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Yvonne K Matos, Angela Sierras, Coby Schal
Baits are a preferred method of urban pest management. Baits enable more targeted insecticide applications with a fraction of the active ingredient used in residual sprays. Bait translocation by foragers, and consequent secondary kill of nonforagers, enhances bait effectiveness in social insects, and in other group-living species like German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.). We investigated the potential for secondary kill in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), another gregarious species, using a liquid bait...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Xiaoyan Wu, Arthur G Appel
German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), remain one of the most difficult indoor insect species to control because of its ability to develop resistance to insecticides. The toxicity and resistance levels of five technical-grade insecticides (permethrin, chlorpyrifos, propoxur, imidacloprid, and fipronil) were determined for adult males of seven strains of the German cockroach, a laboratory-reared susceptible strain (S) and six field-collected strains (B, D, E, G, H, and I). Using topical application methods, fipronil was the most toxic insecticide to all seven strains...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Mahsa Fardisi, Ameya D Gondhalekar, Michael E Scharf
Insecticide resistance in German cockroaches (Blattella germanica (L.)) has been a barrier to effective control since its first documentation in the 1950s. A necessary first step toward managing resistance is to understand insecticide susceptibility profiles in field-collected strains so that active ingredients (AIs) with lowest resistance levels can be identified. As a first step in this study, diagnostic concentrations (DCs) were determined for 14 insecticide AIs based on lethal concentrations that killed 99% or 90% of the individuals from a susceptible lab strain (JWax-S)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Sudip Gaire, Mary O'Connell, Francisco O Holguin, Anup Amatya, Scott Bundy, Alvaro Romero
The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ko Katoh, Masazumi Iwasaki, Shouhei Hosono, Atsushi Yoritsune, Masanori Ochiai, Makoto Mizunami, Hiroshi Nishino
BACKGROUND: Facultative parthenogenesis, seen in many animal phyla, is a reproductive strategy in which females are able to generate offspring when mating partners are unavailable. In some subsocial and eusocial insects, parthenogenesis is often more prevalent than sexual reproduction. However, little is known about how social cooperation is linked to the promotion of parthenogenesis. The domiciliary cockroach Periplaneta americana is well-suited to addressing this issue as this species belongs to the superfamily Blattoidea, which diverged into eusocial termites and shows facultative parthenogenesis...
2017: Zoological Letters
Clarisse Gautier, Denis Charpin
Identifying asthma triggers forms the basis of environmental secondary prevention. These triggers may be allergenic or nonallergenic. Allergenic triggers include indoor allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs), molds, pets, cockroaches, and rodents, and outdoor allergens, such as pollens and molds. Clinical observations provide support for the role of HDM exposure as a trigger, although avoidance studies provide conflicting results. Molds and their metabolic products are now considered to be triggers of asthma attacks...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
Danny J Polley, Koichiro Mihara, Rithwik Ramachandran, Harissios Vliagoftis, Bernard Renaux, Mahmoud Saifeddine, Michael O Daines, Scott Boitano, Morley D Hollenberg
BACKGROUND: Allergy to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a significant asthma risk factor for inner-city communities. Cockroach, like other allergens, contains trypsin-like enzyme activity that contributes to allergenicity and airway inflammation by activating proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). To date, the enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity of German cockroach allergen have not been characterized. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify, isolate and characterize the trypsin-like proteinases in German cockroach allergen extracts used for clinical skin tests...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
I Planas-Sitjà, M O Laurent Salazar, G Sempo, J L Deneubourg
Group-level properties, such as collective movements or decisions, can be considered an outcome of the interplay between individual behavior and social interactions. However, the respective influences of individual preferences and social interactions are not evident. In this research, we study the implications of behavioral variability on the migration dynamics of a group of gregarious insects (Periplaneta americana) subjected to two different disturbance regimes (one without disturbances and another one with high frequency of disturbances)...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ronny Rosner, Joss von Hadeln, Tobias Salden, Uwe Homberg
The praying mantis is an insect which relies on vision for capturing prey, avoiding being eaten and for spatial orientation. It is well known for its ability to use stereopsis for estimating the distance of objects. The neuronal substrate mediating visually driven behaviors, however, is not very well investigated. To provide a basis for future functional studies, we analyzed the anatomical organization of visual neuropils in the brain of the praying mantis Hierodula membranacea and provide supporting evidence from a second species, Rhombodera basalis, with particular focus on the lobula complex...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Murat Kaya, Idris Sargin, Ignas Sabeckis, Deimante Noreikaite, Demet Erdonmez, Asier M Salaberria, Jalel Labidi, Vykintas Baublys, Vaida Tubelytė
In previous studies, chitin-based films were produced from chitin nanofibers in dust form and fully characterized. However, chitin films naturally present in many organisms have not been isolated and characterized. Herein, structurally intact chitin films were successfully extracted from the dorsal pronotum and the wing of cockroach. Despite using the same extraction procedure, important differences were observed. Especially, hydrophobicity, transparency, antifungal and antibacterial biofilm activities of wing chitin film were recorded notably higher than those of chitin film from the dorsal pronotum...
May 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
David Rentz
The large, diurnal Australian cockroach, Megazosteria patula (Walker), produces a sound when disturbed. The sound was found to be a form of stridulation caused by the rubbing of pegs on the underside of the thoracic segments against a ridge on the following segment.
February 13, 2017: Zootaxa
Ľubomír Vidlička, Peter Vršanský, Tatiana Kúdelová, Matúš Kúdela, Louis Deharveng, Miroslav Hain
The new, small cavernicolous species Helmablatta louisrothi gen. et sp. n. (Nocticolidae) from the Tan-Phu cave (Vietnam) is one of the most morphologically interesting cockroaches. The extremely modified upstanding tergal gland composite from three tergites and may serve for gripping the female head during copulation. This presumption is supported by the presence of a central big hook on tergite 8. Furthermore, both wing pairs are uncommonly adapted to help releasing sex pheromones without raising the wings...
February 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Leonid N Anisyutkin, Olga V Yushkova
New cockroach species from South India (Aptera brindlei sp.nov., Rhabdoblattella alexeevi sp.nov., R. euptera sp.nov., Morphna indica sp.nov.) and Sri Lanka (Placoblatta beybienkoi sp.nov., Morphna srilankensis sp.nov.) are described. The genus Rhabdoblattella Anisyutkin, 2000 is re-diagnosed. A revised key to the genera of Epilamprinae from South India and Sri Lanka and detailed morphological descriptions of new species are provided. The structure of the female genital complex of Aptera fusca (Thunberg, 1784) is described for the first time...
February 21, 2017: Zootaxa
L U Qiu, Yan-Li Che, Zong-Qing Wang
Seven new species of Ctenoneura Hanitsch, 1925, Ctenoneura bawangensis sp. nov., Ctenoneura delicata sp. nov., Ctenoneura elongata sp. nov., Ctenoneura heixuanfeng sp. nov., Ctenoneura helicata sp. nov., Ctenoneura papillaris sp. nov. and Ctenoneura qiuae sp. nov. are described from Hainan and Yunnan, China. Ctenoneura simulans Bey-Bienko, 1969 is redescribed and illustrated. Male genitalia of this genus is described and illustrated for the first time and is found to lack any genital hook. Female Ctenoneura is reported as apterous...
February 27, 2017: Zootaxa
Hannah Ter Hofstede, Silke Voigt-Heucke, Alexander Lang, Heinrich Römer, Rachel Page, Paul Faure, Dina Dechmann
All animals have defenses against predators, but assessing the effectiveness of such traits is challenging. Neotropical katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) are an abundant, ubiquitous, and diverse group of large insects eaten by a variety of predators, including substrate-gleaning bats. Gleaning bats capture food from surfaces and usually use prey-generated sounds to detect and locate prey. A number of Neotropical katydid signaling traits, such as the emission of ultrasonic frequencies, substrate vibration communication, infrequent calling, and ultrasound-evoked song cessation are thought to have evolved as defenses against substrate-gleaning bats...
January 1, 2017: Neotropical Biodiversity
Szymon Chowański, Jan Lubawy, Ewelina Paluch-Lubawa, Marta Spochacz, Grzegorz Rosiński, Małgorzata Słocińska
Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h) cold (4°C) influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G...
2017: PloS One
Alex J Cope, Chelsea Sabo, Eleni Vasilaki, Andrew B Barron, James A R Marshall
The insect central complex (CX) is an enigmatic structure whose computational function has evaded inquiry, but has been implicated in a wide range of behaviours. Recent experimental evidence from the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and the cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis) has demonstrated the existence of neural activity corresponding to the animal's orientation within a virtual arena (a neural 'compass'), and this provides an insight into one component of the CX structure. There are two key features of the compass activity: an offset between the angle represented by the compass and the true angular position of visual features in the arena, and the remapping of the 270° visual arena onto an entire circle of neurons in the compass...
2017: PloS One
Zary Shariman Yahaya, Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzaudin, Ainul Farhana Abdul Razak
A study on the prevalence of a common endoparasite in the wild population of the American cockroach was conducted in Penang Island using a trapping method at several sampling sites on the island. Gregarine blattarum was found in the digestive tract in 5 out of 115, or 4.35%, of the wild American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, that were sampled. This is the first report in Malaysia of Gregarine blattarum in local American cockroaches.
January 2017: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Gerd Gäde, Heather G Marco
Six species of the order Mantodea (praying mantises) are investigated for the presence and sequence of putative adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The selected species span a wide evolutionary range of various families and subfamilies of the clade Mantodea. The corpora cardiaca of the different species are dissected, methanolic extracts prepared, peptides separated by liquid chromatography, and AKHs detected and sequenced by ion trap mass spectrometry. All six species investigated contain an octapeptide with the primary structure pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide, which is code-named Emppe-AKH and had been found earlier in three other species of Mantodea...
March 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Sagar L Kale, Komal Agrawal, Shailendra Nath Gaur, Naveen Arora
Protease allergens are known to enhance allergic inflammation but their exact role in initiation of allergic reactions at mucosal surfaces still remains elusive. This study was aimed at deciphering the role of serine protease activity of Per a 10, a major cockroach allergen in initiation of allergic inflammation at mucosal surfaces. We demonstrate that Per a 10 increases epithelial permeability by disruption of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, and enhances the migration of Monocyte derived dendritic cell precursors towards epithelial layer as exhibited by trans-well studies...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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