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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098262/quantification-of-the-sources-and-composition-of-particulate-matter-by-field-deployable-mass-spectrometry-implications-for-air-quality-and-public-health
#1
Patrick L Hayes
Airborne particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) negatively impacts air quality in cities throughout the world where it has been linked to increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality. For this reason PM2.5 standards have been established by many countries and the World Health Organization. However, these guidelines are regularly exceeded in North America, Europe and East Asia. While PM2.5 is often reported as a single atmospheric species, it is actually a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds...
January 18, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098207/using-13-c-isotopes-to-explore-denitrification-dependent-anaerobic-methane-oxidation-in-a-paddy-peatland
#2
Yao Shi, Zhongqiang Wang, Chunguang He, Xinyu Zhang, Lianxi Sheng, Xiaodong Ren
Peatlands are organic-matter-rich but nitrogen-limited natural systems, the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) status of which are subject to increasing exposure from long-term nitrate (NO3(-)) fertilizer inputs and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposits. To manage and protect these unique environments, an improved understanding of denitrification-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (DAMO) in peatlands is needed. In this study, we used stable isotope measurements and incubation with NO3(-) additions to facilitate an investigation and comparison of the potential DAMO rates in a paddy-peatland that has been influenced by N fertilizer over 40 years and an undisturbed peatland in northeast China...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098195/global-mapping-of-nonseismic-sea-level-oscillations-at-tsunami-timescales
#3
Ivica Vilibić, Jadranka Šepić
Present investigations of sea level extremes are based on hourly data measured at coastal tide gauges. The use of hourly data restricts existing global and regional analyses to periods larger than 2 h. However, a number of processes occur at minute timescales, of which the most ruinous are tsunamis. Meteotsunamis, hazardous nonseismic waves that occur at tsunami timescales over limited regions, may also locally dominate sea level extremes. Here, we show that nonseismic sea level oscillations at tsunami timescales (<2 h) may substantially contribute to global sea level extremes, up to 50% in low-tidal basins...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098192/wearable-atmospheric-pressure-plasma-fabrics-produced-by-knitting-flexible-wire-electrodes-for-the-decontamination-of-chemical-warfare-agents
#4
Heesoo Jung, Jin Ah Seo, Seungki Choi
One of the key reasons for the limited use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is its inability to treat non-flat, three-dimensional (3D) surface structures, such as electronic devices and the human body, because of the rigid electrode structure required. In this study, a new APP system design-wearable APP (WAPP)-that utilizes a knitting technique to assemble flexible co-axial wire electrodes into a large-area plasma fabric is presented. The WAPP device operates in ambient air with a fully enclosed power electrode and grounded outer electrode...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098187/carbon-elimination-from-silicon-kerf-thermogravimetric-analysis-and-mechanistic-considerations
#5
Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Tandeep S Chadha, Gregory Yablonsky, Pratim Biswas
40% of ultrapure silicon is lost as kerf during slicing to produce wafers. Kerf is currently not being recycled due to engineering challenges and costs associated with removing its abundant impurities. Carbon left behind from the lubricant remains as one of the most difficult contaminants to remove in kerf without significant silicon oxidation. The present work enables to better understand the mechanism of carbon elimination in kerf which can aid the design of better processes for kef recycling and low cost photovoltaics...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097605/elevated-carbon-dioxide-concentration-reduces-alarm-signaling-in-aphids
#6
Antoine Boullis, Bérénice Fassotte, Landry Sarles, Georges Lognay, Stéphanie Heuskin, Maryse Vanderplanck, Stefan Bartram, Eric Haubruge, Frédéric Francis, François J Verheggen
Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations might impact pheromonal communication in insects. Here, we hypothesize that changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide affect the whole dynamics of alarm signaling in aphids, including: (1) the production of the active compound (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf), (2) emission behavior when under attack, (3) perception by the olfactory apparatus, and (4) the escape response...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096449/specific-glucoside-transporters-influence-septal-structure-and-function-in-the-filamentous-heterocyst-forming-cyanobacterium-anabaena-sp-strain-pcc-7120
#7
Mercedes Nieves-Morión, Sigal Lechno-Yossef, Rocío López-Igual, José E Frías, Vicente Mariscal, Dennis J Nürnberg, Conrad W Mullineaux, C Peter Wolk, Enrique Flores
: When deprived of combined nitrogen, some filamentous cyanobacteria contain two cell types: vegetative cells that fix CO2 through oxygenic photosynthesis and heterocysts that are specialized in N2 fixation. In the diazotrophic filament, the vegetative cells provide the heterocysts with reduced carbon (mainly in the form of sucrose) and heterocysts provide the vegetative cells with combined nitrogen. Septal junctions traverse peptidoglycan through structures known as nanopores, and appear to mediate intercellular molecular transfer that can be traced with fluorescent markers, including the sucrose analog esculin (a coumarin glucoside) that is incorporated into the cells...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096384/holocene-enso-related-cyclic-storms-recorded-by-magnetic-minerals-in-speleothems-of-central-china
#8
Zongmin Zhu, Joshua M Feinberg, Shucheng Xie, Mark D Bourne, Chunju Huang, Chaoyong Hu, Hai Cheng
Extreme hydrologic events such as storms and floods have the potential to severely impact modern human society. However, the frequency of storms and their underlying mechanisms are limited by a paucity of suitable proxies, especially in inland areas. Here we present a record of speleothem magnetic minerals to reconstruct paleoprecipitation, including storms, in the eastern Asian monsoon area over the last 8.6 ky. The geophysical parameter IRMsoft-flux represents the flux of soil-derived magnetic minerals preserved in stalagmite HS4, which we correlate with rainfall amount and intensity...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096368/elemental-sulfur-aerosol-forming-mechanism
#9
Manoj Kumar, Joseph S Francisco
Elemental sulfur aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmospheres of Venus, ancient Earth, and Mars. There is now an evolving body of evidence suggesting that these aerosols have also played a role in the evolution of early life on Earth. However, the exact details of their formation mechanism remain an open question. The present theoretical calculations suggest a chemical mechanism that takes advantage of the interaction between sulfur oxides, SOn (n = 1, 2, 3) and hydrogen sulfide (nH2S), resulting in the efficient formation of a Sn+1 particle...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095992/changes-in-ecosystem-carbon-pool-and-soil-co2-flux-following-post-mine-reclamation-in-dry-tropical-environment-india
#10
Jitendra Ahirwal, Subodh Kumar Maiti, Ashok Kumar Singh
Open strip mining of coal results in loss of natural carbon (C) sink and increased emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. A field study was carried out at five revegetated coal mine lands (7, 8, 9, 10 and 11years) to assess the impact of the reclamation on soil properties, accretion of soil organic C (SOC) and nitrogen (N) stock, changes in ecosystem C pool and soil CO2 flux. We estimated the presence of C in the tree biomass, soils, litter and microbial biomass to determine the total C sequestration potential of the post mining reclaimed land...
January 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095954/predicting-air-quality-at-first-ingress-into-vehicles-visiting-the-international-space-station
#11
Amelia A Romoser, Robert R Scully, Thomas F Limero, Vanessa De Vera, Patti F Cheng, Jennifer J Hand, John T James, Valerie E Ryder
INTRODUCTION: NASA regularly performs ground-based offgas tests (OGTs), which allow prediction of accumulated volatile pollutant concentrations at first entry on orbit, on whole modules and vehicles scheduled to connect to the International Space Station (ISS). These data guide crew safety operations and allow for estimation of ISS air revitalization systems impact from additional pollutant load. Since volatiles released from vehicle, module, and payload materials can affect crew health and performance, prediction of first ingress air quality is important...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095382/examination-of-anomalous-world-experience-a-report-on-reliability
#12
Joseph Conerty, Borut Skodlar, Elizabeth Pienkos, Tina Zadravek, Greg Byrom, Louis Sass
BACKGROUND: The EAWE (Examination of Anomalous World Experience) is a newly developed, semi-structured interview that aims to capture anomalies of subjectivity, common in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, that pertain to experiences of the lived world, including space, time, people, language, atmosphere, and certain existential attitudes. By contrast, previous empirical studies of subjective experience in schizophrenia have focused largely on disturbances in self-experience. AIM: To assess the reliability of the EAWE, including internal consistency and interrater reliability...
January 18, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094918/mercury-wet-scavenging-and-deposition-differences-by-precipitation-type
#13
Aaron S Kaulfus, Udaysankar S Nair, Christopher D Holmes, William M Landing
We analyze the effect of precipitation type on mercury wet deposition using a new database of individual rain events spanning the contiguous United States. Measurements from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) containing single rainfall events were identified and classified into 6 precipitation types. Mercury concentrations in surface precipitation follow a power law of precipitation depth that is modulated by precipitation system morphology. After controlling for precipitation depth, the highest mercury deposition occurs in supercell thunderstorms with decreasing deposition in disorganized thunderstorms, quasi-linear convective systems (QLCS), extratropical cyclones, light rain and land-falling tropical cyclones...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094798/stable-isotopes-in-the-atmospheric-marine-boundary-layer-water-vapour-over-the-atlantic-ocean-2012-2015
#14
Marion Benetti, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, Gilles Reverdin, Árný Erla Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Giovanni Aloisi, Max B Berkelhammer, Bernard Bourlès, Denis Bourras, Gaëlle de Coetlogon, Ann Cosgrove, Anne-Katrine Faber, Jacques Grelet, Steffen Bo Hansen, Rod Johnson, Hervé Legoff, Nicolas Martin, Andrew J Peters, Trevor James Popp, Thierry Reynaud, Malte Winther
The water vapour isotopic composition ((1)H2(16)O, H2(18)O and (1)H(2)H(16)O) of the Atlantic marine boundary layer has been measured from 5 research vessels between 2012 and 2015. Using laser spectroscopy analysers, measurements have been carried out continuously on samples collected 10-20 meter above sea level. All the datasets have been carefully calibrated against the international VSMOW-SLAP scale following the same protocol to build a homogeneous dataset covering the Atlantic Ocean between 4°S to 63°N...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094045/quantification-of-user-and-manufacturer-variabilities-in-urinary-catheter-anchoring-balloon-inflation-and-mitigation-of-variability-by-flow-resistance
#15
Niall F Davis, Eoghan M Cunnane, Rory C Mooney, Rustom P Manecksha, John A Thornhill, Michael T Walsh
OBJECTIVE: To quantify user variability and manufacturer variability in urinary catheter anchoring balloon inflation pressure and to mitigate any significant variance by incorporating flow resistance into the anchoring balloon inflation process. METHODS: Inflation of a urinary catheter anchoring balloon was performed at atmospheric pressure by different users (n = 8) to investigate user variability. A calibrated pressure transducer measured inflation pressures, and a video extensometer measured balloon inflation profiles...
January 13, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093779/reaching-multi-nanosecond-timescales-in-combined-qm-mm-molecular-dynamics-simulations-through-parallel-horsetail-sampling
#16
Marilia T C Martins-Costa, Manuel F Ruiz-López
We report an enhanced sampling technique that allows to reach the multi-nanosecond timescale in quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics simulations. The proposed technique, called horsetail sampling, is a specific type of multiple molecular dynamics approach exhibiting high parallel efficiency. It couples a main simulation with a large number of shorter trajectories launched on independent processors at periodic time intervals. The technique is applied to study hydrogen peroxide at the water liquid-vapor interface, a system of considerable atmospheric relevance...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092919/compensatory-water-effects-link-yearly-global-land-co2-sink-changes-to-temperature
#17
Martin Jung, Markus Reichstein, Christopher R Schwalm, Chris Huntingford, Stephen Sitch, Anders Ahlström, Almut Arneth, Gustau Camps-Valls, Philippe Ciais, Pierre Friedlingstein, Fabian Gans, Kazuhito Ichii, Atul K Jain, Etsushi Kato, Dario Papale, Ben Poulter, Botond Raduly, Christian Rödenbeck, Gianluca Tramontana, Nicolas Viovy, Ying-Ping Wang, Ulrich Weber, Sönke Zaehle, Ning Zeng
Large interannual variations in the measured growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) originate primarily from fluctuations in carbon uptake by land ecosystems. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent temperature and water availability control the carbon balance of land ecosystems across spatial and temporal scales. Here we use empirical models based on eddy covariance data and process-based models to investigate the effect of changes in temperature and water availability on gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at local and global scales...
January 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092834/computational-exploration-of-regioselectivity-and-atmospheric-lifetime-in-no3-initiated-reactions-of-ch3och3-and-ch3och2ch3
#18
Jin-Ting Ye, Feng-Yang Bai, Shao-Qing Shi, Xiu-Mei Pan
The NO3-initiated reactions of CH3OCH3 and CH3OCH2CH3 have been investigated by the BHandHLYP method in conjunction with the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Thermodynamic and kinetic data are further refined using the comparatively accurate CCSD(T) method. According to the values of reaction enthalpies (ΔHr,298(θ)) and reaction Gibbs free energies (ΔGr,298(θ)) from CH3OCH2CH3 with NO3 system, we find that H-abstraction pathway from the α-CH2 group is more exothermic. It is further confirmed by the calculated CH bond dissociation energy of CH3OCH2CH3 molecule...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092812/%C3%AE-14-co2-from-dark-respiration-in-plants-and-its-impact-on-the-estimation-of-atmospheric-fossil-fuel-co2
#19
Xiaohu Xiong, Weijian Zhou, Peng Cheng, Shugang Wu, Zhenchuan Niu, Hua Du, Xuefeng Lu, Yunchong Fu, George S Burr
Radiocarbon ((14)C) has been widely used for quantification of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) in the atmosphere and for ecosystem source partitioning studies. The strength of the technique lies in the intrinsic differences between the (14)C signature of fossil fuels and other sources. In past studies, the (14)C content of CO2 derived from plants has been equated with the (14)C content of the atmosphere. Carbon isotopic fractionation mechanisms vary among plants however, and experimental study on fractionation associated with dark respiration is lacking...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092767/effects-of-oil-dispersant-on-ozone-oxidation-of-phenanthrene-and-pyrene-in-marine-water
#20
Yanyan Gong, Dongye Zhao
This work investigated effects of a popular oil dispersant (Corexit EC9500A) on oxidation of phenanthrene and pyrene (two model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in Gulf coast seawater under simulated atmospheric ozone. The degradation data followed a two-stage pseudo-first order kinetics, a slower initial reaction rate followed by a much faster rate in longer time. The ozonation rate for pyrene was faster than that for phenanthrene. The presence of 18 and 180 mg/L of the dispersant inhibited the first-order degradation rate by 32-80% for phenanthrene, and 51-85% for pyrene...
January 4, 2017: Chemosphere
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