An. gambiae s.l. and its relationship with malaria infection in children in rural Gambia. Point mutations at the Vgsc-1014 locus, were measured in An...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773742/wicked-evolution-can-we-address-the-sociobiological-dilemma-of-pesticide-resistance
#9
REVIEW
Fred Gould, Zachary S Brown, Jennifer Kuzma
Resistance to insecticides and herbicides has cost billions of U.S. dollars in the agricultural sector and could result in millions of lives lost to insect-vectored diseases. We mostly continue to use pesticides as if resistance is a temporary issue that will be addressed by commercialization of new pesticides with novel modes of action. However, current evidence suggests that insect and weed evolution may outstrip our ability to replace outmoded chemicals and other control mechanisms. To avoid this outcome, we must address the mix of ecological, genetic, economic, and sociopolitical factors that prevent implementation of sustainable pest management practices...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772685/the-emergence-of-endophytic-microbes-and-their-biological-promise
#10
Gary Strobel
As is true with animal species, plants also have an associated microflora including endophytes as well as microbes associated with the phyllosphere and rhizosphere (plant surfaces) and this is considered the plant microbiome. However, those organisms within virtually all tissues and organs of the plant are known as endophytes. Most often fungi are the most frequently recovered endophytes from plant tissues, but bacterial forms generally occur in greater numbers, but not in species varieties. The exact biological/biochemical role of the endophyte in the plant and how it interacts with the plant and other endophytes and plant associated organisms has not been intensely and carefully examined...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769620/carvacrol-and-linalool-co-loaded-in-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-grafted-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-sustainable-biopesticide-aiming-pest-control
#11
Estefânia V R Campos, Patrícia L F Proença, Jhones L Oliveira, Anderson E S Pereira, Lígia Nunes de Morais Ribeiro, Fabrício O Fernandes, Kelly C Gonçalves, Ricardo A Polanczyk, Tatiane Pasquoto-Stigliani, Renata Lima, Cirano C Melville, Jaqueline F Della Vechia, Daniel J Andrade, Leonardo F Fraceto
Pesticides are the main tactics for pest control because they reduce the pest population very fast and their efficiency does not depend on abiotic factors. However, the indiscriminate use of these substances can speed up the development of resistant populations and causing environmental contamination. Therefore, alternative methods of pest control are sought, such as the use of botanical compounds. Nanoencapsulation of volatile compounds has been shown to be an important tool that can be used to overcome the lack of stability of these compounds...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764665/rapid-evolution-in-insect-pests-the-importance-of-space-and-time-in-population-genomics-studies
#12
REVIEW
Benjamin Pélissié, Michael S Crossley, Zachary Paul Cohen, Sean D Schoville
Pest species in agroecosystems often exhibit patterns of rapid evolution to environmental and human-imposed selection pressures. Although the role of adaptive processes is well accepted, few insect pests have been studied in detail and most research has focused on selection at insecticide resistance candidate genes. Emerging genomic datasets provide opportunities to detect and quantify selection in insect pest populations, and address long-standing questions about mechanisms underlying rapid evolutionary change...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764658/transgenerational-effects-of-insecticides-implications-for-rapid-pest-evolution-in-agroecosystems
#13
REVIEW
Kristian Brevik, Leena Lindström, Stephanie D McKay, Yolanda H Chen
Although pesticides are a major selective force in driving the evolution of insect pests, the evolutionary processes that give rise to insecticide resistance remain poorly understood. Insecticide resistance has been widely observed to increase with frequent and intense insecticide exposure, but can be lost following the relaxation of insecticide use. One possible but rarely explored explanation is that insecticide resistance may be associated with epigenetic modifications, which influence the patterning of gene expression without changing underlying DNA sequence...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764656/rapid-evolution-of-aphid-pests-in-agricultural-environments
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Christophe Simon, Jean Peccoud
Aphids constitute a major group of crop pests that inflict serious damages to plants, both directly by ingesting phloem and indirectly as vectors of numerous diseases. In response to intense and repeated human-induced pressures, such as insecticide treatments, the use of resistant plants and biological agents, aphids have developed a series of evolutionary responses relying on adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In this review, we highlight some remarkable evolutionary responses to anthropogenic pressures in agroecosystems and discuss the mechanisms underlying the ecological and evolutionary success of aphids...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763445/pyrethroid-insecticides-maintain-repellent-effect-on-knock-down-resistant-populations-of-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes
#15
Natalie M Bowman, Kristin Akialis, Grayson Cave, Roberto Barrera, Charles S Apperson, Steven R Meshnick
Pyrethroid-treated clothing is commonly worn for protection against mosquitoes; pyrethroids are both insecticides and repellents. Pyrethroid resistance has become increasingly common in Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue, Zika, and other arboviruses, but it is not clear whether resistance is associated with reductions in repellency. In order to determine whether long-lasting permethrin impregnated (LLPI) clothing is protective, we used Aedes aegypti from New Orleans, LA (pyrethroid-sensitive) and San Juan, PR (resistant) to measure both lethality and repellency...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758171/aedes-aegypti-linnaeus-larvae-from-dengue-outbreak-areas-in-selangor-showing-resistance-to-pyrethroids-but-susceptible-to-organophosphates
#16
Cherng Shii Leong, Indra Vythilingam, Meng Li Wong, Wan-Yusoff Wan Sulaiman, Yee Ling Lau
The resistance status of Selangor Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) larvae against four major groups of insecticides (i.e., organochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) was investigated. Aedes aegypti were susceptible against temephos (organophosphate), although resistance (RR50  = 0.21 - 2.64) may be developing. The insecticides susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti larvae were found heterogeneous among the different study sites. Results showed that Ae. aegypti larvae from Klang, Sabak Bernam and Sepang were susceptible against all insecticides tested...
May 11, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753712/focc%C3%AE-6-a-truncated-nachr-subunit-positively-correlates-with-spinosad-resistance-in-the-western-flower-thrips-frankliniella-occidentalis-pergande
#17
Yanran Wan, Guangdi Yuan, Bingqing He, Baoyun Xu, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Youjun Zhang, Qingjun Wu, Xuguo Zhou
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a molecular target for spinosyns and neonicotinoids, mediate rapid cholinergic transmission in insect central nervous system by binding acetylcholine. Previous studies have shown that mutations in nAChRs contribute to the high level of resistance to these two classes of insecticides. In this study, we identified nine nAChR subunits from a transcriptome of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, including α1-7, β1, and β2. Exon 4 of α4 and exons 3 and 8 of α6 each have two splicing variants, respectively...
May 10, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749684/molecular-characterization-expression-pattern-and-metabolic-activity-of-flavin-dependent-monooxygenases-in-spodoptera-exigua
#18
X Tian, S Zhao, Z Guo, B Hu, Q Wei, Y Tang, J Su
Enhanced detoxification is one of the important mechanisms for insecticide resistance. Most research in this field to date has focused on the role of cytochrome P450s. Our previous work revealed that flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) were involved in metabolic resistance of Spodoptera exigua. In the present study we investigated the molecular characteristics, expression patterns and oxidative activities of SeFMO on insecticides. Three FMO genes, which encode proteins with the typical FMO motifs, were cloned from S...
May 10, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749087/nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-related-factor-2-activates-glutathione-s-transferase-expression-in-the-midgut-of-spodoptera-litura-lepidoptera-noctuidae-in-response-to-phytochemicals-and-insecticides
#19
S Chen, M Lu, N Zhang, X Zou, M Mo, S Zheng
Detoxication enzymes play an important role in insect resistance to xenobiotics such as insecticides and phytochemicals. We studied the pathway for activating the expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in response to selected xenobiotics. An assay of the promoter activity of GST epsilon 1 (Slgste1) of Spodoptera litura led to the discovery of a cis-regulating element. An antioxidant response element was activated in response to indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) and was able to bind with the xenobiotic sensor protein nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (SlNrf2)...
May 10, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747684/efficacy-of-a-novel-mode-of-action-of-an-indoor-residual-spraying-product-sumishield%C3%A2-50wg-against-susceptible-and-resistant-populations-of-anopheles-gambiae-s-l-in-benin-west-africa
#20
Fiacre R Agossa, Gil G Padonou, Come Z Koukpo, Jacques Zola-Sahossi, Roseric Azondekon, Osei K Akuoko, Juniace Ahoga, Boris N'dombidje, Bruno Akinro, Arsene Jacques Y H Fassinou, Michel Sezonlin, Martin C Akogbeto
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of the distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying with insecticides over the last decade have contributed to the considerable decrease of malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the increasing pyrethroid resistance intensity and the spread of carbamate resistance in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) mosquitoes and the limited number of insecticides recommended by the WHO for vector control, alternative insecticide formulations for IRS with long-lasting residual activity are required to sustain the gains obtained in most malaria-endemic countries...
May 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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