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Vasanthanathan Poongavanam, Jacob Kongsted
The high rate of drug resistance as well as the complex biochemical process of the parasite reproduction cycle makes development of new drugs for malaria a very important but challenging task. Falcipain 2 (FL2) and Falcipain 3 (FL3) are the major cysteine protease enzymes that play a central role in providing essential amino acids for the parasite's protein biosynthesis through the hemoglobin hydrolysis process. Selective inhibition of these enzymes is considered as a promising chemotherapeutic target. In the present investigation, the highly efficient linear interaction energy (LIE) method has been parameterized for binding affinity predictions and assessed with a set of 244 compounds for FL2 and FL3 inhibition...
June 26, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Fu-Yan Xing, Lin-Lin Guan, Yan-Long Li, Chun-Juan Jia
This work reports a one-step simple synthesis method for functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by a Platanus orientalis leaf extract polyphenol-mediated deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO). Microscopic and spectroscopic characterization revealed the successful deoxygenation of GO and subsequent stabilization by oxidized polyphenols of plant extract. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses were used to examine the reduction of GO. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy results revealed capping of RGO with oxidized polyphenols of Platanus orientalis extract, which prevented aggregation of graphene sheets...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Justyna Fidler, Edyta Zdunek-Zastocka, Beata Prabucka, Wiesław Bielawski
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a predominant role in the onset and maintenance of primary dormancy. Peak ABA accumulation in embryos of triticale grains was observed before any significant loss of water and was higher in Fredro, a cultivar less susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), than in Leontino, a cultivar more sensitive to PHS. At full maturity, embryonic ABA content in Fredro was twice as high as in Leontino. Two full-length cDNAs of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (TsNCED1, TsNCED2), an enzyme involved in ABA biosynthesis, and two full-length cDNAs of ABA 8'-hydroxylase (TsABA8'OH1 and TsABA8'OH2), an enzyme involved in ABA catabolism, were identified in triticale grains and characterized...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Nancy M Lee, Cevat Erisken, Thomas Iskratsch, Michael Sheetz, William N Levine, Helen H Lu
Physiologically relevant models of wound healing are essential for understanding the biology of connective tissue repair and healing. They can also be used to identify key cellular processes and matrix characteristics critical for the design of soft tissue grafts. Modeling the various stages of repair post tendon injury, polymer meshes of varying fiber diameter (nano-1 (390 nm) < nano-2 (740 nm) < micro (1420 nm)) were produced. Alignment was also introduced in the nano-2 group to model matrix undergoing biological healing rather than scar formation...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials
Li Zhang, Zhihong Yang, Jocelyn Trottier, Olivier Barbier, Li Wang
: Bile acids (BAs) play critical physiological functions in cholesterol homeostasis and deregulation of BA metabolism causes cholestatic liver injury. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) was recently shown as a potential tumor suppressor, however its basic hepatic function remains elusive. Using RNA pull-down with biotin-labeled sense or anti-sense MEG3RNA followed by mass spectrometry, we identified RNA binding protein polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) as a MEG3 interaction protein and validated their interaction by RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP)...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Zhaoyue Wang, Xuejing Bai, Xuena Guo, Xiuping He
2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is widely used in food, perfume and pharmaceutical industry, but lower production in microbes and less known regulatory mechanisms of 2-PE make further study necessary. In this study, crucial genes like ARO8 and ARO10 of Ehrlich pathway for 2-PE synthesis and key transcription factor ARO80 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were re-regulated using constitutive promoter; in the meantime, the effect of nitrogen source in synthetic complete (SC) medium with L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) on Aro8/Aro9 and Aro10 was investigated...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
David F Woodward, Jenny W Wang, Ming Ni, Alex Bauer, Jose L Martos, Robert W Carling, Neil J Poloso
The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that a selected polypharmacological approach for treating the prostanoid-mediated component of inflammatory diseases would produce a therapeutic effect superior to global inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis by aspirin-like drugs. The compound studied was AGN 211377, which had been previously shown to produce a superior effect on cytokine release from human macrophages compared with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors. AGN 211377 antagonizes prostanoid prostaglandin D2 (DP)1, DP2, prostaglandin E2 (EP)1, EP4, prostaglandin F2α, and thromboxane A2 receptors but not anti-inflammatory EP2, prostaglandin I2, or EP3 receptors...
October 21, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ruinan Gu, Fali Zhang, Gang Chen, Chaojun Han, Jay Liu, Zhaoxiang Ren, Yi Zhu, John L Waddington, Long Tai Zheng, Xuechu Zhen
Clock (Clk)1/COQ7 is a mitochondrial hydroxylase that is necessary for the biosynthesis of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or UQ). Here, we investigate the role of Clk1 in neuroinflammation and consequentially dopaminergic (DA) neuron survival. Reduced expression of Clk1 in microglia enhanced the LPS-induced proinflammatory response and promoted aerobic glycolysis. Inhibition of glycolysis abolished Clk1 deficiency-induced hypersensitivity to the inflammatory stimulation. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that mTOR/HIF-1α and ROS/HIF-1α signaling pathways were involved in Clk1 deficiency-induced aerobic glycolysis...
October 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Xi Chen, Heng Qiu, Chao Wang, Yu Yuan, Jennifer Tickner, Jiake Xu, Jun Zou
Choline, a hydrophilic cation, has versatile physiological roles throughout the body, including cholinergic neurotransmission, memory consolidation and membrane biosynthesis and metabolism. Choline kinases possess enzyme activity that catalyses the conversion of choline to phosphocholine, which is further converted to cytidine diphosphate-coline (CDP-choline) in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC is a major constituent of the phospholipid bilayer which constitutes the eukaryotic cell membrane, and regulates cell signal transduction...
October 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Huiduo Guo, Yabin Gong, Bin He, Ruqian Zhao
Energy produced by mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is essential for mammalian sperm motility. Mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded proteins are subunits of the OXPHOS system. Paradoxically, there are less mitochondrial and mtDNA contents in motile sperm than less motile sperm. Here, mature boar sperm was used as a model to investigate the relationships between mtDNA content, mitochondrial activity, and sperm motility. Motile and less motile sperm were separated by centrifugation on a discontinuous percoll density gradient...
September 13, 2016: Theriogenology
Na Wei, Xian-En Zhao, Shuyun Zhu, Yongrui He, Longfang Zheng, Guang Chen, Jinmao You, Shu Liu, Zhiqiang Liu
This paper, for the first time, reported a simple, rapid, sensitive and environmental friendly ultrasonic-assisted in situ derivatization-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ UAD-DLLME) method followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites in rat brain microdialysates. In this work, a commercial reagent, Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonylchloride (LRSC), was proposed as a derivatization reagent...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Sha Xu, Ge-Yuan Zhang, Huijie Zhang, Toshihiko Kitajima, Hideki Nakanishi, Xiao-Dong Gao
BACKGROUND: To humanize yeast N-glycosylation pathways, genes involved in yeast specific hyper-mannosylation must be disrupted followed by the introduction of genes catalyzing the synthesis, transport, and addition of human sugars. However, deletion of these genes, for instance, OCH1, which initiates hyper-mannosylation, could cause severe defects in cell growth, morphogenesis and response to environmental challenges. RESULTS: In this study, overexpression of RHO1, which encodes the Rho1p small GTPase, is confirmed to partially recover the growth defect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δalg3Δoch1 double mutant strain...
October 21, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Shengnan Zhai, Genying Li, Youwei Sun, Jianmin Song, Jihu Li, Guoqi Song, Yulian Li, Hongqing Ling, Zhonghu He, Xianchun Xia
BACKGROUND: Phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) is the most important regulatory enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, whereas its function is hardly known in common wheat. The aims of the present study were to investigate Psy1 function and genetic regulation using reverse genetics approaches. RESULTS: Transcript levels of Psy1 in RNAi transgenic lines were decreased by 54-76 % and yellow pigment content (YPC) was reduced by 26-35 % compared with controls, confirming the impact of Psy1 on carotenoid accumulation...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Hongwu Wang, Kun Li, Xiaojiao Hu, Zhifang Liu, Yujin Wu, Changling Huang
BACKGROUND: Plant digestibility of silage maize (Zea mays L.) has a large influence on nutrition intake for animal feeding. Improving forage quality will enhance the utilization efficiency and feeding value of forage maize. Dissecting the genetic basis of forage quality will improve our understanding of the complex nature of cell wall biosynthesis and degradation, which is also helpful for breeding good quality silage maize. RESULTS: Acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of stalk were evaluated in a diverse maize population, which is comprised of 368 inbred lines and planted across seven environments...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Chaoyun Hao, Zhiqiang Xia, Rui Fan, Lehe Tan, Lisong Hu, Baoduo Wu, Huasong Wu
BACKGROUND: Piper nigrum L., or "black pepper", is an economically important spice crop in tropical regions. Black pepper production is markedly affected by foot rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, and genetic improvement of black pepper is essential for combating foot rot diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism of anti- P. capsici in black pepper. The molecular mechanisms underlying foot rot susceptibility were studied by comparing transcriptome analysis between resistant (Piper flaviflorum) and susceptible (Piper nigrum cv...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
S Chiangga, W Pornkaveerat, T D Frank
Three studies were considered in which jasmonate-isoleucine levels were observed for several hours after plant wounding. The data from these studies were fitted to a first order kinetical model describing jasmonate-isoleucine complex formation and dissociation. It was found that the model could explain up to 97 percent of the variations in the data sets. In general, the data re-analysis confirmed that the protein-protein interactions involved in the biosynthesis and dissociation of the jasmonate-isoleucine complex are fast relative to the dynamics of the jasmonate levels themselves...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Boahemaa Adu-Oppong, Andrew J Gasparrini, Gautam Dantas
Microbial communities contain diverse bacteria that play important roles in every environment. Advances in sequencing and computational methodologies over the past decades have illuminated the phylogenetic and functional diversity of microbial communities from diverse habitats. Among the activities encoded in microbiomes are the abilities to synthesize and resist small molecules, yielding antimicrobial activity. These functions are of particular interest when viewed in light of the public health emergency posed by the increase in clinical antimicrobial resistance and the dwindling antimicrobial discovery and approval pipeline, and given the intimate ecological and evolutionary relationship between antimicrobial biosynthesis and resistance...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Carlos Molina-Santiago, Zulema Udaondo, María Gómez-Lozano, Soren Molin, Juan Luis Ramos
Pseudomonas putida strains are generally recognized as solvent tolerant, exhibiting varied sensitivity to organic solvents. Pan-genome analysis has revealed that 30% of genes belong to the core-genome of Pseudomonas. Accessory and unique genes confer high degree of adaptability and capabilities for the degradation and synthesis of a wide range of chemicals. For the use of these microbes in bioremediation and biocatalysis, it is critical to understand the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic differences. In this study, RNA-seq analysis compared the short- and long-term responses of the toluene-sensitive KT2440 strain and the highly-tolerant DOT-T1E strain...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Akira Shiraishi, Jun Murata, Erika Matsumoto, Shin Matsubara, Eiichiro Ono, Honoo Satake
Forsythia spp. are perennial woody plants which are one of the most extensively used medicinal sources of Chinese medicines and functional diets owing to their lignan contents. Lignans have received widespread attention as leading compounds in the development of antitumor drugs and healthy diets for reducing the risks of lifestyle-related diseases. However, the molecular basis of Forsythia has yet to be established. In this study, we have verified de novo deep transcriptome of Forsythia koreana leaf and callus using the Illumina HiSeq 1500 platform...
2016: PloS One
Christoph Nowak, Samira Salihovic, Andrea Ganna, Stefan Brandmaier, Taru Tukiainen, Corey D Broeckling, Patrik K Magnusson, Jessica E Prenni, Rui Wang-Sattler, Annette Peters, Konstantin Strauch, Thomas Meitinger, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Johan Ärnlöv, Christian Berne, Christian Gieger, Samuli Ripatti, Lars Lind, Nancy L Pedersen, Johan Sundström, Erik Ingelsson, Tove Fall
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired insulin secretion contribute to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Both are associated with changes in the circulating metabolome, but causal directions have been difficult to disentangle. We combined untargeted plasma metabolomics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in three non-diabetic cohorts with Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis to obtain new insights into early metabolic alterations in IR and impaired insulin secretion. In up to 910 elderly men we found associations of 52 metabolites with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp-measured IR and/or β-cell responsiveness (disposition index) during an oral glucose tolerance test...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
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