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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918270/interaction-of-inhibitory-and-facilitatory-effects-of-conditioning-trials-on-long-term-memory-formation
#1
Shouhei Hosono, Yukihisa Matsumoto, Makoto Mizunami
Animals learn through experience and consolidate the memories into long-time storage. Conditioning parameters to induce protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) have been the subject of extensive studies in many animals. Here we found a case in which a conditioning trial inhibits or facilitates LTM formation depending on the intervals from preceding trials. We studied the effects of conditioning parameters on LTM formation in olfactory conditioning of maxillary-palpi extension response with sucrose reward in the cockroach Periplaneta americana We found, at first, that translation- and transcription-dependent LTM forms 1 h after training, the fastest so far reported in insects...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914535/indoxacarb-biotransformation-in-the-german-cockroach
#2
Ameya D Gondhalekar, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Isabel Silva, Bruce Cooper, Michael E Scharf
Insecticides that are used for pest control undergo physical and biological (enzymatic) degradation. Indoxacarb is an oxadiazine class sodium channel blocker insecticide used for German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) control. At present, no information is available on enzymatic biotransformation or metabolism of indoxacarb in this important urban pest. We studied the biotransformation pathways of indoxacarb in one susceptible and three field strains with varying susceptibility levels using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893060/association-between-allergen-exposure-in-inner-city-schools-and-asthma-morbidity-among-students
#3
William J Sheehan, Perdita Permaul, Carter R Petty, Brent A Coull, Sachin N Baxi, Jonathan M Gaffin, Peggy S Lai, Diane R Gold, Wanda Phipatanakul
Importance: Home aeroallergen exposure is associated with increased asthma morbidity in children, yet little is known about the contribution of school aeroallergen exposures to such morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the effect of school-specific aeroallergen exposures on asthma morbidity among students, adjusting for home exposures. Design, Setting, and Participants: The School Inner-City Asthma Study was a prospective cohort study evaluating 284 students aged 4 to 13 years with asthma who were enrolled from 37 inner-city elementary schools in the northeastern United States between March 1, 2008, and August 31, 2013...
November 21, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890999/lophomonas-blattarum-infection-in-immunocompetent-patient
#4
Rahul Tyagi, Kavita Bala Anand, Kishore Teple, Rajkumar Singh Negi
Lophomonas blattarum (L. blattarum) is a protozoan parasite living in intestinal tracts of termites and cockroaches. Chen and Meng from China repoted first case of pulmonary L. blattarum infection in 1993. 137 cases have only been reported in literature between 1993 to 2013. Majority of these infections occur in immunocompromised patients and have been reported from China. We report a case of this rare entity in an immunocompetent young Indian male.
November 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867092/peptide-rich-venom-from-the-spider-heteropoda-venatoria-potently-inhibits-insect-voltage-gated-sodium-channels
#5
Yazhou Huang, Xinzhou Wu, Peng Zhang, Zhigui Duan, Xi Zhou, Minzhi Chen, Athar Farooq, Songping Liang, Zhonghua Liu
Heteropoda venatoria is a venomous spider species distributed worldwide and has a characteristic habit of feeding on insects. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses revealed that H. venatoria venom contains hundreds of peptides with a predominant molecular weights of 3000-5000 Da. Intra-abdominal injection of the venom had severe toxic effects on cockroaches and caused death at higher concentrations. The LD50 was 28...
November 17, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853616/tergal-and-pleural-structures-contribute-to-the-formation-of-ectopic-prothoracic-wings-in-cockroaches
#6
Moysés Elias-Neto, Xavier Belles
Wings were a fundamental morphological innovation for the adaptive radiation of insects, the most diversified group among all animals. Pterygote insects have two pairs of wings, the mesothoracic (T2) forewings and the metathoracic (T3) hindwings, whereas the prothorax (T1) is wingless. Using RNA interference approaches, we have found that the gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) determines the wingless identity of T1 in the cockroach Blattella germanica. Interference of Scr triggers the formation of ectopic wing structures in T1, which are formed from the expansion of the latero-posterior region of the pronotum, along with a contribution of the epimeron, a pleurite of T1...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819321/comparative-morphological-trade-offs-between-pre-and-post-copulatory-sexual-selection-in-giant-hissing-cockroaches-tribe-gromphadorhini
#7
Kate L Durrant, Ian M Skicko, Craig Sturrock, Sophie L Mowles
Sperm competition theory predicts that animals face a trade-off between investment in weaponry and investment in ejaculate composition. Within the Madagascan giant hissing cockroaches (Tribe Gromphadorhini) differences in morphology exist that may indicate differing strategies of male-male competition. We compared relative pronotal horn length using high-resolution X-ray CT scanning data, relative testes mass, and male-male agonistic behaviour between two species of hissing cockroaches, Gromphadorhina oblongonota and Aeluropoda insignis...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811297/effects-of-foraging-distance-on-macronutrient-balancing-and-performance-in-the-german-cockroach-blattella-germanica
#8
Alexander E Ko, Kim Jensen, Coby Schal, Jules Silverman
The German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) is an excellent model omnivore for studying the effect of foraging effort on nutrient balancing behavior and physiology, and its consequences for performance. We investigated the effect of foraging distance on individual German cockroaches by providing two foods differing in protein-to-carbohydrate ratio at opposite ends of long containers or adjacent to each other in short containers. Each food was nutritionally imbalanced, but the two foods were nutritionally complementary, allowing optimal foraging by selective feeding from both foods...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802402/operational-aspects-of-the-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-autocidal-gravid-ovitrap
#9
Verónica Acevedo, Manuel Amador, Gilberto Félix, Roberto Barrera
Dengue viruses cause hundreds of millions of infections every year in tropical and subtropical countries. Unfortunately, there is not a single universal vector control method capable of suppressing Aedes aegypti (L.) populations. Amongst novel control tools or approaches are various types of traps targeting gravid females or their eggs. Here, we provide details of the operational use of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autocidal gravid ovitrap (CDC-AGO trap) for the surveillance and control of Ae...
September 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799332/ph-alkalinization-by-chloroquine-suppresses-pathogenic-burkholderia-t6ss-1-and-multi-nucleated-giant-cells
#10
Jennifer Chua, Jeffrey L Senft, Stephen J Lockett, Paul J Brett, Mary N Burtnick, David DeShazer, Arthur M Friedlander
Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively, in humans and animals. A hallmark of pathogenesis is formation of granulomas containing multi-nucleated giant cells (MNGCs) and cell death. These processes depend on the Type 6 secretion system-1 (T6SS-1), which is required for virulence in animals. We examined the cell biology of MNGC formation and cell death. We found that chloroquine (CLQ), an anti-malarial drug, inhibits Burkholderia growth, phagosomal escape and subsequent MNGC formation...
October 31, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793656/isolation-of-two-insecticidal-toxins-from-venom-of-the-australian-theraphosid-spider-coremiocnemis-tropix
#11
Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Jennifer J Smith, Volker Herzig, Sandy S Pineda, Sławomir Dziemborowicz, Sing-Yan Er, Thomas Durek, John Gilchrist, Paul F Alewood, Graham M Nicholson, Frank Bosmans, Glenn F King
Sheep flystrike is caused by parasitic flies laying eggs on soiled wool or open wounds, after which the hatched maggots feed on the sheep flesh and often cause large lesions. It is a significant economic problem for the livestock industry as infestations are difficult to control due to ongoing cycles of larval development into flies followed by further egg laying. We therefore screened venom fractions from the Australian theraphosid spider Coremiocnemis tropix to identify toxins active against the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina, which is the primary cause of flystrike in Australia...
October 25, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792882/immunogenic-peptides-b-t-cell-epitopes-of-per-a-10-allergen-of-periplaneta-americana
#12
Dhanapal Govindaraj, Swati Sharma, S N Gaur, Shakuntala Lavasa, Nagendra Prasad, Naveen Arora
Mapping of B and T cell epitopes of an allergen can be utilised in the development of alternative therapeutic modalities and diagnostics. The present study was aimed to identify B and T cell epitopes of Per a 10, a major cockroach allergen, by computational tools and subsequent validation by in vitro experiments. Per a 10 three-dimensional structure was homology modelled using structure of anionic trypsin from pacific chum salmon as a template. Seven B cell epitopes (B-P1 to B-P7) were predicted by sequence and structure based methods...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788884/analysis-of-10-environmental-allergen-components-of-the-american-cockroach-in-taiwan
#13
Mey-Fann Lee, Yi-Hsing Chen, Chu-Hui Chiang, Shyh-Jye Lin, Pei-Pong Song
BACKGROUND: Cockroaches are important sources of indoor airborne allergens. The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is the second leading inhalant allergen causing allergic airway diseases in Taiwan. We previously reported a difference in pathogenicity of different allergen components from American cockroaches. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the environmental profile of American cockroach allergen components. METHODS: Polyclonal antibodies were generated to recombinant American cockroach allergens, Per a 1 through Per a 10...
November 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788396/in-silico-analysis-of-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-polyprotein-domains-and-their-comparison-with-other-pathogens-and-allergens-to-gain-insight-on-pathogenicity-mechanisms
#14
Seema Patel
Hepatitis C (HCV) is a deadly virus from family Flaviviridae, causing acute or chronic liver inflammation. Given its lethality and no known vaccine to curb it, understanding its pathogenic mechanism is critical. By analyzing the domains in its protein sequence, a plethora can be learnt about its immune manipulation strategies. In this regard, current in silico study compares publicly-available HCV polyprotein sequences and their domain profiles. Apart from using UniProt sequences and SMART (Simple modular architecture research tool) platform for domain profiling, a set of customized scripts were developed to extract the patterns of protein domain distribution...
October 15, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787207/first-record-of-hammerschmidtiella-diesingi-hammerschmidt-1838-oxyuridomorpha-thelastomatidae-parasite-of-periplaneta-americana-linnaeus-1758-blattodea-blattidae-in-japan-morphological-and-molecular-characterization
#15
Rina Sriwati, Sota Ozawa, Jans Morffe, Koichi Hasegawa
Nematodes, belonging to the family Thelastomatidae, are parasites of saprophytic terrestrial arthropods, mainly cockroaches. American cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) has high environmental adaptability, and has been spread worldwide by human activity. There are several reports of thelastomatid parasitic nematodes of P americana in the world. Here, the thelastomatid nematode Hammerschmidtiella diesingi (Hammerschmidt, 1838) (Oxyuridomorpha: Thelastomatidae), isolated from P americana is recorded for the first time in Japan...
December 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780045/mechanosensation-and-adaptive-motor-control-in-insects
#16
REVIEW
John C Tuthill, Rachel I Wilson
The ability of animals to flexibly navigate through complex environments depends on the integration of sensory information with motor commands. The sensory modality most tightly linked to motor control is mechanosensation. Adaptive motor control depends critically on an animal's ability to respond to mechanical forces generated both within and outside the body. The compact neural circuits of insects provide appealing systems to investigate how mechanical cues guide locomotion in rugged environments. Here, we review our current understanding of mechanosensation in insects and its role in adaptive motor control...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766649/functions-of-corazonin-and-histamine-in-light-entrainment-of-the-circadian-pacemaker-in-the-madeira-cockroach-rhyparobia-maderae
#17
Andreas Arendt, El-Sayed Baz, Monika Stengl
The circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach, Rhyparobia (Leucophaea) maderae, is located in the accessory medulla (AME). Ipsi- and contralateral histaminergic compound eyes are required for photic entrainment. Light pulses delay locomotor activity rhythm during the early night and advance it during the late night. Thus, different neuronal pathways might relay either light-dependent delays or advances to the clock. Injections of neuroactive substances combined with running-wheel assays suggested that GABA, pigment-dispersing factor, myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs), and orcokinins (ORCs) were part of both entrainment pathways, whereas allatotropin (AT) only delayed locomotor rhythms at the early night...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754403/label-free-differential-proteomics-and-quantification-of-exoenzymes-from-isolates-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana
#18
Giuseppe Dionisio, Per Kryger, Tove Steenberg
Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungus that grows both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo it can colonize live insect hosts, and tissue digestion occurs by secreted hydrolytic exoenzymes. It can also colonize dead insect tissue provided this is free from competing microorganisms. Depending on whether the host is alive or dead the expression (quality/quantity) of the exoenzymes may vary. We have grown several isolates of B. bassiana in shaking flasks for 120 h at 25 °C in order to evaluate the maximal exoenzyme production using two diet regimes...
October 14, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744361/cockroaches-blattodea-blattidae-a-reservoir-of-pathogenic-microbes-in-human-dwelling-localities-in-lahore
#19
H Memona, F Manzoor, A A Anjum
This study focuses on isolation of pathogenic bacteria from external and internal surfaces of cockroaches collected from houses and hospitals in Lahore. In total, 240 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by hand or using sticky traps and food-bait traps. Cockroach species were identified, and microbial screening was done for external surfaces and gut tracts of cockroaches. Jaccard's index of similarity, Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity, and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index were used to measure the bacterial community diversity (all species of bacteria) in each habitat...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743045/identification-and-characterization-of-antibacterial-compound-s-of-cockroaches-periplaneta-americana
#20
Salwa Mansur Ali, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Seng-Kai Ong, Muhammad Raza Shah, Ayaz Anwar, Peter J Heard, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Infectious diseases remain a significant threat to human health, contributing to more than 17 million deaths, annually. With the worsening trends of drug resistance, there is a need for newer and more powerful antimicrobial agents. We hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments are potential sources of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of microbes, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances...
October 14, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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