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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814035/decoding-of-individual-finger-movements-from-surface-emg-signals-using-vector-autoregressive-hierarchical-hidden-markov-models-varhhmm
#1
Nebojsa Malesevic, Dimitrije Markovic, Gunter Kanitz, Marco Controzzi, Christian Cipriani, Christian Antfolk
In this paper we present a novel method for predicting individual fingers movements from surface electromyography (EMG). The method is intended for real-time dexterous control of a multifunctional prosthetic hand device. The EMG data was recorded using 16 single-ended channels positioned on the forearm of healthy participants. Synchronously with the EMG recording, the subjects performed consecutive finger movements based on the visual cues. Our algorithm could be described in following steps: extracting mean average value (MAV) of the EMG to be used as the feature for classification, piece-wise linear modeling of EMG feature dynamics, implementation of hierarchical hidden Markov models (HHMM) to capture transitions between linear models, and implementation of Bayesian inference as the classifier...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811654/characterization-of-the-mollusc-rig-i-mavs-pathway-reveals-an-archaic-antiviral-signalling-framework-in-invertebrates
#2
Baoyu Huang, Linlin Zhang, Yishuai Du, Fei Xu, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Despite the mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS)-dependent RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signalling pathway in the cytosol plays an indispensable role in the antiviral immunity of the host, surprising little is known in invertebrates. Here we characterized the major members of RLR pathway and investigated their signal transduction a Molluscs. We show that genes involved in RLR pathway were significantly induced during virus challenge, including CgRIG-I-1, CgMAVS, CgTRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6), and CgIRFs (interferon regulatory factors...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808966/methods-to-visualize-mavs-subcellular-localization
#3
Christine Vazquez, Dia C Beachboard, Stacy M Horner
The mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is a central adaptor protein required for antiviral innate immune signaling. To facilitate its roles in innate immunity, MAVS localizes to multiple intracellular membranous compartments, including the mitochondria, the mitochondrial-associated ER membrane (MAM), and peroxisomes. Studies of MAVS function therefore often require an analysis of MAVS localization. To detect MAVS protein on intracellular membranes, biochemical fractionation to isolate MAMs, mitochondria, or peroxisomes can be used...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806745/persistent-mycobacteria-evade-an-antibacterial-program-mediated-by-phagolysosomal-tlr7-8-myd88-in-human-primary-macrophages
#4
Alexandre Gidon, Signe Elisabeth Åsberg, Claire Louet, Liv Ryan, Markus Haug, Trude Helen Flo
Pathogenic mycobacteria reside in macrophages where they avoid lysosomal targeting and degradation through poorly understood mechanisms proposed to involve arrest of phagosomal maturation at an early endosomal stage. A clear understanding of how this relates to host defenses elicited from various intracellular compartments is also missing and can only be studied using techniques allowing single cell and subcellular analyses. Using confocal imaging of human primary macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium (Mav) we show evidence that Mav phagosomes are not arrested at an early endosomal stage, but mature to a (LAMP1+/LAMP2+/CD63+) late endosomal/phagolysosomal stage where inflammatory signaling and Mav growth restriction is initiated through a mechanism involving Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8, the adaptor MyD88 and transcription factors NF-κB and IRF-1...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783846/cardiorespiratory-responses-to-continuous-and-intermittent-exercises-in-children
#5
Georges Baquet, François-Xavier Gamelin, Julien Aucouturier, Serge Berthoin
The aim of the study was to characterize aerobic responses to high intensity intermittent (HIIE) and continuous (CE) exercises in prepubertal children. 26 children aged 8 to 11-year-old took part in a preliminary session to determine peakVO2 and Maximal Aerobic Velocity (MAV). In 5 subsequent experimental visits, the participants completed 2 CE and 3 HIIE sessions in a randomized order. HIIE consisted of short intermittent 10-s and 20-s running bouts at 100 to 130% MAV, interspersed with recovery periods of equal duration (S-HIIE1 and S-HIIE2 respectively) and 5-s of sprinting and jumping at maximal intensity with 15-s recovery periods (S-HIIE3)...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768867/mechanism-of-interferon-stimulated-gene-induction-in-hiv-1-infected-macrophages
#6
Najla Nasr, Abdullateef A Alshehri, Thomas K Wright, Maryam Shahid, Bonnie M Heiner, Andrew N Harman, Rachel A Botting, Karla J Helbig, Michael R Beard, Kazuo Suzuki, Anthony D Kelleher, Paul Hertzog, Anthony L Cunningham
Viruses manipulate the complex interferon and interferon stimulated gene (ISG) system in different ways. We have previously shown that HIV inhibits type I and III interferons in its key target cells but directly stimulates a subset of >20 ISGs in macrophages and dendritic cells many of which are antiviral. Here we examined the mechanism of induction of ISGs and showed this occurred in two phases. The first phase was transient (0-24hpi) induced mainly by extracellular vesicles, and one of its component proteins HSP90α, contained within the HIV inoculum...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768863/hras-egfr-met-and-ron-are-recurrently-activated-by-provirus-insertion-in-mav-2-retrovirus-induced-liver-tumors
#7
Vladimir Pecenka, Petr Pajer, Vít Karafiat, Petra Kasparova, Jana Dudlova, Michal Dvorak
Myeloblastosis-associated virus-2 (MAV-2) is a highly tumorigenic simple avian retrovirus. Chickens infected in ovo with MAV-2 develop tumors in kidneys, lungs, and liver with a short latency of less then 8 weeks. Here we report the results of molecular analyses of MAV-2-induced liver tumors that fall into three classes: hepatic hemangiosarcomas (HHS), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC), and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Comprehensive inverse PCR-based screening of 92 chicken liver tumors revealed that in ca 86 % of these tumors, MAV-2 provirus had integrated into one of four gene loci: HRAS, EGFR, MET, and RON Insertionally mutated genes correlated with tumor type - HRAS was hit in HHSs, MET in ICCs, RON mostly in ICCs and EGFR mostly in HCC...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768533/progression-of-pathology-in-pink1-deficient-mouse-brain-from-splicing-via-ubiquitination-er-stress-and-mitophagy-changes-to-neuroinflammation
#8
Sylvia Torres-Odio, Jana Key, Hans-Hermann Hoepken, Júlia Canet-Pons, Lucie Valek, Bastian Roller, Michael Walter, Blas Morales-Gordo, David Meierhofer, Patrick N Harter, Michel Mittelbronn, Irmgard Tegeder, Suzana Gispert, Georg Auburger
BACKGROUND: PINK1 deficiency causes the autosomal recessive PARK6 variant of Parkinson's disease. PINK1 activates ubiquitin by phosphorylation and cooperates with the downstream ubiquitin ligase PARKIN, to exert quality control and control autophagic degradation of mitochondria and of misfolded proteins in all cell types. METHODS: Global transcriptome profiling of mouse brain and neuron cultures were assessed in protein-protein interaction diagrams and by pathway enrichment algorithms...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747493/role-of-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-matrix-m-protein-in-suppressing-host-transcription
#9
Qi Ke, Wade Weaver, Adam Pore, Bartolomeo Gorgoglione, Julia Halo Wildschutte, Peng Xiao, Brian S Shepherd, Allyn Spear, Krishnamurthy Malathi, Carol A Stepien, Vikram N Vakharia, Douglas W Leaman
Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSV) is a pathogenic fish rhabdovirus found in discrete locales throughout the northern hemisphere. VHSV infection of fish cells leads to upregulation of the host's virus detection response, but the virus quickly suppresses interferon (IFN) production and antiviral genes expression. By systematically screening each of the six VHSV structural and nonstructural genes, we have identified matrix protein (M) as its most potent anti-host protein. VHSV-IVb M alone suppressed mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and type I IFN-induced gene expression in a dose-dependent manner...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733470/dendritic-cell-targeted-lentiviral-vector-immunization-uses-pseudotransduction-and-dna-mediated-sting-and-cgas-activation
#10
Jocelyn T Kim, Yarong Liu, Rajan P Kulkarni, Kevin K Lee, Bingbing Dai, Geoffrey Lovely, Yong Ouyang, Pin Wang, Lili Yang, David Baltimore
Dendritic cell (DC) activation and antigen presentation are critical for efficient priming of T cell responses. Here, we study how lentiviral vectors (LVs) deliver antigen and activate DCs to generate T cell immunization in vivo. We report that antigenic proteins delivered in vector particles via pseudotransduction were sufficient to stimulate an antigen-specific immune response. The delivery of the viral genome encoding the antigen increased the magnitude of this response in vivo but was irrelevant in vitro...
July 21, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720183/g-loc-warning-algorithms-based-on-emg-features-of-the-gastrocnemius-muscle
#11
Sungho Kim, Taehwan Cho, Yongkyun Lee, Hyojin Koo, Booyong Choi, Dongsoo Kim
BACKGROUND: G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) is mainly caused by failure to sustain an oxygenated blood supply to the pilot's brain because of the sudden acceleration in the direction of the +Gz axis, and is considered a critical safety issue. The purpose of this study was to develop G-LOC warning algorithms based on monitoring electromyograms (EMG) of the gastrocnemius muscle on the calf. METHODS: EMG data was retrieved from a total of 67 pilots and pilot trainees of the Korean Air Force during high-G training on a human centrifugal simulator...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717359/the-c-terminal-effector-domain-of-non-structural-protein-1-of-influenza-a-virus-blocks-ifn-%C3%AE-production-by-targeting-tnf-receptor-associated-factor-3
#12
Wei Qian, Xiaoqin Wei, Kelei Guo, Yongtao Li, Xian Lin, Zhong Zou, Hongbo Zhou, Meilin Jin
Influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antagonizes interferon response through diverse strategies, particularly by inhibiting the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and IFN-β transcription. However, the underlying mechanisms used by the NS1 C-terminal effector domain (ED) to inhibit the activation of IFN-β pathway are not well understood. In this study, we used influenza virus subtype of H5N1 to demonstrate that the NS1 C-terminal ED but not the N-terminal RNA-binding domain, binds TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697187/can-semiquantitative-measurements-of-suvmax-and-cut-off-values-differentiate-colorectal-malignant-from-benign-lessions
#13
Tram Nguyen, Søren Hess, Henrik Petersen, Abass Alavi, Poul Flemming Høilund-Carlsen
OBJECTIVE: We investigated maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and cut-off values for differentiation of malignant and benign lesions in colorectal cancer (CC) as multiple studies have questioned their validity. We also investigated more extended indices using common semi-quantification analysis in incidental colorectal findings (ICF). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fluorine-18-fluoro deoxy glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in 25 patients with a total of 30 focal ICF was retrospectively analysed using dedicated software...
May 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692691/extracting-time-frequency-feature-of-single-channel-vastus-medialis-emg-signals-for-knee-exercise-pattern-recognition
#14
Yi Zhang, Peiyang Li, Xuyang Zhu, Steven W Su, Qing Guo, Peng Xu, Dezhong Yao
The EMG signal indicates the electrophysiological response to daily living of activities, particularly to lower-limb knee exercises. Literature reports have shown numerous benefits of the Wavelet analysis in EMG feature extraction for pattern recognition. However, its application to typical knee exercises when using only a single EMG channel is limited. In this study, three types of knee exercises, i.e., flexion of the leg up (standing), hip extension from a sitting position (sitting) and gait (walking) are investigated from 14 healthy untrained subjects, while EMG signals from the muscle group of vastus medialis and the goniometer on the knee joint of the detected leg are synchronously monitored and recorded...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680969/differential-antagonism-of-human-innate-immune-responses-by-tick-borne-phlebovirus-nonstructural-proteins
#15
Veronica V Rezelj, Ping Li, Vidyanath Chaudhary, Richard M Elliott, Dong-Yan Jin, Benjamin Brennan
In recent years, several newly discovered tick-borne viruses causing a wide spectrum of diseases in humans have been ascribed to the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. The nonstructural protein (NSs) of bunyaviruses is the main virulence factor and interferon (IFN) antagonist. We studied the molecular mechanisms of IFN antagonism employed by the NSs proteins of human apathogenic Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) and those of Heartland virus (HRTV) and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), both of which cause severe disease...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658674/endothelial-interferon-regulatory-factor-1-regulates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-vcam-1-expression-independent-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#16
Rui Yan, Matijs van Meurs, Eliane R Popa, Rianne M Jongman, Peter J Zwiers, Anita E Niemarkt, Timara Kuiper, Jan A Kamps, Peter Heeringa, Jan G Zijlstra, Grietje Molema, Jill Moser
Sepsis is a severe systemic inflammatory response to infection. Endothelial activation and dysfunction play a critical role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and represent an important therapeutic target to reduce sepsis mortality. Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) was recently identified as a downstream target of TNF-α-mediated signal transduction in endothelial cells. The aim of this study was to explore the importance of IRF-1 as a regulator of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial proinflammatory activation...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640086/diagnostic-value-of-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake-parameters-to-differentiate-rheumatoid-arthritis-from-other-types-of-arthritis
#17
Anu Bhattarai, Takahito Nakajima, Santosh Sapkota, Yukiko Arisaka, Azusa Tokue, Yukio Yonemoto, Yoshito Tsushima
We aimed evaluate F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake at major joints for differentiating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from those with non-RA arthritis using F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET).Eighteen patients with RA (13 women; age, 66.8 ± 13.2 years) and 17 patients with non-RA (6 women; age, 50.8 ± 12.5 years) were included. Twelve joints of each patient were examined: shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle on both sides. A visual scoring (VS) system was used; quantitative parameters such as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic active volume (MAV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were evaluated...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634194/zbp1-dai-ubiquitination-and-sensing-of-influenza-vrnps-activate-programmed-cell-death
#18
Sannula Kesavardhana, Teneema Kuriakose, Clifford S Guy, Parimal Samir, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Ashutosh Mishra, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Innate sensing of influenza virus infection induces activation of programmed cell death pathways. We have recently identified Z-DNA-binding protein 1 (ZBP1) as an innate sensor of influenza A virus (IAV). ZBP1-mediated IAV sensing is critical for triggering programmed cell death in the infected lungs. Surprisingly, little is known about the mechanisms regulating ZBP1 activation to induce programmed cell death. Here, we report that the sensing of IAV RNA by retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) initiates ZBP1-mediated cell death via the RIG-I-MAVS-IFN-β signaling axis...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625874/negative-regulation-of-the-rlh-signaling-by-the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf114
#19
Boren Lin, Qi Ke, Haiying Li, Nichole S Pheifer, David C Velliquette, Douglas W Leaman
The retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like helicases (RLH)s are cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors expressed in both immune and non-immune cells that are essential for detection of intracellular RNA products, primarily of viral origin. Upon binding to viral RNA, RLHs interact with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) to activate interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses. The RLH/MAVS signaling pathway is regulated by ubiquitination/deubiquitination, in which several ubiquitin-editing proteins play critical roles...
June 15, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613140/influenza-virus-protein-pb1-f2-interacts-with-calcoco2-ndp52-to-modulate-innate-immune-response
#20
Olivier Leymarie, Léa Meyer, Lionel Tafforeau, Vincent Lotteau, Bruno Da Costa, Bernard Delmas, Christophe Chevalier, Ronan Le Goffic
PB1-F2 is a viral protein encoded by influenza A viruses (IAVs). PB1-F2 is implicated in virulence by triggering immune cell apoptosis and enhancing inflammation. To obtain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of PB1-F2-mediated virulence, we used the yeast two-hybrid approach to find new PB1-F2 cellular interactors. This allowed us to identify calcium-binding and coiled-coil domain 2 (CALCOCO2, also known as NDP52) as a binding partner of PB1-F2. Binding of PB1-F2 to CALCOCO2 was confirmed by pull-down...
June 2017: Journal of General Virology
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