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Uv light disinfection

Sarah Simmons, Charles Dale, James Holt, Deborah G Passey, Mark Stibich
BACKGROUND: Manual cleaning and disinfection of the operating room (OR) environment may be inadequate due to human error. No-touch technologies, such as pulsed-xenon ultraviolet light (PX-UV), can be used as an adjunct to manual cleaning processes to reduce surface contamination in the OR. This article reports the cumulative results from 23 hospitals across the United States that performed microbiologic validation of PX-UV disinfection after manual cleaning. METHODS: We obtained samples from 732 high-touch surfaces in 136 ORs at 23 hospitals, after manual terminal cleaning, and again after PX-UV disinfection (n = 1464 surface samples)...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Basma A Omran, Hussein N Nassar, Nesreen A Fatthallah, A Hamdy, Einas H El-Shatoury, Nour Sh El-Gendy
AIMS: Since mycosynthesis of metal nanoparticles is advertised as a promising and eco- friendly approach. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the capability of Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404 for mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). METHODS AND RESULTS: One-factor-at-a-time-technique was used to study the effect of different physicochemical parameters; the reaction time, pH, temperature, different stirring rates, illumination and finally the different concentrations of silver nitrate and fungal biomass on the mycosynthesis of AgNPs...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Wanzhong Zhang, Haiyu Huang, Zhiming Sun, Shuilin Zheng, Caihong Yu
The aim of this work was to prepare, characterize and evaluate the potential of novel ZnO/stellerite composite photocatalysts against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). SEM/EDS studies employed to study the surface morphological properties revealed stellerite as the catalysts carrier played a role of dispersant for ZnO nanoparticles. The XRD patterns of the ZnO/stellerite indicated hexagonal crystal structure with 20-30 nm size. It was found that the crystallite size of ZnO/stellerite was much smaller as compared to pure ZnO and increased with increasing ZnO loading amount...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Diego Averaldo Guiguet Leal, Doris Sobral Marques Souza, Karin Silva Caumo, Gislaine Fongaro, Lua Ferreira Panatieri, Maurício Durigan, Marilise Brittes Rott, Célia Regina Monte Barardi, Regina Maura Bueno Franco
Waterborne, food-borne and sewage-borne pathogens are a major global concern, with the annual recurrence, most notably during the summer, of outbreaks of gastroenteritis of unconfirmed etiology associated with recreational activities in marine environments. The consumption of contaminated water-based foodstuffs is also related to outbreaks of human illness. The main goals of the present study were: i) to identify the genetic assemblages of Giardia duodenalis cysts in growing and depurated oysters destined for human consumption on the southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil; ii) to verify the main circulating G...
March 9, 2018: Water Research
Yi Wang, Yang Long, Zhiqing Yang, Dun Zhang
Visible-light-driven (VLD) BiOI/BiOBr heterostructure films with hierarchical microstructure have been firstly fabricated on 304 stainless steel wire mesh (304SSWM) substrates through a novel ion-exchange method using the BiOI film as precursor. The concentration of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) is the key factor to control the composition and microstructure of BiOI/BiOBr films. Physical, chemical, and optical properties of BiOI/BiOBr heterostructure films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high resolution transmittance electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance absorption, and fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
(no author information available yet)
Background: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are infections that patients contract while in the hospital that were neither present nor developing at the time of admission. In Canada an estimated 10% of adults with short-term hospitalization have HAIs. According to 2003 Canadian data, between 4% and 6% of these patients die from these infections. The most common HAIs in Ontario are caused by Clostridium difficile . The standard method of reducing and preventing these infections is decontamination of patient rooms through manual cleaning and disinfection...
2018: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
David Polo, Irene García-Fernández, Pilar Fernández-Ibañez, Jesús L Romalde
This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of solar photo-Fenton systems for the inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in water. The effect of solar irradiance, dark- Fenton reaction and three different reactant concentrations (2.5/5, 5/10 and 10/20 mg/L of Fe2+ /H2 O2 ) on the photo-Fenton process were tested in glass bottle reactors (200 mL) during 6 h under natural sunlight. Disinfection kinetics were determined both by RT-qPCR and infectivity assays. Mean water temperatures ranged from 25 to 27...
February 21, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Charles P Gerba, Walter Q Betancourt, Masaaki Kitajima, Channah M Rock
Treatment of wastewater for potable reuse requires the reduction of enteric viruses to levels that pose no significant risk to human health. Advanced water treatment trains (e.g., chemical clarification, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, advanced oxidation) have been developed to provide reductions of viruses to differing levels of regulatory control depending upon the levels of human exposure and associated health risks. Importance in any assessment is information on the concentration and types of viruses in the untreated wastewater, as well as the degree of removal by each treatment process...
January 29, 2018: Water Research
Kumiko Oguma, Kaori Kanazawa, Ikuro Kasuga, Satoshi Takizawa
Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) are small mercury-free devices that can be installed at the point of use (POU) of water for disinfection. Considering that heterotrophic bacteria are of concern in drinking water systems, we applied a flow-through UV-LED apparatus to dechlorinated tap water, and determined the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) in samples after UV-LED exposure (UV+) compared to samples without UV-LED application (UV-). The UV+ and UV- samples were maintained at 20 °C to track HPC profiles during storage for seven days...
February 2, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Sarah Willach, Holger V Lutze, Kevin Eckey, Katja Löppenberg, Michelle Lüling, Jens-Benjamin Wolbert, Dorothea M Kujawinski, Maik A Jochmann, Uwe Karst, Torsten C Schmidt
The environmental micropollutant sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is susceptible to phototransformation by sunlight and UV-C light which is used for water disinfection. Depending on the environmental pH conditions SMX may be present as neutral or anionic species. This study systematically investigates the phototransformation of these two relevant SMX species using four different irradiation scenarios, i.e., a low, medium, and high pressure Hg lamp and simulated sunlight. The observed phototransformation kinetics are complemented by data from compound-specific stable isotope and transformation product analysis using isotope-ratio and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lei Zhang, Cheng-Gang Niu, Xiao-Ju Wen, Hai Guo, Xiu-Fei Zhao, Da-Wei Huang, Guang-Ming Zeng
Exploring morphology and surface structure of semiconductor photocatalyst is crucial for researching their photocatalytic performance. In this paper, hollow CdS nanospheres (CdS-HSs) were successfully fabricated via simple template self-removal strategy. The prepared CdS-HSs were characterized by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), XPS, photocurrent response (I-T), photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was found that the prepared CdS-HSs have nanoparticles-textured surface composed of ultra-small CdS nanoparticles (∼20 nm) and large surface areas...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Sudheera Yaparatne, Carl P Tripp, Aria Amirbahman
Disinfection by ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a growing trend in public water treatment systems because of its effectiveness with respect to inactivation of protozoa and other pathogenic microorganisms. However, removal of different classes of organic compounds, including taste and odor compounds in water is not effective with UV irradiation. In this study, a novel TiO2 -based immobilized photocatalyst is developed to enhance the UV photodegradation of two of the major taste and odor compounds, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and Geosmin (GSM) in water...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Sara E Beck, Natalie M Hull, Christopher Poepping, Karl G Linden
Adenovirus, a waterborne pathogen responsible for causing bronchitis, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal infections, is highly resistant to UV disinfection and therefore drives the virus disinfection regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Polychromatic UV irradiation has been shown to be more effective at inactivating adenovirus and other viruses than traditional monochromatic irradiation emitted at 254 nm; the enhanced efficacy has been attributed to UV-induced damage to viral proteins. This research shows UV-induced damage to adenoviral proteins across the germicidal UV spectrum at wavelength intervals between 200 and 300 nm...
January 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ram Prakash, Afaque M Hossain, U N Pal, N Kumar, K Khairnar, M Krishna Mohan
A structurally simple dielectric barrier discharge based mercury-free plasma UV-light source has been developed for efficient water disinfection. The source comprises of a dielectric barrier discharge arrangement between two co-axial quartz tubes with an optimized gas gap. The outer electrode is an aluminium baked foil tape arranged in a helical form with optimized pitch, while the inner electrode is a hollow aluminium metallic rod, hermetically sealed. Strong bands peaking at wavelengths 172 nm and 253 nm, along with a weak band peaking at wavelength 265 nm have been simultaneously observed due to plasma radiation from the admixture of xenon and iodine gases...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vincenzo Russotto, Andrea Cortegiani, Teresa Fasciana, Pasquale Iozzo, Santi Maurizio Raineri, Cesare Gregoretti, Anna Giammanco, Antonino Giarratano
Intensive care unit- (ICU-) acquired infections are a major health problem worldwide. Inanimate surfaces and equipment contamination may play a role in cross-transmission of pathogens and subsequent patient colonization or infection. Bacteria contaminate inanimate surfaces and equipment of the patient zone and healthcare area, generating a reservoir of potential pathogens, including multidrug resistant species. Traditional terminal cleaning methods have limitations. Indeed patients who receive a bed from prior patient carrying bacteria are exposed to an increased risk (odds ratio 2...
2017: BioMed Research International
Surapong Rattanakul, Kumiko Oguma
To demonstrate the effectiveness of UV light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) to disinfect water, UV-LEDs at peak emission wavelengths of 265, 280, and 300 nm were adopted to inactivate pathogenic species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila, and surrogate species, including Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis spores, and bacteriophage Qβ in water, compared to conventional low-pressure UV lamp emitting at 254 nm. The inactivation profiles of each species showed either a linear or sigmoidal survival curve, which both fit well with the Geeraerd's model...
March 1, 2018: Water Research
Rania Nassar, Samia Mokh, Ahmad Rifai, Fatmeh Chamas, Maha Hoteit, Mohamad Al Iskandarani
Sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) is an antimicrobial of the sulfonamide class, frequently detected at low levels in drinking and surface water as organic micropollutant. The main goal of the present study is the evaluation of SQX reactivity during chlorination and UV irradiations which are two processes mainly used in water treatment plants. The SQX transformation by chlorination and UV lights (254 nm) was investigated in purified water at common conditions used for water disinfection (pH = 7.2, temperature = 25 °C, [chlorine] = 3 mg L-1 )...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Meiquan Cai, Peizhe Sun, Liqiu Zhang, Ching-Hua Huang
Peracetic acid (PAA) is a widely used disinfectant, and combined UV light with PAA (i.e., UV/PAA) can be a novel advanced oxidation process for elimination of water contaminants. This study is among the first to evaluate the photolysis of PAA under UV irradiation (254 nm) and degradation of pharmaceuticals by UV/PAA. PAA exhibited high quantum yields (Φ254 nm = 1.20 and 2.09 mol·Einstein-1 for the neutral (PAA0 ) and anionic (PAA- ) species, respectively) and also showed scavenging effects on hydroxyl radicals (k • OH/PAA0 = (9...
December 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jialiang Liang, Jun Deng, Fuyang Liu, Mian Li, Meiping Tong
Bi2MoO6-AgBr hybrid photocatalyst was synthesized via a mixed solvothermal-precipitation method. The as-synthesized photocatalysts were well characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), as well as photoluminescence spectra (PL). The visible light driven (VLD) disinfection activity of Bi2MoO6-AgBr was tested using Escherichia coli as the model bacteria...
November 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
John Gibson, Jennifer Drake, Bryan Karney
Municipal wastewater contains bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens that adversely affect the environment, human health, and economic activity. One way to mitigate these effects is a final disinfection step using ultraviolet light (UVL). The advantages of UVL disinfection, when compared to the more traditional chlorine, include no chlorinated by-products, no chemical residual, and relatively compact size. The design of most UV reactors is complex. It involves lamp selection, power supply design, optics, and hydraulics...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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