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Xin-Ran Li, Li-Li Wang, Zong-Qing Wang
The taxonomic records of Chinese perisphaerine cockroaches were scattered in literature, and therefore a dedicated study is desired to update our knowledge. This paper reviews the subfamilial diagnosis and Chinese species, mostly from southwestern China. We provide high-definition habitus photos and drawings, the latter emphasizes the genitalia of both sexes, which are generalized with diagrams, abstracted from specimens examined. A total of 18 species are recorded in four genera, including Perisphaerus, or pill cockroach, the type genus of the subfamily...
April 17, 2018: Zootaxa
Mang Yu, Kaori Mukai, Mindy Tsai, Stephen J Galli
BACKGROUND: Thirdhand smoke (THS) represents the accumulation of secondhand smoke on indoor surfaces and in dust, which, over time, can become more toxic than secondhand smoke. Although it is well known that children of smokers are at increased risk for developing asthma and for exacerbation of that disease if they already have it, how exposure to THS may influence the development or exacerbation of asthma remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether epicutaneous exposure to an important component of THS, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), can influence asthma pathology in a model elicited in mice by repeated intranasal challenge with cockroach antigen (CRA)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Josef Virens, Alison Cree
Thermochron iButtons are commonly used by thermal biologists to continuously measure body temperature from animals. However, if unmodified, these devices are of a size that limits their use with very small animals. To allow iButtons to be used to study smaller species, methods have been previously described to miniaturise them by 61%. We present a method to reduce iButton mass by a further 71%. The modified devices have a shorter battery life, but the minimum size of vertebrates able to carry the devices is reduced from 28...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Mercedes Rubio, Jose Luis Maestro, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Xavier Belles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Thiago Carrazoni, Christine Nguyen, Lucas F Maciel, Andres Delgado-Cañedo, Bryan A Stewart, Angela B Lange, Chariston A Dal Belo, Celia R Carlini, Ian Orchard
BACKGROUND: Plants have developed a vast range of mechanisms to compete with phytophagous insects, including entomotoxic proteins such as ureases. The legume Canavalia ensiformis produces several urease isoforms, of which the more abundant is called Jack Bean Urease (JBU). Previews work has demonstrated the potential insecticidal effects of JBU, by mechanisms so far not entirely elucidated. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the JBU-induced activity upon neurotransmitter release on insect neuromuscular junctions...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Inam Yekwayo, James S Pryke, René Gaigher, Michael J Samways
Fire is a major driver in many ecosystems. Yet, little is known about how different ground-living arthropods survive fire. Using three sampling methods, and time-since-fire (last fire event: 3 months, 1 year, and 7 years), we investigate how ground-living arthropod diversity responds to fire, and how species richness, diversity, abundance, and composition of the four dominant taxa: ants, beetles, cockroaches and mites, respond. We did this in the naturally fire-prone Mediterranean-type scrubland vegetation (fynbos) of the Cape Floristic Region...
2018: PloS One
Xiaoxu Sun, Junwei Zhao, Qiuya Wang, Guang Shi, Jingjing Yang, Liang Ming
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of allergen sensitization varies in different geographic areas and population subsets. This study investigated the prevalence and distribution of inhaled and food allergens among allergic patients in Henan Province, China. METHOD: The prevalence and distribution of 19 inhaled and food allergens among 15,534 patients with suspected allergic diseases were retrospectively analyzed in Henan Province, China between December 2012 and August 2016...
March 31, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Etienne Bilgo, Brian Lovett, Raymond J St Leger, Antoine Sanon, Roch K Dabiré, Abdoulaye Diabaté
BACKGROUND: Genetically enhanced Metarhizium pingshaense are being developed for malaria vector control in Burkina Faso. However, not much is known about the local prevalence and pathogenicity of this fungus, so we prospected mosquitoes and plant roots (a common habitat for Metarhizium spp.) for entomopathogenic fungi. RESULTS: Our investigations showed that Metarhizium spp. represented between 29-74% of fungi isolated from plant root rhizospheres in diverse collection sites...
March 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Joseph Caspermeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Ling-Jun Kong, Herbert Crepaz, Agnieszka Górecka, Aleksandra Urbanek, Rainer Dumke, Tomasz Paterek
We present a quantitative method, utilising a highly sensitive quantum sensor, that extends applicability of magnetorelaxometry to biological samples at physiological temperature. The observed magnetic fields allow for non-invasive determination of physical properties of magnetic materials and their surrounding environment inside the specimen. The method is applied to American cockroaches and reveals magnetic deposits with strikingly different behaviour in alive and dead insects. We discuss consequences of this finding to cockroach magneto-reception...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ali S Alfardan, Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Naif O Al-Harbi, Mohammad M Al-Harbi, Shakir D AlSharari
In recent decades, there has been a gradual increase in the prevalence of asthma. Various factors including environmental pollutants have contributed to this phenomenon. Plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is one of the commonest environmental pollutants due to its association with plastic products. DEHP gets released from plastic products easily leading to respiratory exposure in humans. As a consequence, DEHP is associated with allergic asthma in humans and animals. DEHP is reported to act as an adjuvant in ovalbumin-induced mouse models of asthma at high doses...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Research
Hugh M Robertson, Rachel L Baits, Kimberly K O Walden, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Coby Schal
The acquisition of genome sequences from a wide range of insects and other arthropods has revealed a broad positive correlation between the complexity of their chemical ecology and the size of their chemosensory gene repertoire. The German cockroach Blattella germanica is an extreme omnivore and has the largest chemosensory gene repertoire known for an arthropod, exceeding even the highly polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae. While the Odorant Receptor family is not particularly large, with 123 genes potentially encoding 134 receptors (105 intact), the Gustatory Receptor family is greatly expanded to 431 genes potentially encoding 545 receptors (483 intact), the largest known for insects and second only to the spider mite...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Sheng Li, Shiming Zhu, Qiangqiang Jia, Dongwei Yuan, Chonghua Ren, Kang Li, Suning Liu, Yingying Cui, Haigang Zhao, Yanghui Cao, Gangqi Fang, Daqi Li, Xiaoming Zhao, Jianzhen Zhang, Qiaoyun Yue, Yongliang Fan, Xiaoqiang Yu, Qili Feng, Shuai Zhan
Many cockroach species have adapted to urban environments, and some have been serious pests of public health in the tropics and subtropics. Here, we present the 3.38-Gb genome and a consensus gene set of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. We report insights from both genomic and functional investigations into the underlying basis of its adaptation to urban environments and developmental plasticity. In comparison with other insects, expansions of gene families in P. americana exist for most core gene families likely associated with environmental adaptation, such as chemoreception and detoxification...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Li-Fen Yang, Liang-Ming Cai, Ming Li, Jin-Tao Liu, Zhao-Ni Wang, Wei-Hao Wang, Qin-Tai Yang, Zhuang-Gui Chen
Objective: To investigate the alterative spectrum and trends of aeroallergens sensitization in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) in Guangzhou, China in the past 10 years. Participants and methods: In this retrospective study, 4,111 children with complaints of nasal hyper-reactivity who visited the Pediatric Department and/or Otolaryngology Department from January 2007 to November 2016 were enrolled. Serum specific immunoglobulin E was measured and positive detection was made in 3,328 patients, who were, therefore, diagnosed with AR...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Matthew C Altman, Elizabeth Whalen, Alkis Togias, George T O'Connor, Leonard B Bacharier, Gordon R Bloomberg, Meyer Kattan, Robert A Wood, Scott Presnell, Petra LeBeau, Katy Jaffee, Cynthia M Visness, William W Busse, James E Gern
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma in inner city populations is a major public health burden and understanding early life immune mechanisms that promote asthma onset is key to disease prevention. Children who develop asthma demonstrate a high prevalence of aeroallergen sensitization and T helper 2 (Th2)-type inflammation, however the early life immune events that lead to Th2 skewing and disease development are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to use RNA sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected at age 2 to determine networks of immune responses that occur in children who develop allergy and asthma...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Justyna Maliszewska, Sonia Marcinkowska, Anna Nowakowska, Hanna Kletkiewicz, Justyna Rogalska
Some natural alkaloids, e.g. capsaicin and camphor, are known to induce a desensitization state, causing insensitivity to pain or noxious temperatures in mammals by acting on TRP receptors. Our research, for the first time, demonstrated that a phenomenon of pharmacological blockade of heat sensitivity may operate in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.). We studied the escape reaction time from 50°C for American cockroaches exposed to multiple doses of different drugs affecting thermo-TRP. Capsaicin, capsazepine, and camphor induced significant changes in time spent at noxious ambient temperatures...
2018: PloS One
C Giovanni Galizia
Animals can follow olfactory traces to find food, detect a sexual mate, or avoid predators. A new study reveals that pheromone-specific projection neurons in the cockroach have a spatially tuned receptive field, and allow encoding spatial information of an odorant.
March 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Aurora M Vargas, Avanika Mahajan, Katherine S Tille, Bridget S Wilson, Christopher P Mattison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
H T Chu, I Godin, N T Phuong, L H Nguyen, T T M Hiep, O Michel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for allergen sensitisation among patients with chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in southern Viet Nam. DESIGN: An environmental questionnaire and skin prick tests for airborne and food allergens were administered to patients with CRD, defined as individuals with respiratory symptoms and lung function defects. RESULTS: Of 610 CRD patients, 56% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 31% were asthma patients; 80% were males...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Dongfang Tang, Zhen Xiao, Yan Xu, Jiao Zeng, Dezheng Peng, Songping Liang, Cheng Tang, Zhonghua Liu
Spider venom is rich in peptide toxins that could be used to explore the structure and function of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV s). This study has characterized a 44-amino acid peptide toxin, δ-hexatoxin-MrIX (δ-HXTX-MrIX), from the venom of the spider Macrothele raveni. δ-hexatoxin-MrIX potently inhibited the fast inactivation of NaV s in mouse cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) with an EC50 of 35.3 ± 5.9 nM. The toxin shifted both the steady-state activation and the steady-state inactivation curves of CGC NaV s to the hyperpolarized direction...
February 28, 2018: Peptides
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