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Suicide risk assessment

Marcos DelPozo-Banos, Ann John, Nicolai Petkov, Damon Mark Berridge, Kate Southern, Keith LLoyd, Caroline Jones, Sarah Spencer, Carlos Manuel Travieso
BACKGROUND: Each year, approximately 800,000 people die by suicide worldwide, accounting for 1-2 in every 100 deaths. It is always a tragic event with a huge impact on family, friends, the community and health professionals. Unfortunately, suicide prevention and the development of risk assessment tools have been hindered by the complexity of the underlying mechanisms and the dynamic nature of a person's motivation and intent. Many of those who die by suicide had contact with health services in the preceding year but identifying those most at risk remains a challenge...
June 22, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Manjula Weerasinghe, Flemming Konradsen, Michael Eddleston, Melissa Pearson, Shaluka Jayamanne, David Gunnell, Keith Hawton, Suneth Agampodi
BACKGROUND: In South Asia, up to one in five individuals who use pesticides for self-harm purchase them immediately prior to the event. AIMS: From reviewing the literature we proposed four interventions: (a) farmer identification cards (ID); (b) prescriptions; (c) cooling-off periods; and (d) training pesticide vendors. We aimed to identify the most promising intervention. METHOD: The study was conducted in Sri Lanka. We mapped stakeholders' interest and power in relation to each intervention, and followed this by a ranking exercise...
June 21, 2018: Crisis
Sarah E Victor, Elisha David Klonsky
OBJECTIVE: Research investigating the social context of adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been limited. We therefore examined social characteristics of NSSI, such as knowledge of friends' NSSI and the role friends play in continuing NSSI, and their relationships to other known NSSI correlates, such as suicidality. METHOD: We assessed NSSI characteristics, including social features, in a community sample of 89 self-injuring adolescents. We also assessed psychosocial correlates of NSSI, including impulsivity, self-concept, and psychiatric symptoms...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Ali Bani-Fatemi, Samia Tasmim, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Philip Gerretsen, John Strauss, Nathan Kolla, Gianfranco Spalletta, Vincenzo De Luca
Brain imaging is a non-invasive and in vivo direct estimation of detailed brain structure, regional brain functioning and estimation of molecular processes in the brain. The main objective of this review was to analyze functional and structural neuroimaging studies of individuals at risk for suicide. We reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2018, indexed in PubMed and Medline, assessing structural and functional alterations of the brain of individuals at high risk for suicide and at low risk for suicide...
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
M Canal-Rivero, J D López-Moríñigo, E Setién-Suero, M Ruiz-Veguilla, J L Ayuso-Mateos, R Ayesa-Arriola, B Crespo-Facorro
BACKGROUND: Suicide has been recognised as one of the major causes of premature death in psychosis. However, predicting suicidal behaviour (SB) is still challenging in the clinical setting and the association of neurocognition with SB in psychosis remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of neurocognitive performance as predictor of SB. Also, we sought to explore differences in the evolution of clinical and neurocognitive functioning between participants with/without history of suicide attempts (SA) over follow-up period...
June 18, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Christine B Cha, Rory C O'Connor, Olivia Kirtley, Seonaid Cleare, Karen Wetherall, Sarah Eschle, Katherine M Tezanos, Matthew K Nock
To what extent are death- and life-oriented psychological processes among suicidal individuals activated by mood? According to Teasdale's (1988) Differential Activation Hypothesis , we would expect that negative mood-activated psychological processes are maladaptive among suicide ideators (vs. non-ideators) and predictive of subsequent suicidal ideation. This, however, has never been prospectively studied. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a prospective study assessing psychological risk factors via the Death/Life Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Suicide Stroop task before and after a temporary negative mood induction...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Tim Bullman, Aaron Schneiderman, Jaimie L Gradus
OBJECTIVE: Research has demonstrated that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Vietnam veterans is associated with increased risk of suicide. It is also widely reported that suicide is related to depression. This study examined the effect of PTSD and depression on risk of suicide among a cohort of Vietnam veterans. METHOD: All study subjects were selected from the Department of Veterans Affairs Agent Orange Registry. Suicide risk associated with PTSD was first assessed by comparing the number of suicides among a cohort of 2,874 veterans with PTSD to that of 8,537 veterans not diagnosed with PTSD...
June 21, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Robert M Post, Lori L Altshuler, Ralph Kupka, Susan L McElroy, Mark A Frye, Michael Rowe, Heinz Grunze, Trisha Suppes, Paul E Keck, Gabriele S Leverich, Willem A Nolen
INTRODUCTION: Instead of the typical assessment of risk of illness in the offspring based on a parent with bipolar disorder, we explored the potential multigenerational conveyance across several disorders of the vulnerability to illness in the offspring of a patient with bipolar disorder. METHODS: A total of 968 outpatients (average age 41 years) with bipolar illness gave informed consent and filled out a detailed questionnaire about a family history in their parents, grandparents, and offspring of: depression; bipolar disorder; alcohol abuse; substance abuse; suicide attempt; or "other" illness...
June 21, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Mark Olfson, Stephen Crystal, Melanie Wall, Shuai Wang, Shang-Min Liu, Carlos Blanco
Importance: A recent increase in patients presenting with nonfatal opioid overdoses has focused clinical attention on characterizing their risks of premature mortality. Objective: To describe all-cause mortality rates, selected cause-specific mortality rates, and standardized mortality rate ratios (SMRs) of adults during their first year after nonfatal opioid overdose. Design, Setting, and Participants: This US national longitudinal study assesses a cohort of patients aged 18 to 64 years who were Medicaid beneficiaries and experienced nonfatal opioid overdoses...
June 20, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Elizabeth McCauley, Michele S Berk, Joan R Asarnow, Molly Adrian, Judith Cohen, Kathyrn Korslund, Claudia Avina, Jennifer Hughes, Melanie Harned, Robert Gallop, Marsha M Linehan
Importance: Suicide is a leading cause of death among 10- to 24-year-old individuals in the United States; evidence on effective treatment for adolescents who engage in suicidal and self-harm behaviors is limited. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) compared with individual and group supportive therapy (IGST) for reducing suicide attempts, nonsuicidal self-injury, and overall self-harm among high-risk youths. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted from January 1, 2012, through August 31, 2014, at 4 academic medical centers...
June 20, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Steven Pham, Giovanna Porta, Candice Biernesser, Monica Walker Payne, Satish Iyengar, Nadine Melhem, David A Brent
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the long-term impact of sudden parental death on youths and pathways between youth bereavement and impairment. METHODS: Youths (N=216) who lost a parent to suicide, accident, or sudden natural death and nonbereaved youths (N=172) were followed periodically for up to 7 years. The incidence and prevalence of disorder and of functional impairment, as well as pathways to impairment, were assessed using Cox and mixed-effects logistic regression and structural equation modeling...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jason R Randall, Jitender Sareen, Dan Chateau, James M Bolton
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of clinician prediction of risk to a standardized assessment of presentation status. METHODS: All adult psychiatry emergency department consults in the two main hospitals in Winnipeg, Canada, were assessed using a standardized form (n = 5,376). This form includes two risk scales for a gestalt physician assessment of risk (Suicide Likelihood scale, suicide Attempt Likelihood scale) and the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA)...
June 19, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Cinzia Grassi, Antonio Del Casale, Stefano Ferracuti, Petri Cucè, Roberto Santorsa, Andrea Pelliccione, Gemma Marotta, Giuseppe Tavella, Roberto Tatarelli, Paolo Girardi, Chiara Rapinesi, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: Suicide in international police is 2-3-fold that of the general population. Risk factors include suicidal ideation, diagnosis of mood or post-traumatic stress disorders, family/psychological problems, suffered abuse, alcohol use, service suspension, and stigma. A false stigma-related myth is to believe that suicide does not cause concern within military settings. METHODS: We administered post-training to 6103 Italian Police workers a 30-item questionnaire to assess the perception of suicidal phenomena...
April 2018: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Ping Qin, Shihua Sun, Anne Seljenes Bøe, Barbara Stanley, Lars Mehlum
BACKGROUND: Adolescents treated for self-poisoning with medication have a high prevalence of mental health problems and constitute a high-risk population for self-harm repetition. However, little is known about whether this population is also prone to injuries of other forms. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Norwegian Patient Registry to include all incidents of treated injuries in adolescents aged 10-19 years who were treated for self-poisoning with medication during 2008-2011...
June 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Donna Ames, Zachary Erickson, Nagy A Youssef, Irina Arnold, Chaplain Sam Adamson, Alexander C Sones, Justin Yin, Kerry Haynes, Fred Volk, Ellen J Teng, John P Oliver, Harold G Koenig
Introduction: There is growing evidence that moral injury (MI) is related to greater suicide risk among Veterans and Active Duty Military (V/ADM). This study examines the relationship between MI and suicide risk and the moderating effect of religiosity on this relationship in V/ADM with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multi-site study involving 570 V/ADM from across the USA. Inclusion criteria were having served in a combat theater and the presence of PTSD symptoms...
June 15, 2018: Military Medicine
Jiao Li, Xujun Duan, Qian Cui, Huafu Chen, Wei Liao
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with high risk of suicide. Conventional neuroimaging works showed abnormalities of static brain activity and connectivity in MDD with suicidal ideation (SI). However, little is known regarding alterations of brain dynamics. More broadly, it remains unclear whether temporal dynamics of the brain activity could predict the prognosis of SI. METHODS: We included MDD patients (n = 48) with and without SI and age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (n = 30) who underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Taeryoon Kim, Ga Eun Nam, Byoungduck Han, Sung Jung Cho, Junghun Kim, Do Hyun Eum, Sang Woo Lee, Soon Hong Min, Woohyun Lee, Kyungdo Han, Yong Gyu Park
This study aimed to examine whether the characteristics of mental health and sleep duration, alone or in combination, are associated with menstrual cycle irregularity. This population-based, cross-sectional study analyzed the data from 4445 women aged 19-49 years, who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012. A structured questionnaire was used to assess mental health characteristics, sleep duration, and menstrual cycle irregularity. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed...
June 16, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Kristal Lyn Brown, Jessica Gokee LaRose, Briana Mezuk
BACKGROUND: While restrictive and compensatory eating disorders (e.g. anorexia and bulimia) are associated with elevated risk of suicide, less is known about binge eating disorder (BED). There is suggestive evidence of a U-shaped relationship between body mass index (BMI) and completed suicide, but fewer studies on suicidal ideation or attempts. This study examined the association between BED, BMI, and suicidality, and assessed whether these relationships varied by gender. METHODS: Data come from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiologic Surveys (N = 14,497)...
June 15, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Jaana I Halonen, Aki Koskinen, Pekka Varje, Anne Kouvonen, Jari J Hakanen, Ari Väänänen
BACKGROUND: We defined gender-specific profiles of mental ill-health for the main occupational groups using three outcomes; antidepressant use, sickness absence (SA) due to depression, and suicides. We also examined which occupational groups had the highest risk of the outcomes, and compared the importance of their predictors. METHODS: From a random register cohort of Finnish working age population, individuals in the six largest occupational groups in 2004 for men and women were included (N = 414 357)...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
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