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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926758/some-aspects-of-the-iodine-metabolism-of-the-giant-kelp-macrocystis-pyrifera-phaeophyceae
#1
Teresa M Tymon, Eric P Miller, Jennifer L Gonzales, Andrea Raab, Frithjof C Küpper, Carl J Carrano
Despite its paramount role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems, relatively little is known about halogen metabolism in giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). This is an important shortcoming given the potential implications for marine and atmospheric chemical processes in the wide distribution range of Macrocystis. The work presented here constitutes the first in depth investigation of the uptake, efflux, and of the physiological function of iodide in this important kelp species. Iodide uptake and efflux rates were measured in adult sporophytes of Macrocystis under normal and stressed (exogenous hydrogen peroxide and an elicitor-triggered oxidative burst) conditions...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926710/structure-vibrational-frequencies-and-bond-energies-of-the-brhgox-and-brhgxo-species-formed-in-atmospheric-mercury-depletion-events
#2
Yuge Jiao, Theodore Simon Dibble
Photochemistry during the polar Spring leads to atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs): Hg(0), which typically lives for months in the atmosphere, can experience losses of more than 90% in less than a day. These dramatic losses are known to be initiated largely by Br + Hg + M → BrHg• + M, but the fate of BrHg• is a matter of guesswork. It is believed that BrHg• largely reacts with halogen oxides, XO (X = Cl, Br, and I) to form BrHgOX compounds, but these species have never been studied experimentally...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926226/correlation-between-dissolved-protons-in-nickel-doped-bazr0-1ce0-7y0-1yb0-1o3-%C3%AE-and-its-electrical-conductive-properties
#3
Tomohiro Ishiyama, Haruo Kishimoto, Katherine Develos-Bagarinao, Katsuhiko Yamaji, Toshiaki Yamaguchi, Yoshinobu Fujishiro
The electrical conductivity of nickel (2 wt %)-doped BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1Yb0.1O3-δ (BZCYYb) acceptor-doped perovskite oxide was evaluated under air and a 1% H2 atmosphere. The partial conductivity was calculated from the total conductivity and the transport number of each carrier (tH(+), tO(2-), and th(+)) obtained using the concentration cell method. Its correlation with the dissolution state of the protons in the oxide as studied by in situ diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is discussed...
September 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926196/a-strategy-for-simultaneous-synthesis-of-methallyl-alcohol-and-diethyl-acetal-with-sn-%C3%AE
#4
Wenda Hu, Yan Wan, Lili Zhu, Xiaojie Cheng, Shaolong Wan, Jingdong Lin, Yong Wang
Herein we report a strategy to simultaneously produce two important chemicals namely Methallyl alcohol (Mol) and diethyl acetal (Dal) from methacrolein (Mal) in ethanol solvent at low temperature with the use of Beta zeolites modified by tin (Sn-β catalysts). All Sn-β catalysts were prepared by the solid-state ion-exchange (SSIE) method, wherein the calcination step was conducted in different gas atmospheres. The one pre-calcined in Ar (Sn-β-Ar) diminishes the number of extra-framework Sn species and instead enables more Sn species exchanged into the framework as isolated tetrahedral Sn (IV), thus enhancing the catalytic activity of Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley (MPV) reaction...
September 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925941/cold-atmospheric-plasma-in-the-treatment-of-osteosarcoma
#5
REVIEW
Denis Gümbel, Sander Bekeschus, Nadine Gelbrich, Matthias Napp, Axel Ekkernkamp, Axel Kramer, Matthias B Stope
Human osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor occurring most commonly in adolescents and young adults. Major improvements in disease-free survival have been achieved by implementing a combination therapy consisting of radical surgical resection of the tumor and systemic multi-agent chemotherapy. However, long-term survival remains poor, so novel targeted therapies to improve outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma remains an area of active research. This includes immunotherapy, photodynamic therapy, or treatment with nanoparticles...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925922/fabricating-tio2-nanocolloids-by-electric-spark-discharge-method-at-normal-temperature-and-pressure
#6
Kuo-Hsiung Tseng, Chaur-Yang Chang, Meng-Yun Chung, Ting-Shou Cheng
In this study, TiO2 nanocolloids were successfully fabricated in deionized water without using suspending agents through using the electric spark discharge method at room temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure. This method was exceptional because it did not create nanoparticle dispersion and the produced colloids contained no derivatives. The proposed method requires only traditional electrical discharge machines (EDMs), self-made magnetic stirrers, and Ti wires (purity, 99.99%). The EDM pulse on time (Ton) and pulse off Time (Toff) were respectively set at 50 and 100 s, 100 and 100 s, 150 and 100 s, and 200 and 100 s to produce four types of TiO2 nanocolloids...
September 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925557/analysis-of-multiple-haloarchaeal-genomes-suggests-that-the-quinone-dependent-respiratory-nitric-oxide-reductase-is-an-important-source-of-nitrous-oxide-in-hypersaline-environments
#7
Javier Torregrosa-Crespo, Pedro González-Torres, Vanesa Bautista, Julia M Esclapez, Carmen Pire, Mónica Camacho, María José Bonete, David J Richardson, Nicholas J Watmough, Rosa María Martínez-Espinosa
Microorganisms, including Bacteria and Archaea, play a key role in denitrification, which is the major mechanism by which fixed nitrogen returns to the atmosphere from soil and water. Whilst the enzymology of denitrification is well understood in Bacteria, the details of the last two reactions in this pathway, which catalyse the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) via nitrous oxide (N2 O) to nitrogen (N2 ), are little studied in Archaea, and hardly at all in haloarchaea. This work describes an extensive interspecies analysis of both complete and draft haloarchaeal genomes aimed at identifying the genes that encode respiratory nitric oxide reductases (Nors)...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924862/personal-inhalation-exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-their-nitro-derivatives-in-rural-residents-in-northern-thailand
#8
Walaiporn Orakij, Thaneeya Chetiyanukornkul, Thanyarat Chuesaard, Yuichi Kaganoi, Waka Uozaki, Chiharu Homma, Yaowatat Boongla, Ning Tang, Kazuichi Hayakawa, Akira Toriba
A personal inhalation exposure and cancer risk assessment of rural residents in Lampang, Thailand, was conducted for the first time. This highlighted important factors that may be associated with the highest areal incidence of lung cancer. Personal exposure of rural residents to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro-derivatives (NPAHs) through inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated in addition to stationary air sampling in an urban area. The personal exposure of the subjects to PM2...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924618/optical-studies-of-the-solution-phase-reduction-and-stabilization-of-indigo-tetrasulfonate-in-polyelectrolyte-complexes
#9
Becca Hoene, Dion Rivera
Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy have been used to characterize the polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) formed when potassium indigo tetrasulfonate (ITS) interacts with poly diallydimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) through columbic attraction in the presence of the reducing agent sodium bisulfite, NaHSO3. The PDADMAC facilitates both the reduction of the ITS and the stabilization of the reduced state of the ITS in an atmospheric oxygen environment. Dilutions of the dye solution show that the PEC is stable to dilutions of at least 1 to 1000...
September 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924606/active-pacific-meridional-overturning-circulation-pmoc-during-the-warm-pliocene
#10
Natalie J Burls, Alexey V Fedorov, Daniel M Sigman, Samuel L Jaccard, Ralf Tiedemann, Gerald H Haug
An essential element of modern ocean circulation and climate is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which includes deep-water formation in the subarctic North Atlantic. However, a comparable overturning circulation is absent in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean, where relatively fresh surface waters inhibit North Pacific deep convection. We present complementary measurement and modeling evidence that the warm, ~400-ppmv (parts per million by volume) CO2 world of the Pliocene supported subarctic North Pacific deep-water formation and a Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) cell...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923996/predicting-the-nature-of-supernova-progenitors
#11
REVIEW
Jose H Groh
Stars more massive than about 8 solar masses end their lives as a supernova (SN), an event of fundamental importance Universe-wide. The physical properties of massive stars before the SN event are very uncertain, both from theoretical and observational perspectives. In this article, I briefly review recent efforts to predict the nature of stars before death, in particular, by performing coupled stellar evolution and atmosphere modelling of single stars in the pre-SN stage. These models are able to predict the high-resolution spectrum and broadband photometry, which can then be directly compared with the observations of core-collapse SN progenitors...
October 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923957/correction-for-ji-et-al-reassessing-the-atmospheric-oxidation-mechanism-of-toluene
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923923/hydrologic-regulation-of-plant-rooting-depth
#13
Ying Fan, Gonzalo Miguez-Macho, Esteban G Jobbágy, Robert B Jackson, Carlos Otero-Casal
Plant rooting depth affects ecosystem resilience to environmental stress such as drought. Deep roots connect deep soil/groundwater to the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrologic cycle and climate. Deep roots enhance bedrock weathering, thus regulating the long-term carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Here, we present a global synthesis of 2,200 root observations of >1,000 species along biotic (life form, genus) and abiotic (precipitation, soil, drainage) gradients. Results reveal strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage)...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923752/anthropogenic-and-geogenic-mass-input-of-trace-elements-to-moss-and-natural-surface-soil-in-norway
#14
Erik R Christensen, Eiliv Steinnes, Ola Anfin Eggen
Data sets for concentrations of up to 22 elements including Pb, Cd, Ag, As, and Hg and several rare earth elements (REEs) in moss and surface soil from all over mainland Norway are analyzed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal component analysis (PCA) with centered log-ratio transformation. Moss and soil samples collected in 2010 and 2005, respectively, show both a distinct long-range atmospheric transport PMF factor including a dominant Pb loading along with smaller loadings of Mo, Cd, Sb, and As, and a geogenic factor dominated by Ce, La, and Y...
September 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923742/effects-of-calcination-temperature-and-heating-rate-on-the-photocatalytic-properties-of-zno-prepared-by-pyrolysis
#15
Lingling He, Zhifang Tong, Zhonghua Wang, Ming Chen, Ni Huang, Wei Zhang
A series of ZnO nanorods were prepared by pyrolysis of zinc acetate at different calcination temperatures and heating rates under ambient atmosphere. The as-prepared ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic performances of the ZnO nanorods were evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The morphology, optical property, surface composition, and photocatalytic performance of the ZnO samples were affected by both calcination temperature and heating rate...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923140/working-memory-capacity-and-surgical-performance-while-exposed-to-mild-hypoxic-hypoxemia
#16
Paul J Parker, Andrew J Manley, Ross Shand, John P O'Hara, Adrian Mellor
INTRODUCTION: Medical Emergency Response Team (MERT) helicopters fly at altitudes of 3000 m in Afghanistan (9843 ft). Civilian hospitals and disaster-relief surgical teams may have to operate at such altitudes or even higher. Mild hypoxia has been seen to affect the performance of novel tasks at flight levels as low as 5000 ft. Aeromedical teams frequently work in unpressurized environments; it is important to understand the implications of this mild hypoxia and investigate whether supplementary oxygen systems are required for some or all of the team members...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922714/atmospheric-levels-and-cytotoxicity-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-oxygenated-pahs-in-pm2-5-in-the-beijing-tianjin-hebei-region
#17
Xinyi Niu, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Kin Fai Ho, Yu Huang, Jian Sun, Qiyuan Wang, Yaqing Zhou, Zhuzi Zhao, Junji Cao
The chemical composition of PM2.5 and cellular effects from exposure to fine aerosol extracts were studied for samples collected in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, and Hengshui, China in winter 2015. Effects of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivatives (OPAHs) in PM2.5 on cell cultures were a major focus of the study. Total quantified PAHs and OPAHs at Shijiazhuang and Hengshui were higher than at Beijing and Tianjin, and benz(a)anthracene, chrysene and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were the most abundant species...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922610/symbiosis-of-selected-rhizobium-leguminosarum-bv-viciae-strains-with-diverse-pea-genotypes-effects-on-biological-nitrogen-fixation
#18
Chao Yang, Rosalind Bueckert, Jeff Schoenau, Axel Diederichsen, Hossein Zakeri, Thomas Warkentin
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) can be improved by optimizing the interaction between the rhizobial inoculant and pea (Pisum sativum L.), leading to increased productivity and reduced nitrogen (N) fertilizer use. Eight Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains were used to inoculate super-nodulating pea mutant Rondo-nod3(fix+), hyper-nodulating pea mutant Frisson P88 Sym29, CDC Meadow commercial control, and a non-nodulating mutant Frisson P56 (nod-) to evaluate BNF in a greenhouse assay. Significant differences in strain×cultivar interactions were detected for shoot and root dry weight which ranged from 1...
September 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922412/walker-occupancy-has-an-impact-on-changing-airborne-bacterial-communities-in-an-underground-pedestrian-space-as-small-dust-particles-increased-with-raising-both-temperature-and-humidity
#19
Torahiko Okubo, Takako Osaki, Eriko Nozaki, Akira Uemura, Kouhei Sakai, Mizue Matushita, Junji Matsuo, Shinji Nakamura, Shigeru Kamiya, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Although human occupancy is a source of airborne bacteria, the role of walkers on bacterial communities in built environments is poorly understood. Therefore, we visualized the impact of walker occupancy combined with other factors (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, dust particles) on airborne bacterial features in the Sapporo underground pedestrian space in Sapporo, Japan. Air samples (n = 18; 4,800L/each sample) were collected at 8:00 h to 20:00 h on 3 days (regular sampling) and at early morning / late night (5:50 h to 7:50 h / 22:15 h to 24:45 h) on a day (baseline sampling), and the number of CFUs (colony forming units) OTUs (operational taxonomic units) and other factors were determined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922130/haze-removal-using-radial-basis-function-networks-for-visibility-restoration-applications
#20
Bo-Hao Chen, Shih-Chia Huang, Chian-Ying Li, Sy-Yen Kuo
Restoration of visibility in hazy images is the first relevant step of information analysis in many outdoor computer vision applications. To this aim, the restored image must feature clear visibility with sufficient brightness and visible edges, while avoiding the production of noticeable artifacts. In this paper, we propose a haze removal approach based on the radial basis function (RBF) through artificial neural networks dedicated to effectively removing haze formation while retaining not only the visible edges but also the brightness of restored images...
September 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
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