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Wenhui Jiang, Tianxiang Liu, Wenzhi Nan, Diddugodage Chamila Jeewani, Yanlu Niu, Chunlian Li, Yong Wang, Xue Shi, Cong Wang, Jiahuan Wang, Yang Li, Xin Gao, Zhonghua Wang
The purple pericarp of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a useful source of dietary anthocyanins. Previous mapping results indicated that the purple pericarp is controlled by two complementary genes located on chromosomes 7D and 2A. However, the related genes and their effects on regulating the purple pericarp are unknown. In this study, two transcription factors were characterised as anthocyanin activators in purple pericarp: TaPpm1 (purple pericarp-MYB 1) and TaPpb1 (purple pericarp-bHLH 1). Three nonfunctional variants were detected in the coding sequence of TaPpm1 from non-purple seed lines, in which the function of TaPpm1 was destroyed by insertion-caused frame shift or truncated peptides...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Evan M Zhao, Yanfei Zhang, Justin Mehl, Helen Park, Makoto A Lalwani, Jared E Toettcher, José L Avalos
The optimization of engineered metabolic pathways requires careful control over the levels and timing of metabolic enzyme expression. Optogenetic tools are ideal for achieving such precise control, as light can be applied and removed instantly without complex media changes. Here we show that light-controlled transcription can be used to enhance the biosynthesis of valuable products in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We introduce new optogenetic circuits to shift cells from a light-induced growth phase to a darkness-induced production phase, which allows us to control fermentation with only light...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Kate E R Hollinshead, Haydn Munford, Katherine L Eales, Chiara Bardella, Chunjie Li, Cristina Escribano-Gonzalez, Alpesh Thakker, Yannic Nonnenmacher, Katarina Kluckova, Mark Jeeves, Robert Murren, Federica Cuozzo, Dan Ye, Giulio Laurenti, Wei Zhu, Karsten Hiller, David J Hodson, Wei Hua, Ian P Tomlinson, Christian Ludwig, Ying Mao, Daniel A Tennant
Since the discovery of mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) in gliomas and other tumors, significant efforts have been made to gain a deeper understanding of the consequences of this oncogenic mutation. One aspect of the neomorphic function of the IDH1 R132H enzyme that has received less attention is the perturbation of cellular redox homeostasis. Here, we describe a biosynthetic pathway exhibited by cells expressing mutant IDH1. By virtue of a change in cellular redox homeostasis, IDH1-mutated cells synthesize excess glutamine-derived proline through enhanced activity of pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1), coupled to NADH oxidation...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Fei Xie, Jia-Lan Yuan, Yi-Xiao Li, Can-Jie Wang, Hong-Yu Tang, Jun-Hui Xia, Qing-Yong Yang, Zheng-Jie Wan
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is universally utilized in cruciferous vegetables. However, the Chinese cabbage hau CMS lines, obtained by interspecific hybridization and multiple backcrosses of the Brassica juncea ( B. juncea ) CMS line and Chinese cabbage, show obvious leaf etiolation, and the molecular mechanism of etiolation remains elusive. Here, the ultrastructural and phenotypic features of leaves from the Chinese cabbage CMS line 1409A and maintainer line 1409B are analyzed. The results show that chloroplasts of 1409A exhibit abnormal morphology and distribution...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jin Huang, Wan Tang, Shengquan Zhu, Meini Du
Butyric acid (C3 H7 COOH) is an important chemical that is widely used in foodstuffs along with in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The bioproduction of butyric acid via large-scale fermentation has the potential to be more economical and efficient than petrochemical synthesis. In this paper, the metabolic pathways involved in the production of butyric acid from Clostridium tyrobutyricum using hexose and pentose as substrates are investigated, and approaches to enhance butyric acid production via genetic modification are discussed...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Amanda C Smith, Yoko Ito, Afsana Ahmed, Jeremy A Schwartzentruber, Chandree L Beaulieu, Erika Aberg, Jacek Majewski, Dennis E Bulman, Karina Horsting-Wethly, Diana Vermunt-de Koning, Richard J Rodenburg, Kym M Boycott, Lynette S Penney
Primary CoQ10 deficiency is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ). To date, mutations in nine proteins required for the biosynthesis of CoQ10 cause CoQ10 deficiency with varying clinical presentations. In 2009 the first patient with mutations in COQ9 was reported in an infant with a neonatal-onset, primary CoQ10 deficiency with multi-system disease. Here we describe four siblings with a previously undiagnosed lethal disorder characterized by oligohydramnios and intrauterine growth restriction, variable cardiomyopathy, anemia, and renal anomalies...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Michael Fry
Scientific hypotheses may either predict particular unknown facts or accommodate previously-known data. Although affirmed predictions are intuitively more rewarding than accommodations of established facts, opinions divide whether predictive hypotheses are also epistemically superior to accommodation hypotheses. This paper examines the contribution of predictive hypotheses to discoveries of several bio-molecular systems. Having all the necessary elements of the system known beforehand, an abstract predictive hypothesis of semiconservative mode of DNA replication was successfully affirmed...
March 20, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Sen Zheng, Kenji Sonomoto
Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesised small antimicrobial peptides produced from a wide range of bacteria, and also rich sources for potential alternatives to traditional antibiotics. Many bacteriocins have highly specific antibacterial activity against target pathogens, even including drug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. As the final and essential step during biosynthesis, the leader sequence removal and exportation of matured bacteriocin are lacking of research and therefore the last to be understood...
March 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Roger T Engeli, Cornelia Fürstenberger, Denise V Kratschmar, Alex Odermatt
Androgen biosynthesis in males occurs to a large extent in testicular Leydig cells. This study focused on the evaluation of three murine Leydig cell lines as potential screening tool to test xenobiotics interfering with gonadal androgen synthesis. The final step of testosterone (T) production in Leydig cells is catalyzed by the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17β-hsd3). The endogenous 17β-hsd3 mRNA expression and Δ4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) to T conversion were determined in the murine cell lines MA-10, BLTK1 and TM3...
February 2018: Heliyon
Guiying Tang, Pingli Xu, Wenhua Ma, Fang Wang, Zhanji Liu, Shubo Wan, Lei Shan
Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the major oil crops and is the fifth largest source of plant oils in the world. Numerous genes participate in regulating the biosynthesis and accumulation of the storage lipids in seeds or other reservoir organs, among which several transcription factors, such as LEAFY COTYLEDON1 ( AtLEC1 ), LEC2 , and WRINKLED1 ( WRI1 ), involved in embryo development also control the lipid reservoir in seeds. In this study, the AtLEC1 gene was transferred into the peanut genome and expressed in a seed-specific manner driven by the NapinA full-length promoter or its truncated 230-bp promoter...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sipla Aggarwal, Anil Kumar, Kaushal K Bhati, Gazaldeep Kaur, Vishnu Shukla, Siddharth Tiwari, Ajay K Pandey
Enhancement of micronutrient bioavailability is crucial to address the malnutrition in the developing countries. Various approaches employed to address the micronutrient bioavailability are showing promising signs, especially in cereal crops. Phytic acid (PA) is considered as a major antinutrient due to its ability to chelate important micronutrients and thereby restricting their bioavailability. Therefore, manipulating PA biosynthesis pathway has largely been explored to overcome the pleiotropic effect in different crop species...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yuan Huang, Yiming Guo, Yuting Liu, Feng Zhang, Zhikui Wang, Hongyan Wang, Feng Wang, Dongping Li, Dandan Mao, Sheng Luan, Manzhong Liang, Liangbi Chen
Although abscisic acid (ABA) is an important hormone that regulates seed dormancy, stomatal closure, plant development, as well as responses to environmental stimuli, the physiological mechanisms of ABA response to multiple stress in rice remain poorly understood. In the ABA biosynthetic pathway, 9- cis -epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the key rate-limiting enzyme. Here, we report important functions of OsNCED3 in multi-abiotic stress tolerance in rice. The OsNCED3 is constitutively expressed in various tissues under normal condition, Its expression is highly induced by NaCl, PEG, and H2 O2 stress, suggesting the roles for OsNCED3 in response to the multi-abiotic stress tolerance in rice...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peng Cui, Hongxia Niu, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Persister cells are metabolically quiescent multi-drug tolerant fraction of a genetically sensitive bacterial population and are thought to be responsible for relapse of many persistent infections. Persisters can be formed naturally in the stationary phase culture, and also can be induced by bacteriostatic antibiotics. However, the molecular basis of bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister formation is unknown. Here, we established a bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister model and screened the Escherichia coli single gene deletion mutant library for mutants with defect in rifampin or tetracycline induced persistence to ofloxacin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Raquel Marin, Mario Diaz
Estrogens (E2) exert a plethora of neuroprotective actions against aged-associated brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Part of these actions takes place through binding to estrogen receptors (ER) embedded in signalosomes, where numerous signaling proteins are clustered. Signalosomes are preferentially located in lipid rafts which are dynamic membrane microstructures characterized by a peculiar lipid composition enriched in gangliosides, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sphingolipids. Rapid E2 interactions with ER-related signalosomes appear to trigger intracellular signaling ultimately leading to the activation of molecular mechanisms against AD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sean D Workman, Liam J Worrall, Natalie C J Strynadka
Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase (UppP) is an integral membrane protein that recycles the lipid carrier essential to the ongoing biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Individual building blocks of peptidoglycan are assembled in the cytoplasm on undecaprenyl phosphate (C55-P) before being flipped to the periplasmic face, where they are polymerized and transferred to the existing cell wall sacculus, resulting in the side product undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (C55-PP). Interruption of UppP's regeneration of C55-P from C55-PP leads to the buildup of cell wall intermediates and cell lysis...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Huei-Hsuan Tsai, Jorge Rodriguez-Celma, Lan Ping, Yu-Ching Wu, Isabel Cristina Vélez-Bermúdez, Wolfgang Schmidt
Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral nutrient and an important factor for the composition of natural plant communities. Low Fe availability in aerated soils with neutral or alkaline pH has led to the evolution of elaborate mechanisms that extract Fe from the soil solution. In Arabidopsis thaliana, Fe is acquired by an orchestrated strategy that comprises mobilization, chelation, and reduction of Fe3+ prior to its uptake. We show here that At3g12900, previously annotated as scopoletin 8-hydroxylase (S8H), participates in Fe acquisition by mediating the biosynthesis of fraxetin (7,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin), a coumarin derived from the scopoletin pathway...
March 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Kerrie L May, Thomas J Silhavy
The outer membrane (OM) bilayer of Gram-negative bacteria is biologically unique in its asymmetrical organization of lipids, with an inner leaflet composed of glycerophospholipids (PLs) and a surface-exposed outer leaflet composed of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This lipid organization is integral to the OM's barrier properties. Perturbations of the outer leaflet by antimicrobial peptides or defects in LPS biosynthesis or transport to the OM cause a compensatory flipping of PLs to the outer leaflet. As a result, lipid asymmetry is disrupted and OM integrity is compromised...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Christos Gournas, Stelios Gkionis, Mélanie Carquin, Laure Twyffels, Donatienne Tyteca, Bruno André
The eukaryotic plasma membrane is compartmentalized into domains enriched in specific lipids and proteins. However, our understanding of the molecular bases and biological roles of this partitioning remains incomplete. The best-studied domain in yeast is the membrane compartment containing the arginine permease Can1 (MCC) and later found to cluster additional transporters. MCCs correspond to static, furrow-like invaginations of the plasma membrane and associate with subcortical structures named "eisosomes" that include upstream regulators of the target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) in the sensing of sphingolipids and membrane stress...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jason Hellmann, Brian E Sansbury, Blenda Wong, Xiaofeng Li, Mansher Singh, Kristo Nuutila, Nan Chiang, Elof Eriksson, Charles N Serhan, Matthew Spite
Cutaneous injury causes underlying tissue damage that must be quickly repaired to minimize exposure to pathogens and to restore barrier function. While the role of growth factors in tissue repair is established, the role of lipid mediators in skin repair has not been extensively investigated. Using a mass spectrometry-based lipid mediator metabolomics approach, we identified D-series resolvins and related pro-resolving lipid mediators during skin injury in mice and pigs. Differentiation of human epidermal keratinocytes increased expression of 15-lipoxygenase and stereospecific production of 17S-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, the common upstream biosynthetic marker and precursor of D-series resolvins...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Marilena Ignesti, Rosalba Ferrara, Patrizia Romani, Luca Valzania, Giulia Serafini, Francesco Pennacchio, Valeria Cavaliere, Giuseppe Gargiulo
Polydnaviruses (PDV) are viral symbionts associated with ichneumonid and braconid wasps parasitizing moth larvae, which are able to disrupt the host immune response and development, as well as a number of other physiological pathways. The immunosuppressive role of PDV has been more intensely investigated, while very little is known about the PDV-encoded factors disrupting host development. Here we address this research issue by further expanding the functional analysis of ankyrin genes encoded by the bracovirus associated with Toxoneuron nigriceps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)...
March 17, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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