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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334623/an-alternative-carrier-solvent-for-fingermark-enhancement-reagents
#1
Izabela Olszowska, Paul Deacon, Maurice Lindsay, Adam Leśniewski, Joanna Niedziółka-Jönsson, Kevin Farrugia
Solstice® Performance Fluid (PF), trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene, is presented as an alternative to HFE7100, methoxy-nonafluorobutane, as a carrier solvent in a number of chemical formulations used for the visualisation of latent fingermarks. The supply of HFE7100 may be at risk due to a recent European Union regulation to control global warming. Laboratory trials using split depletions and a pseudo-operational trial of 1000 porous samples have shown that Solstice® PF is a viable alternative to HFE7100 for the chemical formulations of ninhydrin and 1,2-indanedione...
December 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334619/comparisons-between-a-new-point-kernel-based-scheme-and-the-infinite-plane-source-assumption-method-for-radiation-calculation-of-deposited-airborne-radionuclides-from-nuclear-power-plants
#2
Xiaole Zhang, George Efthimiou, Yan Wang, Meng Huang
Radiation from the deposited radionuclides is indispensable information for environmental impact assessment of nuclear power plants and emergency management during nuclear accidents. Ground shine estimation is related to multiple physical processes, including atmospheric dispersion, deposition, soil and air radiation shielding. It still remains unclear that whether the normally adopted "infinite plane" source assumption for the ground shine calculation is accurate enough, especially for the area with highly heterogeneous deposition distribution near the release point...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334083/solvated-electron-production-using-cyanocuprates-is-compatible-with-the-uv-environment-on-a-hadean-archaean-earth
#3
Zoe R Todd, Albert C Fahrenbach, Christopher J Magnani, Sukrit Ranjan, Anders Björkbom, Jack W Szostak, Dimitar D Sasselov
UV-driven photoredox processing of cyanocuprates can generate simple sugars necessary for prebiotic synthesis. We investigate the wavelength dependence of this process from 215 to 295 nm and generally observe faster rates at shorter wavelengths. The most efficient wavelengths are accessible to a range of potential prebiotic atmospheres, supporting the potential role of cyanocuprate photochemistry in prebiotic synthesis on the early Earth.
January 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333607/arabidopsis-mlo2-is-a-negative-regulator-of-sensitivity-to-extracellular-ros
#4
Fuqiang Cui, Hongpo Wu, Omid Safronov, Panpan Zhang, Rajeev Kumar, Hannes Kollist, Jarkko Salojärvi, Ralph Panstruga, Kirk Overmyer
The atmospheric pollutant ozone (O3 ) is a strong oxidant that causes extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, has significant ecological relevance, and is used here as a non-invasive ROS inducer to study plant signalling. Previous genetic screens identified several mutants exhibiting enhanced O3- sensitivity, but few with enhanced tolerance. We found that loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis MLO2, a gene implicated in susceptibility to powdery mildew disease, exhibit enhanced dose-dependent tolerance to O3 and extracellular ROS, but a normal response to intracellular ROS...
January 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333198/response-of-pacific-sector-antarctic-ice-shelves-to-the-el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation
#5
F S Paolo, L Padman, H A Fricker, S Adusumilli, S Howard, M R Siegfried
Satellite observations over the past two decades have revealed increasing loss of grounded ice in West Antarctica, associated with floating ice shelves that have been thinning. Thinning reduces an ice-shelf's ability to restrain grounded-ice discharge, yet our understanding of the climate processes that drive mass changes is limited. Here, we use ice-shelf height data from four satellite altimeter missions (1994-2017) to show a direct link between ice-shelf-height variability in the Antarctic Pacific sector and changes in regional atmospheric circulation driven by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation...
January 2018: Nature Geoscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332998/high-pressure-epr-spectroscopy-studies-of-the-e-coli-lipopolysaccharide-transport-proteins-lpta-and-lptc
#6
Kathryn M Schultz, Candice S Klug
The use of pressure is an advantageous approach to the study of protein structure and dynamics because it can shift the equilibrium populations of protein conformations toward higher energy states that are not of sufficient population to be observable at atmospheric pressure. Recently, the Hubbell group at the University of California, Los Angeles, reintroduced the application of high pressure to the study of proteins by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. This methodology is possible using X-band EPR spectroscopy due to advances in pressure intensifiers, sample cells, and resonators...
December 2017: Applied Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332834/direct-inlet-probe-ion-mobility-spectrometry
#7
Andriy Kuklya, Lokman Coban, Florian Uteschil, Klaus Kerpen, Ursula Telgheder
Direct inlet probe (DIP) was used as an introduction and a pre-separation step for atmospheric pressure photoionization time-of-flight ion mobility spectrometry (APPI-TOF-IMS) for the first time. IMS is an analytical technique used to separate and identify ionized molecules in the gas phase and under atmospheric pressure based on their mobility. The utilization of DIP prior to IMS gives the possibility to introduce the analytes into the gas phase and provides an additional separation based on their vapor pressure...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332807/preliminary-survey-of-matrix-effects-in-the-microwave-sustained-inductively-coupled-atmospheric-pressure-plasma-micap
#8
Klemens M Thaler, Andrew J Schwartz, Christoph Haisch, Reinhard Niessner, Gary M Hieftje
Matrix effects caused by Na and Al in the nitrogen Microwave-sustained, Inductively Coupled, Atmospheric-pressure Plasma (MICAP) were investigated. Easily ionizable elements, such as Na, can suppress or enhance the analyte signal; Al is shown here to produce a similar effect. The influence of these matrices was examined for 18 emission lines of 8 analyte atoms and ions having a wide range of excitation and ionization energies. The plasma operating conditions were fixed during all experiments at a total nitrogen flow of 19...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332796/direct-olive-oil-analysis-by-mass-spectrometry-a-comparison-of-different-ambient-ionization-methods
#9
Felipe J Lara-Ortega, Miriam Beneito-Cambra, José Robles-Molina, Juan F García-Reyes, Bienvenida Gilbert-López, Antonio Molina-Díaz
Analytical methods based on ambient ionization mass spectrometry (AIMS) combine the classic outstanding performance of mass spectrometry in terms of sensitivity and selectivity along with convenient features related to the lack of sample workup required. In this work, the performance of different mass spectrometry-based methods has been assessed for the direct analyses of virgin olive oil for quality purposes. Two sets of experiments have been setup: (1) direct analysis of untreated olive oil using AIMS methods such as Low-Temperature Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LTP-MS) or paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS); or alternatively (2) the use of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) mass spectrometry by direct infusion of a diluted sample through either atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or electrospray (ESI) ionization sources...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332388/immersion-and-contact-efflorescence-induced-by-mineral-dust-particles
#10
Shuichi B Ushijima, Ryan D Davis, Margaret A Tolbert
The phase state of inorganic salt aerosols impacts their properties including the ability to undergo hygroscopic growth, catalyze heterogeneous reactions, and act as cloud condensation nuclei. Here, we report the first observation of contact efflorescence by mineral dust aerosol. The efflorescence of aqueous ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and sodium chloride (NaCl) droplets by contact with three types of mineral dust particles (illite, montmorillonite, and NX Illite), were examined using an optical levitation chamber...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331219/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-soils-and-lichen-from-the-western-tibetan-plateau-concentration-profiles-distribution-and-its-influencing-factors
#11
Ruichen Zhou, Ruiqiang Yang, Chuanyong Jing
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a huge area and rarely affected by human activity, and is regarded as one of the most remote regions on the earth. Many studies about the long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were conducted in southern and central TP. However, there are very limited studies focused on PAHs in the western TP and the concentrations profiles, distribution and its controlling factors in this area remains unclear. Thus, to explore this knowledge gap, 37 surface soil samples and 23 lichen samples were collected and analyzed for PAHs...
January 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331102/opposite-sex-relationship-questionnaire-for-female-adolescents-development-and-psychometric-evolution
#12
Masoumeh Sibmar, Nasim Bahrami, AbouAli Vedadhir, Hamid Alavi Majd, Averil Parker
Aim The goal of the present study is to adopt state-of-the-art techniques and standards to develop and evaluate a measure, called the opposite-sex relationship questionnaire for female adolescents (OSRQFA), to assess the reasons why adolescent girls would or would not develop, a relationship with an adolescent boy. Methods A mixed-method, sequential, exploratory design was adopted. In the qualitative phase, an in-depth interview approach was used to identify the properties and dimensions to be included in the OSRQFA...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330985/medical-students-perceptions-of-their-learning-environment-at-lahore-medical-and-dental-college-lahore
#13
Uzma Zafar, Seema Daud, Qamar Shakoor, Abdul Majeed Chaudhry, Fahad Naser, Mehreen Mushtaq
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to assess medical students' perceptions of their learning environment at Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore. METHODS: It was a crosssectional descriptive study conducted at Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore. Five hundred and thirty-three students participated in this study. A questionnaire was used as a study tool, comprising of demographic information and the 'Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure' (DREEM) inventory...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330602/ecosystem-carbon-emissions-from-2015-forest-fires-in-interior-alaska
#14
Christopher Potter
BACKGROUND: In the summer of 2015, hundreds of wildfires burned across the state of Alaska, and consumed more than 1.6 million ha of boreal forest and wetlands in the Yukon-Koyukuk region. Mapping of 113 large wildfires using Landsat satellite images from before and after 2015 indicated that nearly 60% of this area was burned at moderate-to-high severity levels. Field measurements near the town of Tanana on the Yukon River were carried out in July of 2017 in both unburned and 2015 burned forested areas (nearly adjacent to one-another) to visually verify locations of different Landsat burn severity classes (low, moderate, or high; LBS, MBS, HBS)...
January 8, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330538/flux-of-the-biogenic-volatiles-isoprene-and-dimethyl-sulfide-from-an-oligotrophic-lake
#15
Michael Steinke, Bettina Hodapp, Rameez Subhan, Thomas G Bell, Dominik Martin-Creuzburg
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) affect atmospheric chemistry, climate and regional air quality in terrestrial and marine atmospheres. Although isoprene is a major BVOC produced in vascular plants, and marine phototrophs release dimethyl sulfide (DMS), lakes have been widely ignored for their production. Here we demonstrate that oligotrophic Lake Constance, a model for north temperate deep lakes, emits both volatiles to the atmosphere. Depth profiles indicated that highest concentrations of isoprene and DMS were associated with the chlorophyll maximum, suggesting that their production is closely linked to phototrophic processes...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330526/relationship-among-land-surface-temperature-and-lucc-ndvi-in-typical-karst-area
#16
Yuanhong Deng, Shijie Wang, Xiaoyong Bai, Yichao Tian, Luhua Wu, Jianyong Xiao, Fei Chen, Qinghuan Qian
Land surface temperature (LST) can reflect the land surface water-heat exchange process comprehensively, which is considerably significant to the study of environmental change. However, research about LST in karst mountain areas with complex topography is scarce. Therefore, we retrieved the LST in a karst mountain area from Landsat 8 data and explored its relationships with LUCC and NDVI. The results showed that LST of the study area was noticeably affected by altitude and underlying surface type. In summer, abnormal high-temperature zones were observed in the study area, perhaps due to karst rocky desertification...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330506/impact-of-wave-whitecapping-on-land-falling-tropical-cyclones
#17
Nicolas Bruneau, Ralf Toumi, Shuai Wang
Predicting tropical cyclone structure and evolution remains challenging. Particularly, the surface wave interactions with the continental shelf and their impact on tropical cyclones have received very little attention. Through a series of state-of-the-art high-resolution, fully-coupled ocean-wave and atmosphere-ocean-wave experiments, we show here, for the first time, that in presence of continental shelf waves can cause substantial cooling of the sea surface. Through whitecapping there is a transfer of momentum from the surface which drives deeper vertical mixing...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330495/large-unexplained-suite-of-chemically-reactive-compounds-present-in-ambient-air-due-to-biomass-fires
#18
V Kumar, B P Chandra, V Sinha
Biomass fires impact global atmospheric chemistry. The reactive compounds emitted and formed due to biomass fires drive ozone and organic aerosol formation, affecting both air quality and climate. Direct hydroxyl (OH) Reactivity measurements quantify total gaseous reactive pollutant loadings and comparison with measured compounds yields the fraction of unmeasured compounds. Here, we quantified the magnitude and composition of total OH reactivity in the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plain. More than 120% increase occurred in total OH reactivity (28 s-1 to 64 s-1) and from no missing OH reactivity in the normal summertime air, the missing OH reactivity fraction increased to ~40 % in the post-harvest summertime period influenced by large scale biomass fires highlighting presence of unmeasured compounds...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329203/thermoelectric-mixed-thick-thin-film-microgenerators-based-on-constantan-silver
#19
Mirosław Gierczak, Joanna Prażmowska-Czajka, Andrzej Dziedzic
This paper describes the design, manufacturing and characterization of newly developed mixed thick-/thin film thermoelectric microgenerators based on magnetron sputtered constantan (copper-nickel alloy) and screen-printed silver layers. The thermoelectric microgenerator consists of sixteen thermocouples made on a 34.2 × 27.5 × 0.25 mm³ alumina substrate. One of thermocouple arms was made of magnetron-sputtered constantan (Cu-Ni alloy), the second was a Ag-based screen-printed film. The length of each thermocouple arm was equal to 27 mm, and their width 0...
January 12, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329037/phloem-function-a-key-to-understanding-and-manipulating-plant-responses-to-rising-atmospheric-co2
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Pauline Lemonnier
Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) directly stimulates photosynthesis and reduces stomatal conductance in C3 plants. Both of these physiological effects have the potential to alter phloem function at elevated [CO2]. Recent research has clearly established that photosynthetic capacity is correlated to vascular traits associated with phloem loading and water transport, but the effects of elevated [CO2] on these relationships are largely unexplored. Plants also employ different strategies for loading sucrose and other sugars into the phloem, and there is potential for species with different phloem loading strategies to respond differently to elevated [CO2]...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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