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Biosynthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922066/de-novo-transcriptome-characterization-of-dracaena-cambodiana-and-analysis-of-genes-involved-in-flavonoid-accumulation-during-formation-of-dragon-s-blood
#1
Jia-Hong Zhu, Tian-Jun Cao, Hao-Fu Dai, Hui-Liang Li, Dong Guo, Wen-Li Mei, Shi-Qing Peng
Dragon's blood is a red resin mainly extracted from Dracaena plants, and has been widely used as a traditional medicine in East and Southeast Asia. The major components of dragon's blood are flavonoids. Owing to a lack of Dracaena plants genomic information, the flavonoids biosynthesis and regulation in Dracaena plants remain unknown. In this study, three cDNA libraries were constructed from the stems of D. cambodiana after injecting the inducer. Approximately 266.57 million raw sequencing reads were de novo assembled into 198,204 unigenes, of which 34,873 unique sequences were annotated in public protein databases...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921314/flavonoids-biosynthesis-in-plants-and-its-further-analysis-by-capillary-electrophoresis
#2
REVIEW
Baljinder Singh, Ashwini Kumar, Ashok Kumar Malik
Flavonoids represent an important bioactive component in plants. Accumulation of flavonoids often occurs in plants subjected to abiotic stresses including the adaptation of plants to the environment and in overcoming their stress conditions. This fact makes their analysis and determination an attractive field in food science since they can give interesting information on the quality and safety of foods. In this review we discuss reports on plants flavonoids biosynthesis against abiotic stresses and advances in analytical capillary electrophoresis used for their identification and quantification in plants...
December 6, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921136/penicillium-roqueforti-pr-toxin-gene-cluster-characterization
#3
Pedro I Hidalgo, Elisabeth Poirier, Ricardo V Ullán, Justine Piqueras, Laurence Meslet-Cladière, Emmanuel Coton, Monika Coton
PR toxin is a well-known isoprenoid mycotoxin almost solely produced by Penicillium roqueforti after growth on food or animal feed. This mycotoxin has been described as the most toxic produced by this species. In this study, an in silico analysis allowed identifying for the first time a 22.4-kb biosynthetic gene cluster involved in PR toxin biosynthesis in P. roqueforti. The pathway contains 11 open reading frames encoding for ten putative proteins including the major fungal terpene cyclase, aristolochene synthase, involved in the first farnesyl-diphosphate cyclization step as well as an oxidoreductase, an oxidase, two P450 monooxygenases, a transferase, and two dehydrogenase enzymes...
December 5, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920789/transcriptomic-effects-of-the-cell-cycle-regulator-lgo-in-arabidopsis-sepals
#4
Erich M Schwarz, Adrienne H K Roeder
Endoreduplication is a specialized cell cycle in which DNA replication occurs, but mitosis is skipped creating enlarged polyploid cells. Endoreduplication is associated with the differentiation of many specialized cell types. In the Arabidopsis thaliana sepal epidermis endoreduplicated giant cells form interspersed between smaller cells. Both the transcription factor Arabidopsis thaliana MERISTEM LAYER1 (ATML1) and the plant-specific cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor LOSS OF GIANT CELLS FROM ORGANS (LGO)/SIAMESE RELATED1 (SMR1) are required for the formation of giant cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920785/a-jasmonate-inducible-defense-trait-transferred-from-wild-into-cultivated-tomato-establishes-increased-whitefly-resistance-and-reduced-viral-disease-incidence
#5
Rocío Escobar-Bravo, Juan M Alba, Clara Pons, Antonio Granell, Merijn R Kant, Enrique Moriones, Rafael Fernández-Muñoz
Whiteflies damage tomatoes mostly via the viruses they transmit. Cultivated tomatoes lack many of the resistances of their wild relatives. In order to increase protection to its major pest, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its transmitted Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV), we introgressed a trichome-based resistance trait from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium into cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. The tomato backcross line BC5S2 contains acylsucrose-producing type-IV trichomes, unlike cultivated tomatoes, and exhibits increased, yet limited protection to whiteflies at early development stages...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920765/novel-pathways-for-ameliorating-the-fitness-cost-of-gentamicin-resistant-small-colony-variants
#6
Martin Vestergaard, Wilhelm Paulander, Bingfeng Leng, Jesper B Nielsen, Henrik T Westh, Hanne Ingmer
Small colony variants (SCVs) of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus are associated with persistent infections. Phenotypically, SCVs are characterized by slow growth and they can arise upon interruption of the electron transport chain that consequently reduce membrane potential and thereby limit uptake of aminoglycosides (e.g., gentamicin). In this study, we have examined the pathways by which the fitness cost of SCVs can be ameliorated. Five gentamicin resistant SCVs derived from S. aureus JE2 were independently selected on agar plates supplemented with gentamicin...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920764/one-step-pcr-detection-of-salmonella-pullorum-gallinarum-using-a-novel-target-the-flagellar-biosynthesis-gene-flhb
#7
Dan Xiong, Li Song, Shizhong Geng, Jing Tao, Shumin An, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum/Gallinarum is an important infectious pathogen that has caused widespread problems for chicken industry. Traditional Salmonella serotyping is an expensive and time-consuming process. In this study, we developed a rapid one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to identify S. Pullorum/Gallinarum. The PCR-based assay focuses on flhB, which shows a deficient region only in S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, compared with that of other serovars. The specificity and sensitivity of the PCR system were evaluated...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920295/a-novel-transcriptional-regulator-related-to-thiamine-phosphate-synthase-controls-thiamine-metabolism-genes-in-archaea
#8
Dmitry A Rodionov, Semen A Leyn, Xiaoqing Li, Irina A Rodionova
: Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a precursor of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), an essential coenzyme in the central metabolism of all living organisms. Bacterial thiamin biosynthesis and salvage genes are controlled at the RNA level by TPP-responsive riboswitches. In Archaea, TPP riboswitches are restricted to the Thermoplasmatales order. Mechanisms of transcriptional control of thiamine genes in other archaeal lineages remain unknown. Using the comparative genomics approach, we identified a novel family of transcriptional regulators (named ThiR) controlling thiamine biosynthesis and transport genes in diverse lineages from the Crenarchaeota phylum, as well as in the Halobacteria and Thermococci classes of the Euryarchaeota ThiR regulators are composed of an N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain that is similar to the archaeal thiamin phosphate synthase ThiN...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919815/chemical-modification-of-functionalized-polyhydroxyalkanoates-via-click-chemistry-a-proof-of-concept
#9
Samuel Nkrumah-Agyeefi, Carmen Scholz
A novel approach to the post-biosynthetic chemical modification of bromo and alkyne functionalized poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), (PHAs), via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and strain promoted azide alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) is reported. Optimum conditions for the biosynthesis of the PHA copolymers, poly(3-hydroxynonanoate-co-3-hydroxy-11-bromoundecanoate) (PHNUBr) and poly(3-hydroxynonanoate-co-3-hydroxy-10-undecynoate) (PHNUD), using Pseudomonas oleovorans as cell factories were 20h of fermentation time and a total carbon substrate concentration of 40mM...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919625/an-insight-study-on-hptlc-fingerprinting-of-mukia-maderaspatana-mechanism-of-bioactive-constituents-in-metal-nanoparticle-synthesis-and-its-activity-against-human-pathogens
#10
G Karthiga Devi, K Sathish Kumar, R Parthiban, K Kalishwarlal
The present work reports the development of a Simple, rapid and eco-friendly route for the biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacterial pathogens in the wound infected area. The synthesis was done using Mukia maderasapatna plant extract as a reducing agent. FT-IR analysis reported that the methanol extract was found to contain maximum number of functional groups which is responsible for the reduction of metal ions to metal nanoparticles...
December 2, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918955/defective-production-of-interleukin-1-beta-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-restoration-by-proper-glycemic-control
#11
Foteini Kousathana, Marianna Georgitsi, Vaia Lambadiari, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, George Dimitriadis, Maria Mouktaroudi
The underlying immune defect of susceptibility in diabetes mellitus type 2 to infections remains unknown. The qualitative changes in cytokine biosynthesis by circulating mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and its modulation by glycemic control were investigated. PBMCs were isolated from 39 patients and 25 controls. They were stimulated with purified ligands and heat-killed bacteria in the absence/presence of glucose and NLPR3 inflammasome ligands. Experiments were repeated after 3 and 6months. Cytokine production was measured in cell supernatants; pro-interleukin(IL)-1 β was measured in cell lysates...
December 2, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918435/piecemeal-buildup-of-the-genetic-code-ribosomes-and-genomes-from-primordial-trna-building-blocks
#12
Derek Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo Caetano-Anollés
The origin of biomolecular machinery likely centered around an ancient and central molecule capable of interacting with emergent macromolecular complexity. tRNA is the oldest and most central nucleic acid molecule of the cell. Its co-evolutionary interactions with aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase protein enzymes define the specificities of the genetic code and those with the ribosome their accurate biosynthetic interpretation. Phylogenetic approaches that focus on molecular structure allow reconstruction of evolutionary timelines that describe the history of RNA and protein structural domains...
December 2, 2016: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917337/identification-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-antifungal-trichoderma-from-tomato-rhizosphere
#13
Shalini Rai, Prem Lal Kashyap, Sudheer Kumar, Alok Kumar Srivastava, Pramod W Ramteke
The use of Trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. In this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctonia solani). The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of tested isolates was also measured...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917190/laser-microdissection-and-spatiotemporal-pinoresinol-lariciresinol-reductase-gene-expression-assign-the-cell-layer-specific-accumulation-of-secoisolariciresinol-diglucoside-in-flaxseed-coats
#14
Jingjing Fang, Aïna Ramsay, Sullivan Renouard, Christophe Hano, Frédéric Lamblin, Brigitte Chabbert, François Mesnard, Bernd Schneider
The concentration of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) found in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is higher than that found in any other plant. It exists in flaxseed coats as an SDG-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid oligomer complex. A laser microdissection method was applied to harvest material from different cell layers of seed coats of mature and developing flaxseed to detect the cell-layer specific localization of SDG in flaxseed; NMR and HPLC were used to identify and quantify SDG in dissected cell layers after alkaline hydrolysis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917185/fire-and-brimstone-molecular-interactions-between-sulfur-and-glucosinolate-biosynthesis-in-model-and-crop-brassicaceae
#15
REVIEW
Priyakshee Borpatragohain, Terry J Rose, Graham J King
Glucosinolates (GSLs) represent one of the most widely studied classes of plant secondary metabolite, and have a wide range of biological activities. Their unique properties also affect livestock and human health, and have been harnessed for food and other end-uses. Since GSLs are sulfur (S)-rich there are many lines of evidence suggesting that plant S status plays a key role in determining plant GSL content. However, there is still a need to establish a detailed knowledge of the distribution and remobilization of S and GSLs throughout the development of Brassica crops, and to represent this in terms of primary and secondary sources and sinks...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916945/cytokinins-and-expression-of-sweet-sut-cwinv-and-aap-genes-increase-as-pea-seeds-germinate
#16
Paula E Jameson, Pragatheswari Dhandapani, Ondrej Novak, Jiancheng Song
Transporter genes and cytokinins are key targets for crop improvement. These genes are active during the development of the seed and its establishment as a strong sink. However, during germination, the seed transitions to being a source for the developing root and shoot. To determine if the sucrose transporter (SUT), amino acid permease (AAP), Sugar Will Eventually be Exported Transporter (SWEET), cell wall invertase (CWINV), cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT), activation (LOG) and degradation (CKX) gene family members are involved in both the sink and source activities of seeds, we used RT-qPCR to determine the expression of multiple gene family members, and LC-MS/MS to ascertain endogenous cytokinin levels in germinating Pisum sativum L...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916835/synthesis-and-functions-of-jasmonates-in-maize
#17
REVIEW
Eli J Borrego, Michael V Kolomiets
Of the over 600 oxylipins present in all plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) remains the best understood in terms of its biosynthesis, function and signaling. Much like their eicosanoid analogues in mammalian system, evidence is growing for the role of the other oxylipins in diverse physiological processes. JA serves as the model plant oxylipin species and regulates defense and development. For several decades, the biology of JA has been characterized in a few dicot species, yet the function of JA in monocots has only recently begun to be elucidated...
November 29, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916834/role-of-cytokine-induced-glycosylation-changes-in-regulating-cell-interactions-and-cell-signaling-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Justine H Dewald, Florent Colomb, Marie Bobowski-Gerard, Sophie Groux-Degroote, Philippe Delannoy
Glycosylation is one of the most important modifications of proteins and lipids, and cell surface glycoconjugates are thought to play important roles in a variety of biological functions including cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, bacterial adhesion, cell immunogenicity and cell signaling. Alterations of glycosylation are observed in number of diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammation. In that context, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to modulate cell surface glycosylation by regulating the expression of glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of carbohydrate chains...
November 29, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916804/growth-phase-sterigmatocystin-formation-on-lactose-is-mediated-via-low-specific-growth-rates-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#19
Zoltán Németh, Ákos P Molnár, Balázs Fejes, Levente Novák, Levente Karaffa, Nancy P Keller, Erzsébet Fekete
Seed contamination with polyketide mycotoxins such as sterigmatocystin (ST) produced by Aspergilli is a worldwide issue. The ST biosynthetic pathway is well-characterized in A. nidulans, but regulatory aspects related to the carbon source are still enigmatic. This is particularly true for lactose, inasmuch as some ST production mutant strains still synthesize ST on lactose but not on other carbon substrates. Here, kinetic data revealed that on d-glucose, ST forms only after the sugar is depleted from the medium, while on lactose, ST appears when most of the carbon source is still available...
November 28, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916552/plenty-is-no-plague-streptomyces-symbiosis-with-crops
#20
REVIEW
Thomas Rey, Bernard Dumas
Streptomyces spp. constitute a major clade of the phylum Actinobacteria. These Gram-positive, filamentous prokaryotes are ubiquitous in soils and marine sediments, and are commonly found in the rhizosphere or inside plant roots. Plant-interacting Streptomyces have received limited attention, in contrast to Streptomyces spp. extensively investigated for decades in medicine given their rich potential for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Recent genomic, metabolomic, and biotechnological advances have produced key insights into Streptomyces spp...
November 5, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
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