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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822484/behavior-as-a-mechanism-of-insecticide-resistance-evaluation-of-the-evidence
#1
REVIEW
M P Zalucki, M J Furlong
'Behavioral resistance' must be defined in a manner consistent with other mechanisms of resistance and be based on heritable changes. Most claimed cases of behavioral resistance to insecticides are simply aversion behaviors either learned or based on simple repellency or avoidance. Although studies have shown changes in taste/odour receptors (e.g., cockroaches), unequivocal demonstration of behavioral resistance to insecticides is rare. The fundamental problems are: 1. Inferring resistance from observations, with little evidence of 'normal' behavior prior to exposure to insecticides...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820587/flupyrimin-a-novel-insecticide-acting-at-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#2
Yasumichi Onozaki, Ryo Horikoshi, Ikuya Ohno, Shigeki Kitsuda, Kathleen A Durkin, Tomonori Suzuki, Chiaki Asahara, Natsuko Hiroki, Rena Komabashiri, Rikako Shimizu, Shogo Furutani, Makoto Ihara, Kazuhiko Matsuda, Masaaki Mitomi, Shinzo Kagabu, Katsuhito Uomoto, Motohiro Tomizawa
A novel chemotype insecticide flupyrimin (FLP) [N-[(E)-1-(6-chloro-3-pyridinylmethyl)pyridin-2(1H)-ylidene]-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide], discovered by Meiji Seika Pharma, has unique biological properties including outstanding potency to imidacloprid (IMI)-resistant rice pests together with superior safety toward pollinators. Intriguingly, FLP acts as a nicotinic antagonist in American cockroach neurons and [3H]FLP binds to the multiple high-affinity binding components in house fly nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (nAChR) preparation...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814357/association-of-aeroallergen-sensitization-and-atopic-disease-in-the-sonoran-desert
#3
Ryan D Buckley, Tara F Carr
BACKGROUND: Numerous aeroallergens have been associated with the development of asthma, including Alternaria, house-dust mite, and pet dander. Tucson, Arizona, is located in the Sonoran Desert, which has the highest diversity of vegetation of any desert in the world. Given the unique pollen profile in this region, we sought to identify the most common aeroallergens associated with rhinitis and asthma diagnosis in the local adult population. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of aeroallergen sensitivity in the Tucson adult population and to identify which aeroallergens are associated with a diagnosis of asthma...
September 1, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811174/subchronic-exposure-to-sublethal-dose-of-imidacloprid-changes-electrophysiological-properties-and-expression-pattern-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subtypes-in-insect-neurosecretory-cells
#4
Yassine Benzidane, Delphine Goven, Aly Ahmed Abd-Ella, Caroline Deshayes, Bruno Lapied, Valérie Raymond
Neonicotinoids are the most important class of insecticides used in agriculture over the last decade. They act as selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The emergence of insect resistance to these insecticides is one of the major problems, which limit the use of neonicotinoids. The aim of our study is to better understand physiological changes appearing after subchronic exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide using complementary approaches that include toxicology, electrophysiology, molecular biology and calcium imaging...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805632/juvenile-hormone-and-hemimetabolan-eusociality-a-comparison-of-cockroaches-with-termites
#5
REVIEW
Judith Korb, Xavier Belles
Termites are social Dictyoptera that evolved eusociality independently from social Hymenoptera. They are characterized by unique developmental plasticity that is the basis of caste differentiation and social organization. As developmental plasticity is a result of endocrine regulation, in order to understand the evolution of termite sociality it is helpful to compare the endocrine underpinning of development between termites and cockroaches. Nijhout and Wheeler (1982) proposed that varying JH titers determine caste differentiation in termites...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801771/morphology-and-ultrastructure-of-the-tarsal-adhesive-organs-of-the-madagascar-hissing-cockroach-gromphadorhina-portentosa
#6
Christian Schmitt, Oliver Betz
The present transmission and scanning electron microscopic study of the ultramorphology of the pliable attachment pads (arolium, euplantulae) of the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa reveals structural evidence for their function in producing, storing, and secreting an adhesion-mediating secretion and releasing it to the exterior. The exocrine epidermal tissue of both the arolium and the euplantula is significantly enlarged by numerous invaginations stretching into the hemolymph cavity...
August 12, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791151/group-choices-seemingly-at-odds-with-individual-preferences
#7
Michel-Olivier Laurent Salazar, Stamatios C Nicolis, Mariano Calvo Martín, Grégory Sempo, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, Isaac Planas-Sitjà
Numerous studies have focused on the influence of the social environment and the interactions between individuals on the collective decision-making of groups. They showed, for example, that attraction between individuals is at the origin of an amplification of individual preferences. These preferences may concern various environmental cues such as biomolecules that convey information about the environment such as vanillin, which, for some insects, is an attractant. In this study, we analysed how the social context of the cockroaches of the species Periplaneta americana modifies preferences when individuals are offered two shelters, of which one is vanillin scented...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780227/insights-into-the-immune-manipulation-mechanisms-of-pollen-allergens-by-protein-domain-profiling
#8
Seema Patel, Aruna Rani, Arun Goyal
Plant pollens are airborne allergens, as their inhalation causes immune activation, leading to rhinitis, conjunctivitis, sinusitis and oral allergy syndrome. A myriad of pollen proteins belonging to profilin, expansin, polygalacturonase, glucan endoglucosidase, pectin esterase, and lipid transfer protein class have been identified. In the present in silico study, the protein domains of fifteen pollen sequences were extracted from the UniProt database and submitted to the interactive web tool SMART (Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool), for finding the protein domain profiles...
July 29, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775364/dnp2-ctctla-4-inhibits-german-cockroach-extract-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-and-hyper-responsiveness-via-inhibition-of-th2-responses
#9
Sangho Lim, Jung Ho Sohn, Ja-Hyun Koo, Jung-Won Park, Je-Min Choi
German cockroaches are major household allergens that can trigger allergic airway inflammatory diseases with sensitive T-cell responses. Although the use of immune modulatory biologics, such as antibodies, to mediate allergic responses has recently been examined, only systemic administration is available because of the size limitations on intranasal administration. Here we utilized a cell-permeable peptide, dNP2, to deliver the cytoplasmic domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (ctCTLA-4) through the airway epithelium to modulate Th2 responses in a German cockroach extract (GCE)-induced allergic airway inflammation model...
August 4, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767688/cross-reaction-between-formosan-termite-coptotermes-formosanus-proteins-and-cockroach-allergens
#10
Christopher P Mattison, Taruna Khurana, Matthew R Tarver, Christopher B Florane, Casey C Grimm, Suman B Pakala, Carrie B Cottone, Claudia Riegel, Yvette Bren-Mattison, Jay E Slater
Cockroach allergens can lead to serious allergy and asthma symptoms. Termites are evolutionarily related to cockroaches, cohabitate in human dwellings, and represent an increasing pest problem in the United States. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is one of the most common species in the southern United States. Several assays were used to determine if C. formosanus termite proteins cross-react with cockroach allergens. Expressed sequence tag and genomic sequencing results were searched for homology to cockroach allergens using BLAST 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756650/accurate-quantification-of-five-german-cockroach-gcr-allergens-in-complex-extracts-using-multiple-reaction-monitoring-mass-spectrometry-mrm-ms
#11
Samuel T Mindaye, Jelena Spiric, Natalie A David, Ronald L Rabin, Jay E Slater
BACKGROUND: German cockroach (GCr) allergen extracts are complex and heterogeneous products, and methods to better assess their potency and composition are needed for adequate studies of their safety and efficacy. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: The objective of this study was to develop an assay based on liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM MS) for rapid, accurate, and reproducible quantification of five allergens (Bla g 1, Bla g 2, Bla g3, Bla g 4, and Bla g 5) in crude GCr allergen extracts...
July 30, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756082/asthma-morbidity-comorbidities-and-modifiable-factors-among-older-adults
#12
Joy Hsu, Jessica Chen, Maria C Mirabelli
BACKGROUND: Asthma morbidity is increased among older adults, especially older adult women. Interventions to improve asthma control in this population are not well described. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify risk factors (including modifiable factors) associated with asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency department or urgent care center visits (ED/UCV) among older adults. A secondary objective was to investigate sex differences in variables relevant to asthma control...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752026/insects-an-underrepresented-resource-for-the-discovery-of-biologically-active-natural-products
#13
REVIEW
Lauren Seabrooks, Longqin Hu
Nature has been the source of life-changing and -saving medications for centuries. Aspirin, penicillin and morphine are prime examples of Nature׳s gifts to medicine. These discoveries catalyzed the field of natural product drug discovery which has mostly focused on plants. However, insects have more than twice the number of species and entomotherapy has been in practice for as long as and often in conjunction with medicinal plants and is an important alternative to modern medicine in many parts of the world...
July 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733329/the-antifungal-activity-of-the-peptide-periplanetasin-2-derived-from-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#14
JiEun Yun, Jae-Sam Hwang, Dong Gun Lee
The cockroach, which is a household insect, is an established model organism in research. Periplanetasin-2, derived from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, exerted potent antifungal effect against pathogenic fungi without causing hemolysis. Periplanetasin-2 induced oxidative stress by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Periplanetasin-2 also caused apoptosis by exposure of phosphatidylserine and fragmentation of DNA, exerted in a concentration-dependent manner. Hence, we investigated the mitochondrial apoptotic mechanism of periplanetasin-2 in Candida albicans After treatment with periplanetasin-2, we observed mitochondrial depolarization and calcium accumulation...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719023/identification-of-odorant-binding-and-chemosensory-protein-genes-and-the-ligand-affinity-of-two-of-the-encoded-proteins-suggest-a-complex-olfactory-perception-system-in-periplaneta-americana
#15
P He, Z-Q Li, Y-F Zhang, L Chen, J Wang, L Xu, Y-N Zhang, M He
The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is an urban pest with a precise chemosensory system that helps it achieve complex physiological behaviours, including locating food and mating. However, its chemosensory mechanisms have not been well studied. Here, we identified 71 putative odorant carrier protein genes in P. americana, including 57 new odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and 11 chemosensory proteins (CSPs). To identify their physiological functions, we investigated their tissue expression patterns in antennae, mouthparts, legs, and the remainder of the body of both sexes, and determined that most of these genes were expressed in chemosensory organs...
July 18, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716358/the-ability-of-lizards-to-identify-an-artificial-batesian-mimic
#16
Josef Beneš, Petr Veselý
Birds are usually considered the main predators shaping the evolution of aposematic signals and mimicry. Nevertheless, some lizards also represent predominately visually oriented predators, so they may also play an important role in the evolution of aposematism. Despite this fact, experimental evidence regarding the responses of lizards to aposematic prey is very poor compared to such evidence in birds. Lizards possess very similar sensory and cognitive abilities to those of birds and their response to aposematic prey may thus be affected by very similar processes...
June 3, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710552/the-african-froghopper-ptyelus-flavescens-suborder-cicadomorpha-contains-two-novel-and-one-known-peptides-of-the-adipokinetic-hormone%C3%A2-akh-family-structure-function-and-comparison-with-aphid-akh-suborder-sternorrhyncha
#17
Gerd Gäde, Petr Šimek, Heather G Marco
The rationale of "green pesticides" in food security is to use information about endogenous hormones of pest insects to make peptide mimetics that will act against the pest insects to alter their behaviour or physiology, while taking care not to harm beneficial insects or other organisms in the food chain. Such "green" insecticides are designed thus, on the basis of neuropeptide ligand-receptor interaction and it is of paramount interest to have finally a mimetic at hand that is harmful only to pest insects...
July 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707769/embryonic-development-of-eucorydia-yasumatsui-asahina-with-special-reference-to-external-morphology-insecta-blattodea-corydiidae
#18
Mari Fujita, Ryuichiro Machida
As the first step in the comparative embryological study of Blattodea, with the aim of reconstructing the groundplan and phylogeny of Dictyoptera and Polyneoptera, the embryonic development of a corydiid was examined and described in detail using Eucorydia yasumatsui. Ten to fifteen micropyles are localized on the ventral side of the egg, and aggregated symbiont bacterial "mycetomes" are found in the egg. The embryo is formed by the fusion of paired blastodermal regions, with higher cellular density on the ventral side of the egg...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677262/high-resolution-phylogenetic-analysis-of-endomicrobia-reveals-multiple-acquisitions-of-endosymbiotic-lineages-by-termite-gut-flagellates
#19
Aram Mikaelyan, Claire L Thompson, Katja Meuser, Hao Zheng, Pinki Rani, Rudy Plarre, Andreas Brune
Bacteria of the class Endomicrobia form a deep-branching clade in the Elusimicrobia phylum. They are found almost exclusively in the intestinal tract of animals and are particularly abundant in many termites, where they reside as intracellular symbionts in the cellulolytic gut flagellates. Although small populations of putatively free-living lineages have been detected in faunated and flagellate-free hosts, the evolutionary origin of the endosymbionts is obscured by the limited amount of phylogenetic information provided by the 16S rRNA gene fragment amplified with Endomicrobia-specific primers...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676207/effects-of-allergen-sensitization-on-response-to-therapy-in-children-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#20
Robert D Pesek, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Erin O'Brien, Sarah Beckwith, Caroline Daniel, Chunqiao Luo, Amy M Scurlock, Peggy Chandler, Rebecca A Levy, Tamara T Perry, Joshua L Kennedy, Sheva Chervinskiy, Maryelle Vonlanthen, Helen Casteel, Stephen C Fiedorek, Troy Gibbons, Stacie M Jones
BACKGROUND: In children with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) foods are the most common disease triggers, but environmental allergens are also suspected culprits. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of environmental allergen sensitization on response to treatment in children with EoE in the southeastern United States. METHODS: Patients 2 to 18 years old who were referred to the Arkansas Children's Hospital Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders Clinic from January 2012 to January 2016 were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal cohort study with collection of demographics, clinical symptoms, medical history, allergy sensitization profiles, and response to treatment over time...
July 1, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
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