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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212420/transcriptome-using-illumina-sequencing-reveals-the-traits-of-spermatogenesis-and-developing-testes-in-eriocheir-sinensis
#1
Gen-Liang Li, Hui Qian
Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has the spermatozoa with typical aflagellate, decondensed chromatin, cup-shaped nuclei, and radial arms. However, the mechanism of spermatogenesis during which the specific spermatozoa are generated in this species is yet unclear. Here, the transcriptome of developing testis in E. sinensis was analyzed using the ways of RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis to identify candidate genes potentially involved in development of testis and spermatogenesis. The Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing of three replicons of samples produced a total of 145...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208218/antibiotic-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-in-husbandry-animals-the-african-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Carla Andrea Alonso, Myriam Zarazaga, Rym Ben Sallem, Ahlem Jouini, Karim Ben Slama, Carmen Torres
In the last years different surveillances have been published in Africa, especially in Northern countries, regarding antimicrobial resistance among husbandry animals. Information is still scarce, but the available data shows a worrying picture. Although the highest resistance rates have been described against tetracycline, penicillins and sulphonamides, prevalence of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are being increasingly reported. Among ESBLs, the CTX-M-1 group was dominant in most African surveys, being CTX-M-15 the main variant both in animals and humans, except in Tunisia where CTX-M-1 was more frequently detected among E...
February 16, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197321/discovery-of-novel-allosteric-hcv-ns5b-inhibitors-2-lactam-containing-thiophene-carboxylates
#3
Pan Li, Warren Dorsch, David J Lauffer, Darius Bilimoria, Nathalie Chauret, John J Court, Sanjoy Kumar Das, Francois Denis, Nagraj Mani, Suganthini Nanthakumar, Olivier Nicolas, B Govinda Rao, Steven Ronkin, Subajini Selliah, Rebecca S Shawgo, Ralph Stearns, Qing Tang, Nathan D Waal, Jeremy Green
Lomibuvir (1) is a non-nucleoside, allosteric inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase with demonstrated clinical efficacy. Further development efforts within this class of inhibitor focused on improving the antiviral activity and physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Recently, we reported the development of this series, leading to compound 2, a molecule with comparable potency and an improved physicochemical profile relative to 1. Further exploration of the amino amide-derived side chain led to a series of lactam derivatives, inspired by the X-ray crystal structure of related thiophene carboxylate inhibitors...
February 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193664/in-vitro-antiviral-activity-and-resistance-profile-of-the-next-generation-hepatitis-c-virus-ns5a-inhibitor-pibrentasvir
#4
Teresa I Ng, Preethi Krishnan, Tami Pilot-Matias, Warren Kati, Gretja Schnell, Jill Beyer, Thomas Reisch, Liangjun Lu, Tatyana Dekhtyar, Michelle Irvin, Rakesh Tripathi, Clarence Maring, John T Randolph, Rolf Wagner, Christine Collins
Pibrentasvir (ABT-530) is a novel and pan-genotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor with 50% effective concentration (EC50)values ranging from 1.4 to 5.0 picomolar (pM) against HCV replicons containing NS5A from genotypes 1 to 6. Pibrentasvir demonstrated similar activity against a panel of chimeric replicons containing HCV genotype 1 to 6 NS5A from clinical samples. Resistance selection studies were conducted using HCV replicon cells with NS5A from genotype 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5a or 6a at pibrentasvir concentration of 10- or 100-fold over its EC50 values for the respective replicons...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193657/preclinical-pharmacokinetics-and-first-in-human-pharmacokinetics-safety-and-tolerability-of-velpatasvir-a-pangenotypic-hcv-ns5a-inhibitor-in-healthy-subjects
#5
Erik Mogalian, Polina German, Brian P Kearney, Cheng Yong Yang, Diana Brainard, John Link, John McNally, LingLing Han, John Ling, Anita Mathias
Preclinical characterization of velpatasvir (VEL; GS-5816), an inhibitor of HCV NS5A protein, demonstrated favourable in vitro and in vivo properties, including potent antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus genotypes 1 to 6 replicon, good metabolic stability, low systemic clearance, and adequate bioavailability and physicochemical properties to warrant clinical evaluation. The Phase 1 (first-in-human) study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of VEL in healthy human subjects following administration of single and multiple (7) once-daily ascending doses and of VEL in the presence and absence of food...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187142/mosquito-cell-derived-west-nile-virus-replicon-particles-mimic-arbovirus-inoculum-and-have-reduced-spread-in-mice
#6
Brendan T Boylan, Fernando R Moreira, Tim W Carlson, Kristen A Bernard
Half of the human population is at risk of infection by an arthropod-borne virus. Many of these arboviruses, such as West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses, infect humans by way of a bite from an infected mosquito. This infectious inoculum is insect cell-derived giving the virus particles distinct qualities not present in secondary infectious virus particles produced by infected vertebrate host cells. The insect cell-derived particles differ in the glycosylation of virus structural proteins and the lipid content of the envelope, as well as their induction of cytokines...
February 10, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164720/applications-of-computer-aided-approaches-in-the-development-of-hepatitis-c-antiviral-agents
#7
Aravindhan Ganesan, Khaled Barakat
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem that causes several chronic life-threatening liver diseases. The numbers of people affected by HCV are rising annually. Since 2011, the FDA has approved several anti-HCV drugs; while many other promising HCV drugs are currently in late clinical trials. Areas covered: This review discusses the applications of different computational approaches in HCV drug design. Expert opinion: Molecular docking and virtual screening approaches have emerged as a low-cost tool to screen large databases and identify potential small-molecule hits against HCV targets...
February 4, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163823/draft-genome-sequence-of-type-strain-hbr26-t-and-description-of-rhizobium-aethiopicum-sp-nov
#8
Aregu Amsalu Aserse, Tanja Woyke, Nikos C Kyrpides, William B Whitman, Kristina Lindström
Rhizobium aethiopicum sp. nov. is a newly proposed species within the genus Rhizobium. This species includes six rhizobial strains; which were isolated from root nodules of the legume plant Phaseolus vulgaris growing in soils of Ethiopia. The species fixes nitrogen effectively in symbiosis with the host plant P. vulgaris, and is composed of aerobic, Gram-negative staining, rod-shaped bacteria. The genome of type strain HBR26(T) of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was one of the rhizobial genomes sequenced as a part of the DOE JGI 2014 Genomic Encyclopedia project designed for soil and plant-associated and newly described type strains...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161293/molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-primary-care-hospital-in-japan-2010-2013
#9
Yuki Ohno, Akihiro Nakamura, Eriko Hashimoto, Hiroko Matsutani, Noriyuki Abe, Saori Fukuda, Kohno Hisashi, Masaru Komatsu, Fumihiko Nakamura
Recently, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have been spreading worldwide and have become a threat in healthcare systems. We investigated the isolation frequency and molecular epidemiological characteristics of CPE isolated from clinical samples collected at a primary care hospital over the four years of 2010-2013 in Japan. CPE were detected in 17 (0.34%) of 4875 isolates by the broth microdilution method, sodium mercaptoacetate inhibition test, and modified Hodge test using meropenem disks. The frequency of CPE isolates was 0...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157234/the-citrus-flavanone-naringenin-impairs-dengue-virus-replication-in-human-cells
#10
Sandra Frabasile, Andrea Cristine Koishi, Diogo Kuczera, Guilherme Ferreira Silveira, Waldiceu Aparecido Verri, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos Santos, Juliano Bordignon
Dengue is one of the most significant health problems in tropical and sub-tropical regions throughout the world. Nearly 390 million cases are reported each year. Although a vaccine was recently approved in certain countries, an anti-dengue virus drug is still needed. Fruits and vegetables may be sources of compounds with medicinal properties, such as flavonoids. This study demonstrates the anti-dengue virus activity of the citrus flavanone naringenin, a class of flavonoid. Naringenin prevented infection with four dengue virus serotypes in Huh7...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155869/successful-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-ebola-infected-non-human-primates-using-ebola-glycoprotein-specific-equine-igg
#11
Oleg V Pyankov, Yin Xiang Setoh, Sergey A Bodnev, Judith H Edmonds, Olga G Pyankova, Stepan A Pyankov, Gabor Pali, Shane Belford, Louis Lu, Mylinh La, George Lovrecz, Valentina A Volchkova, Keith J Chappell, Daniel Watterson, Glenn Marsh, Paul R Young, Alexander A Agafonov, Jillann F Farmer, Victor E Volchkov, Andreas Suhrbier, Alexander A Khromykh
Herein we describe production of purified equine IgG obtained from horses immunized with plasmid DNA followed by boosting with Kunjin replicon virus-like particles both encoding a modified Ebola glycoprotein. Administration of the equine IgG over 5 days to cynomolgus macaques infected 24 hours previously with a lethal dose of Ebola virus suppressed viral loads by more than 5 logs and protected animals from mortality. Animals generated their own Ebola glycoprotein-specific IgG responses 9-15 days after infection, with circulating virus undetectable by day 15-17...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152085/a-putative-multi-replicon-plasmid-co-harboring-beta-lactamase-genes-blakpc-2-blactx-m-14-and-blatem-1-and-trimethoprim-resistance-gene-dfra25-from-a-klebsiella-pneumoniae-sequence-type-st-11-strain-in-china
#12
Yu Tang, Pinghua Shen, Wei Liang, Jialin Jin, Xiaofei Jiang
The global emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a major public health threat requiring immediate and aggressive action. Some older generation antibiotics, such as trimethoprim, serve as alternatives for treatment of infections. Here, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pHS091147, which co-harbored the carbapenemase (blaKPC-2) and trimethoprim resistance genes (dfrA25) from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 clone recovered in Shanghai, China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141507/hcv-intragenomic-interactions-are-modulated-by-the-slvi-rna-structure-of-the-core-coding-sequence
#13
Michel Ventura, Lucie Martin, Chloé Jaubert, Marie-Line Andrèola, Cyril Masante
Several RNA interactions are thought to play a role in the regulation of the hepatitis C virus life cycle. Most of these interactions involve the 5BSL3.2 domain and therefore occur at the 3' end of the viral genomic RNA. A long-range interaction has also been described between 5BSL3.2 and the 5'UTR. Although another interaction involves the SLVI stem loop of the core coding region and the 5'UTR, this SLVI domain is absent from the subgenomic replicon and from most studies. We aim to analyze the role of this SLVI domain, which likely interferes with others interactions...
January 27, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137563/evaluating-exosome-protein-content-changes-induced-by-virus-activity-using-silac-labeling-and-lc-ms-ms
#14
X Zhao, Y Xie, J Liu
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that are produced by cells and excreted into extracellular space. Contents of exosomes generally include lipid, membrane, and soluble proteins, and various types of coding and noncoding RNAs. Over the past decades, it has become clear that exosomes constitute an important vector for intercellular transport and communication with significant functional relevance. Evaluating exosome contents and their changes are vital for understanding its role in different physiological and pathological processes...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137396/comparative-analysis-of-the-standard-pcr-based-replicon-typing-pbrt-with-the-commercial-pbrt-kit
#15
Elisa Carloni, Francesca Andreoni, Enrica Omiccioli, Laura Villa, Mauro Magnani, Alessandra Carattoli
Plasmids are the main vectors of resistance and virulence genes in Enterobacteriaceae and plasmid typing is essential for the analysis of evolution, epidemiology and spread of antibacterial resistance. The PCR-Based Replicon Typing (PBRT), developed by Carattoli et al. in 2005, was an efficient method for plasmid identification and typing in Enterobacteriaceae. The 2005 PBRT scheme detected 18 replicons in 8 PCR reactions. Recently, the identification of novel replicons and plasmid types requested an update of the PBRT scheme...
January 27, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126918/deletion-of-the-rnl-gene-encoding-a-nick-sealing-rna-ligase-sensitizes-deinococcus-radiodurans-to-ionizing-radiation
#16
Brad J Schmier, Xinguo Chen, Sandra Wolin, Stewart Shuman
Deinococcus radiodurans RNA ligase (DraRnl) seals 3'-OH/5'-PO4 nicks in duplex nucleic acids in which the 3'-OH nick terminus consists of two or more ribonucleotides. DraRnl exemplifies a widely distributed Rnl5 family of nick-sealing RNA ligases, the physiological functions of which are uncharted. Here we show via gene knockout that whereas DraRnl is inessential for growth of D. radiodurans, its absence sensitizes the bacterium to killing by ionizing radiation (IR). DraRnl protein is present in exponentially growing and stationary phase cells, but is depleted during the early stages of recovery from 10 kGy of IR and subsequently replenished during the late phase of post-IR genome reassembly...
January 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125687/high-heterogeneity-of-escherichia-coli-sequence-types-harbouring-esbl-ampc-genes-on-inci1-plasmids-in-the-colombian-poultry-chain
#17
Luis Ricardo Castellanos, Pilar Donado-Godoy, Maribel León, Viviana Clavijo, Alejandra Arevalo, Johan F Bernal, Arjen J Timmerman, Dik J Mevius, Jaap A Wagenaar, Joost Hordijk
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli producing ESBL/AmpC enzymes are unwanted in animal production chains as they may pose a risk to human and animal health. Molecular characterization of plasmids and strains carrying genes that encode these enzymes is essential to understand their local and global spread. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diversity of genes, plasmids and strains in ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli from the Colombian poultry chain isolated within the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (Coipars)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111194/tombusvirus-polymerase-structure-and-function
#18
REVIEW
Chaminda D Gunawardene, Logan W Donaldson, K Andrew White
Tombusviruses are small icosahedral viruses that possess plus-sense RNA genomes ∼4.8kb in length. The type member of the genus, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), encodes a 92kDa (p92) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that is responsible for viral genome replication and subgenomic (sg) mRNA transcription. Several functionally relevant regions in p92 have been identified and characterized, including transmembrane domains, RNA-binding segments, membrane targeting signals, and oligomerization domains. Moreover, conserved tombusvirus-specific motifs in the C-proximal region of the RdRp have been shown to modulate viral genome replication, sg mRNA transcription, and trans-replication of subviral replicons...
January 19, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106859/burkholderia-cepacia-complex-regulation-of-virulence-gene-expression-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Sílvia A Sousa, Joana R Feliciano, Tiago Pita, Soraia I Guerreiro, Jorge H Leitão
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria emerged as opportunistic pathogens in cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. Their eradication is very difficult due to the high level of intrinsic resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Bcc bacteria have large and complex genomes, composed of two to four replicons, with variable numbers of insertion sequences. The complexity of Bcc genomes confers a high genomic plasticity to these bacteria, allowing their adaptation and survival to diverse habitats, including the human host...
January 19, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106531/preclinical-characterization-of-the-novel-hcv-ns3-protease-inhibitor-gs-9256
#20
Huiling Yang, Chris Yang, Yujin Wang, Gerry Rhodes, Margaret Robinson, Guofeng Cheng, Xiaoping Qi, Hongmei Mo, Yang Tian, Rowchanak Pakdaman, X Christopher Sheng, Choung U Kim, William E Delaney
BACKGROUND: GS-9256 is an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease with a macrocyclic structure and novel phosphinic acid pharmacophore. METHODS: Key preclinical properties of GS-9256 including in vitro antiviral activity, cross-resistance, and pharmacokinetic properties were investigated in non-human species. RESULTS: In genotype (GT) 1b Huh-luc cells with a replicon encoding luciferase, GS-9256 had a mean EC50 value of 20.0 nM, with minimal cytotoxicity...
January 20, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
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