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Kaushik Jayaram, Jean-Michel Mongeau, Anand Mohapatra, Paul Birkmeyer, Ronald S Fearing, Robert J Full
Exceptional performance is often considered to be elegant and free of 'errors' or missteps. During the most extreme escape behaviours, neural control can approach or exceed its operating limits in response time and bandwidth. Here we show that small, rapid running cockroaches with robust exoskeletons select head-on collisions with obstacles to maintain the fastest escape speeds possible to transition up a vertical wall. Instead of avoidance, animals use their passive body shape and compliance to negotiate challenging environments...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Mariah Valente Baggio-Deibler, Marcelo da Costa Ferreira, Antonio Carlos Monteiro, Andressa de Souza-Pollo, Manoel Victor Franco Lemos
The Periplaneta americana species is an annoyance to man, causing allergies and damage to clothes and documents. It has the ability to spread pathogens and requires control measures. Control with natural enemies is less aggressive and can currently be applied with less risk than other techniques, such as chemical control, which is the main method used worldwide to control its post-embryonic stages. The potential microbial control of nymphs and adults of this pest has been shown, but little is known about its oothecae...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Maria Giese, Julia Gestrich, Azar Massah, Jonas Peterle, HongYing Wei, Monika Stengl
In the Madeira cockroach pigment-dispersing factor-immunoreactive (PDF-ir) neurons innervating the circadian clock, the accessory medulla (AME) in the brain's optic lobes, control circadian behavior. Circadian activity rhythms are entrained to daily light-dark cycles only by compound eye photoreceptors terminating in the lamina and medulla. Still, it is unknown which neurons connect the photoreceptors to the clock to allow for light-entrainment. Here, we characterized by multiple-label immunocytochemistry the serotonin (5-HT)-ir anterior fiber fan and GABA-ir pathways connecting the AME- and optic lobe neuropils...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hiroshi Nishino, Masazumi Iwasaki, Marco Paoli, Itsuro Kamimura, Atsushi Yoritsune, Makoto Mizunami
Animals rely on olfaction to navigate through complex olfactory landscapes, but the mechanisms that allow an animal to encode the spatial structure of an odorous environment remain unclear. To acquire information about the spatial distribution of an odorant, animals may rely on bilateral olfactory organs and compare side differences of odor intensity and timing [1-6] or may perform spatial and temporal signal integration of subsequent samplings [7]. The American cockroach can efficiently locate a source of sex pheromone even after the removal of one antenna, suggesting that bilateral comparison is not a prerequisite for odor localization in this species [8, 9]...
February 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Julfreser Sinurat, Iris Rengganis, Cleopas Martin Rumende, Kuntjoro Harimurti
Background: Asthma and allergic rhinitis are a global health burden. Inhalant allergens worsen the symptoms and clinical manifestations of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Skin prick test is the gold standard for diagnosing allergen sensitization but is associated with some limitations. In contrast, in vitro serum-specific immunoglobulin E (SSIgE) test is convenient and is not associated with an anaphylactic risk. Objective: The present study compared the accuracy of the SSIgE test by using microfluidic array enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with that of the skin prick test for diagnosing inhalant allergen sensitization in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis...
January 2018: Asia Pacific Allergy
Mee Kyoung Kim, Jee Sun Jeong, Kyungdo Han, Ki Hyun Baek, Ki-Ho Song, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is known to activate mast cells. Prior studies have shown that mast cells contribute to diet-induced obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM). We aimed to determine whether adults with IgE sensitization were at risk of DM. We performed assays regarding serum total IgE and allergen-specific IgE levels against the house dust mite, the cockroach, and the dog on 1,528 adults randomly sampled from every age and gender group in various districts. The total and three allergen-specific IgE levels were positively correlated with fasting glucose level and insulin resistance...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thomas Bourguignon, Tang Qian, Simon Y W Ho, Frantisek Juna, Zongqing Wang, Daej A Arab, Stephen L Cameron, James Walker, David Rentz, Theodore A Evans, Nathan Lo
Following the acceptance of plate tectonics theory in the latter half of the 20th century, vicariance became the dominant explanation for the distributions of many plant and animal groups. In recent years, however, molecular-clock analyses have challenged a number of well-accepted hypotheses of vicariance. As a widespread group of insects with a fossil record dating back 300 million years, cockroaches provide an ideal model for testing hypotheses of vicariance through plate tectonics vs transoceanic dispersal...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Yuniar Devi Utami, Hirokazu Kuwahara, Takumi Murakami, Takahiro Morikawa, Kaito Sugaya, Kumiko Kihara, Masahiro Yuki, Nathan Lo, Pinsurang Deevong, Sasitorn Hasin, Warin Boonriam, Tetsushi Inoue, Akinori Yamada, Moriya Ohkuma, Yuichi Hongoh
Termite guts harbor diverse yet-uncultured bacteria, including a non-photosynthetic cyanobacterial group, the class "Melainabacteria". We herein reported the phylogenetic diversity of "Melainabacteria" in the guts of diverse termites and conducted a single-cell genome analysis of a melainabacterium obtained from the gut of the termite Termes propinquus. We performed amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from the guts of 60 termite and eight cockroach species, and detected melainabacterial sequences in 48 out of the 68 insect species, albeit with low abundances (0...
February 8, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Sofía L Mengoni, Raúl A Alzogaray
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), is a serious worldwide pest with a considerable economical and sanitary impact. It is mainly controlled by the application of synthetic insecticides, but repeated use of these substances has promoted the appearance of resistance in cockroach populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to compare the behavior of deltamethrin-susceptible (CIPEIN colony) and deltamethrin-resistant (JUBA and VGBA colonies) first instar nymphs exposed to the repellents N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) and ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate (IR3535)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Caroline J Wick, Jeannette Y Wick
Medical providers know that there are some conditions they can't treat because the condition is caused or exacerbated by social conditions and are known as "social determinants of health." ThIs classic example-a patient has asthma, lives in a moldor cockroach-infested apartment, has no resources to move, and has a landlord who refuses to clean or exterminate bugs- exemplifies why patients need legal advocates to improve their health. This article discusses medical-legal partnerships (MLPs), models in which medical providers refer patients to attorneys to represent them to resolve such problems...
February 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Brittany Esty, Wanda Phipatanakul
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to indoor allergens and pollutants is associated with worsened asthma morbidity. Previous research has examined indoor exposures in the home environment, but evaluation and understanding of the school environment is also needed. The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of common school exposures and the association between school exposures and pediatric asthma morbidity. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive literature review was performed using PubMed scientific search engine...
January 30, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Mark C Harrison, Evelien Jongepier, Hugh M Robertson, Nicolas Arning, Tristan Bitard-Feildel, Hsu Chao, Christopher P Childers, Huyen Dinh, Harshavardhan Doddapaneni, Shannon Dugan, Johannes Gowin, Carolin Greiner, Yi Han, Haofu Hu, Daniel S T Hughes, Ann-Kathrin Huylmans, Carsten Kemena, Lukas P M Kremer, Sandra L Lee, Alberto Lopez-Ezquerra, Ludovic Mallet, Jose M Monroy-Kuhn, Annabell Moser, Shwetha C Murali, Donna M Muzny, Saria Otani, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Monica Poelchau, Jiaxin Qu, Florentine Schaub, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Kim C Worley, Qiaolin Xie, Guillem Ylla, Michael Poulsen, Richard A Gibbs, Coby Schal, Stephen Richards, Xavier Belles, Judith Korb, Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Around 150 million years ago, eusocial termites evolved from within the cockroaches, 50 million years before eusocial Hymenoptera, such as bees and ants, appeared. Here, we report the 2-Gb genome of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and the 1.3-Gb genome of the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus. We show evolutionary signatures of termite eusociality by comparing the genomes and transcriptomes of three termites and the cockroach against the background of 16 other eusocial and non-eusocial insects...
February 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Sean W Gart, Changxin Yan, Ratan Othayoth, Zhiyi Ren, Chen Li
It is well known that animals can use neural and sensory feedback via vision, tactile sensing, and echolocation to negotiate obstacles. Similarly, most robots use deliberate or reactive planning to avoid obstacles, which relies on prior knowledge or high-fidelity sensing of the environment. However, during dynamic locomotion in complex, novel, 3D terrains, such as a forest floor and building rubble, sensing and planning suffer bandwidth limitation and large noise and are sometimes even impossible. Here, we study rapid locomotion over a large gap-a simple, ubiquitous obstacle-to begin to discover the general principles of the dynamic traversal of large 3D obstacles...
February 2, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Sean W Gart, Chen Li
Small animals and robots must often rapidly traverse large bump-like obstacles when moving through complex 3D terrains, during which, in addition to leg-ground contact, their body inevitably comes into physical contact with the obstacles. However, we know little about the performance limits of large bump traversal and how body-terrain interaction affects traversal. To address these, we challenged the discoid cockroach and an open-loop six-legged robot to dynamically run into a large bump of varying height to discover the maximal traversal performance, and studied how locomotor modes and traversal performance are affected by body-terrain interaction...
February 2, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Masashi Tanaka, Takaaki Daimon
Parthenogenesis is an asexual mode of reproduction that plays an important role in the evolution of sex, sociality, and reproduction strategies in insects. Some species of cockroach exhibit thelytoky, a type of parthenogenesis in which female offspring are produced without fertilization. However, the cytological and genetic mechanisms of parthenogenesis in cockroaches are not well understood. Here we provide the first molecular genetic evidence that cockroaches can reproduce through automixis. Using the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, we performed microsatellite analysis to investigate the genetic relationship between parthenogenetically produced nymphs and the parent virgin females, and found that all parthenogenetic offspring were homozygous for autosomal microsatellite markers, whereas the female parents were heterozygous...
February 1, 2018: Insect Science
Yu Ting He, Paul J Christos, William R Reisacher
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is currently unknown, but evidence suggests that allergic sensitization to food and airborne allergens may play a key role. This retrospective study examines the rate of sensitization to both food and airborne allergens in EoE patients, and compares their sensitivity patterns to control groups. METHODS: We identified 103 patients with a diagnosis of EoE via esophageal eosinophilia (≥15 eosinophils/high-power field [hpf]), who had undergone comprehensive food and/or airborne allergen testing through either skin or in vitro methods...
January 30, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Sadia Almas, Anna G Gibson, Steven M Presley
To determine potential intermediate hosts of Oxyspirura petrowi, a common nematode eyeworm of wild gallinaceous birds, various arthropod species including red harvester ants, beetles, wood cockroaches, crickets, grasshoppers, katydids, and desert termites were screened for the presence of O. petrowi using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2) of the eyeworm ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA). This is the first study to investigate the intermediate hosts of O...
January 25, 2018: Parasitology Research
Satoko Noda, Daichi Shimizu, Masahiro Yuki, Osamu Kitade, Moriya Ohkuma
Cellulolytic flagellated protists inhabit the hindgut of termites. They are unique and essential to termites and related wood-feeding cockroaches, enabling host feeding on cellulosic matter. Protists of two genera in the family Teranymphidae (phylum Parabasalia), Eucomonympha and Teranympha, are phylogenetically closely related and harbor intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria from the genus Treponema. In order to obtain a clearer understanding of the evolutionary history of this triplex symbiotic relationship, the molecular phylogenies of the three symbiotic partners, the Teranymphidae protists, their Treponema endosymbionts, and their host termites, were inferred and compared...
January 24, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Juan-Juan Zhu, Shun Yao, Xin Guo, Bi-Song Yue, Xiu-Ying Ma, Jing Li
Ethanol extract (EE) from Periplaneta americana (PA) is the main ingredient of Kangfuxin, which is a popular traditional chinese medicine (TCM) and has long been used for the clinical treatment of burns, wounds and ulcers. We compared the wound-healing activities of three extracts of PA using cutaneous wound-healing in mice as the bioactivity model. These three extracts were EE, total polysaccharide and total protein. We also tracked bioactive fractions in the EE by organic reagent extraction, column chromatography and HPLC...
January 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chen Zha, Changlu Wang, Brian Buckley, Ill Yang, Desen Wang, Amanda L Eiden, Richard Cooper
Pest infestations in residential buildings are common, but community-wide pest survey data are lacking. Frequent insecticide applications for controlling indoor pests leave insecticide residues and pose potential health risks to residents. In this study, a community-wide pest survey was carried out in a housing complex consisting of 258 units in 40 buildings in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It was immediately followed by implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in all the cockroach-infested apartments and two bed bug apartments with the goal of eliminating pest infestations, reducing pyrethroid residues, and increasing resident satisfaction with pest control services...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
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