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Zekai Mao, Pengcheng Wang, Qiyong Pan, Xiaojian Huang, Rui Zhang, Xiaobin Shang, Xiaohu Ma, Hongbo You
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation driven by proinflammatory cytokines; meanwhile, statins display anti-inflammatory effects. Here we assessed the effects of pravastatin on inflammatory rat chondrocytes and explored the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Rat articular chondrocytes were pretreated with pravastatin and subsequently stimulated with IL-1β. Then, the expression levels of OA- and autophagy-related effectors, at the mRNA and protein levels, were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively...
September 19, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Helga Midtbø, Anne G Semb, Knut Matre, Silvia Rollefstad, Inger J Berg, Eva Gerdts
OBJECTIVE: Subclinical left ventricular (LV) myocardial dysfunction is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is not known if subclinical LV myocardial dysfunction is present in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) independent of CVD risk factors. METHODS: Conventional and speckle tracking echocardiography was performed in 106 AS patients (mean age 48±12 years, 59% men) and 106 matched controls (mean age 51±12 years, 59% men)...
September 22, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Kate H Regan, Adam T Hill
Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disorder characterized by persistent productive cough and recurrent chest infections secondary to permanent structural airway damage. The current treatment strategies for this debilitating disorder are limited to prompt antibiotic treatment of infective exacerbations and regular airway clearance techniques. Despite its high morbidity and associated mortality across all age groups, it has been a neglected area of research in respiratory medicine and there remain no licensed disease-modifying therapies...
September 21, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Gabriel Adan Araujo Leite, Jorge Willian Franco de Barros, Airton da Cunha Martins, Janete Aparecida Anselmo-Franci, Fernando Barbosa, Wilma De Grava Kempinas
Dyslipidemias are occurring earlier in the population due to the augmentation of obesity. Rosuvastatin reduces cholesterol and triglycerides; however, previous studies have shown that it may affect male reproduction. Ascorbic acid (AA), an antioxidant compound, plays a protective role in the male reproductive system. This study aimed to evaluate whether pre-pubertal exposure to rosuvastatin may impair testicular structure and antioxidant status in male rats and if supplementation with AA may alleviate these damages...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Laurie R Braun, Meghan N Feldpausch, Natalia Czerwonka, Julian Weiss, Karen Branch, Hang Lee, Edgar L Martinez-Salazar, Martin Torriani, Craig A Sponseller, Steven K Grinspoon, Takara L Stanley
Context: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are widely prescribed. Statins may have important metabolic effects on insulin sensitivity and liver fat, but limited studies have assessed these effects using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, stable isotopes, and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for liver fat quantification. Objective: To study the effects of pitavastatin on hepatic fat and insulin sensitivity. Design: Six month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Karolina Szummer, Lars Wallentin, Lars Lindhagen, Joakim Alfredsson, David Erlinge, Claes Held, Stefan James, Thomas Kellerth, Bertil Lindahl, Annica Ravn-Fischer, Erik Rydberg, Troels Yndigegn, Tomas Jernberg
Aims: We assessed the changes in short- and long-term outcomes and their relation to implementation of new evidence-based treatments in all patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in Sweden over 20 years. Methods and results: Cases with NSTEMI (n = 205 693) between 1995 and 2014 were included from the nationwide Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART) registry...
September 19, 2018: European Heart Journal
Susanne Eder, Johannes Leierer, Julia Kerschbaum, Laszlo Rosivall, Andrzej Wiecek, Dick de Zeeuw, Patrick B Mark, Georg Heinze, Peter Rossing, Hiddo L Heerspink, Gert Mayer
BACKGROUND: The number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus-associated chronic kidney disease varies considerably between countries. Next to differences in genetic as well as life style risk factors, varying practices in medical care delivery might cause this diversity. METHOD: The PROVALID study recruited 4000 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the primary level of healthcare in five European countries (Austria, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland and Scotland)...
September 21, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Leslie R Morse, Jennifer Coker, Ricardo A Battaglino
Statins are a widely prescribed class of medications that inhibit similar pathways as the anti-resorptive bisphosphonate drugs. Statins target the mevalonate pathway by blocking HMG-CoA reductase. Several recent meta-analyses concluded statins are osteoprotective in the general population. Here we present current literature exploring the mechanisms underlying the putative osteoprotective effects of statins. We also review recent clinical studies, ranging from observational cohort studies to randomized clinical trials, testing the effect of statins on bone health in various populations...
January 2018: Actualizaciones en Osteología
Chang-Min Chung, Ming-Shyan Lin, Chi-Hung Liu, Tsong-Hai Lee, Shih-Tai Chang, Teng-Yao Yang, Kuo-Li Pan, Yu-Sheng Lin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Statins improve clinical outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke but there is no evidence of the effect of continuing long-term statin therapy in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of continuing statin after ICH. METHODS: Data on patients with ICH was retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The final population was separated into two groups according to those who continued and those who discontinued statin treatment...
August 31, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Tak Kyu Oh, Hye Youn Park, Hyun-Jung Shin, Young-Tae Jeon, Sang-Hwan Do, Jung-Won Hwang
BACKGROUND: The relationship between statin use and incidence of postoperative delirium (POD) is controversial. We investigated the association between perioperative statin use and occurrence of delirium after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) under spinal anesthesia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent TKA under spinal anesthesia at a single tertiary care hospital between January 2005 and October 2017. POD incidence was recorded for patients who received statins continuously from 1 month before surgery until discharge and for patients who did not receive any statins...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Jie Li, Ping Zhang, Simiao Wu, Xingyang Yi, Chun Wang, Ming Liu
BACKGROUND: Large hemispheric infarction (LHI) is a devastating condition with high mortality and poor functional outcome in most conservatively treated patients. The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with favorable outcome in patients with LHI. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with LHI. Favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 to 3 at 90 days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify the independent factors associated with favorable outcome...
September 20, 2018: BMC Neurology
Agnieszka Mickiewicz, Justyna Borowiec-Wolna, Witold Bachorski, Natasza Gilis-Malinowska, Rafał Gałąska, Grzegorz Raczak, Magdalena Chmara, Bartosz Wasąg, Miłosz J Jaguszewski, Marcin Fijałkowski, Marcin Gruchała
BACKGROUND: Severe familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) individuals, refractory to conventional lipid-lowering medications are at exceptionally high risk of cardiovascular events. The established therapeutic option of last choice is lipoprotein apheresis (LA). Herein, it was sought to investigate the clinical usefulness of LA in a highly selected group of severe heterozygous FH (HeFH), as recently described by the International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS), for their efficacy in lipid reduction and safety...
September 20, 2018: Cardiology Journal
Ayman Jubran, Anna Zetser, Barak Zafrir
BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, its role in real-world practice and implications for clinical care remains limited. Under investigation herein, are the clinical characteristics associated with increased Lp(a) levels in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Lp(a) was measured at admission in patients ≤ 65 years of age presenting with ACS in a single center...
September 20, 2018: Cardiology Journal
Lisanne A Gitsels, Elena Kulinskaya, Ilyas Bakbergenuly, Nicholas Steel
OBJECTIVE: Compare outcomes of intensive treatment of SBP to less than 120 mmHg versus standard treatment to less than 140 mmHg in the US clinical Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) with similar hypertensive patients managed in routine primary care in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Hypertensive patients aged 50-90 without diabetes or chronic kidney disease (CKD) were selected in SPRINT and The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Patients were enrolled in 2010-2013 and followed-up to 2015 (SPRINT N = 4112; THIN N = 8631)...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Leonidas H Duntas, Gabriela Brenta
Thyroid dysfunction, manifesting as either overt or subclinical hypothyroidism, negatively affects lipid metabolism: this leads to hypercholesterolemia which progressively increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and, potentially, mortality. Hypercholesterolemia in hypothyroidism is mainly due to a reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity, this accompanied by concomitant diminishing control by triiodothyronine (T3) of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), which modulates cholesterol biosynthesis by regulating rate-limit degrading enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA) activity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Isabelle Arnet, Melanie Greenland, Matthew W Knuiman, Jamie M Rankin, Joe Hung, Lee Nedkoff, Tom G Briffa, Frank M Sanfilippo
Background: Electronic health care data contain rich information on medicine use from which adherence can be estimated. Various measures developed with medication claims data called for transparency of the equations used, predominantly because they may overestimate adherence, and even more when used with multiple medications. We aimed to operationalize a novel calculation of adherence with polypharmacy, the daily polypharmacy possession ratio (DPPR), and validate it against the common measure of adherence, the medication possession ratio (MPR) and a modified version (MPRm )...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Malin Reinholdsson, Annie Palstam, Katharina S Sunnerhagen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of prestroke physical activity (PA) on acute stroke severity. METHODS: Data from patients with first stroke were retrieved from registries with a cross-sectional design. The variables were PA, age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and statin treatment, stroke severity, myocardial infarction, new stroke during hospital stay, and duration of inpatient care at stroke unit. PA was assessed with Saltin-Grimby's 4-level Physical Activity Level Scale, and stroke severity was assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)...
September 19, 2018: Neurology
Jason T Range, Patrick R LaFontaine, Priscilla T Ryder, Mathew Polston
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of patient and prescription factors with statin adherence of patients enrolled a self-insured university health plan. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, longitudinal analysis of pharmacy claims data from a self-insured university for those enrollees prescribed a statin during a 38-month period (2009-2012). Adherence was calculated as the portion of days covered and was defined as portion of days covered ≥80%...
September 16, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Gerwyn Morris, Brisa S Fernandes, Basant K Puri, Adam J Walker, Andre F Carvalho, Michael Berk
BACKGROUND: The blood-brain barrier acts as a highly regulated interface; its dysfunction may exacerbate, and perhaps initiate, neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: In this narrative review, focussing on redox, inflammatory and mitochondrial pathways and their effects on the blood-brain barrier, a model is proposed detailing mechanisms which might explain how increases in blood-brain barrier permeability occur and can be maintained with increasing inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress being the initial drivers...
October 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
The past decade has witnessed considerable progress in the field of lipids. New drugs have been "rapidly" developed and some of these drugs have already been evaluated in event-based large trials. This evidence has led to the guidelines recommending new, more aggressive treatment goals for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Although LDL-C remains the principal goal for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction, there has also been considerable interest in other lipid variables, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein(a)...
September 18, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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