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Bin Yu, Miao He, Guang-Yu Cai, Tian-Xiao Zou, Na Zhang
BACKGROUND: Continuous femoral nerve block and fascia iliaca compartment block are 2 traditional anesthesia methods in orthopedic surgeries, but it is controversial which method is better. The objective of this study was to compare the practicality, efficacy, and complications of the 2 modalities in hip replacement surgery in the elderly and to assess the utility of a novel cannula-over-needle set. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized controlled clinical investigation, 60 elderly patients undergoing hip replacement were randomly assigned to receive either continuous femoral nerve block or continuous fascia iliaca compartment block...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
M Riishede, C B Laursen, L S Teglbjærg, A T Lassen, G Baatrup
INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute respiratory problems poses a diagnostic challenge because similar symptoms can be caused by various pathological conditions. Focused ultrasound examination (f-US) of the heart and lungs has proven to increase the diagnostic accuracy in these patients. In this protocol of a randomised multicentre trial, we study the effect of f-US of the heart and lungs in patients with respiratory problems performed by emergency physicians (EP) as soon as the patient arrives to the emergency department (ED)...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Jean Joel R Bigna, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Serra Lem Asangbeh, Lewis N Um, Paule Sandra D Sime, Elvis Temfack, Mathurin Cyrille Tejiokem
BACKGROUND: Sufficiently detailed abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are important, because readers often base their assessment of a trial solely on information in the abstract. We aimed at comparing reporting quality of RCTs in HIV/AIDS medicine before and after the publication of the 2008 CONSORT extension for abstracts and to investigate factors associated with better reporting quality. METHODS: We searched PubMed/Medline for HIV/AIDS RCTs published between 2006-07 (Pre-CONSORT) and 2014-15 (Post-CONSORT) in 40 leading general medicine and infectious diseases journals...
October 13, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Andre Matthias Müller, Stephanie Alley, Stephanie Schoeppe, Corneel Vandelanotte
BACKGROUND: Promoting physical activity and healthy eating is important to combat the unprecedented rise in NCDs in many developing countries. Using modern information-and communication technologies to deliver physical activity and diet interventions is particularly promising considering the increased proliferation of such technologies in many developing countries. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the effectiveness of e-& mHealth interventions to promote physical activity and healthy diets in developing countries...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Shariq Najeeb, Zohaib Khurshid, Sana Zohaib, Bilal Najeeb, Saad Bin Qasim, Muhammad Sohail Zafar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The exact etiology of recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAS) is unknown. The management of RAS is not always straightforward. The aim of this review is to critically analyze and summarize the clinical literature focusing on the management of aphthous ulcers using low-level lasers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Medline (PubMed), Web of Knowledge (ISI), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Embase databases were searched electronically for studies published in last 20 years (1995-2015) using the keywords "recurrent aphthous stomatitis," "aphthous ulcers," and "laser...
September 15, 2016: Medicina
Salomão Israel Monteiro Lourenço Queiroz, Helenilton Soares Alves, Gleysson Matias de Assis, Thalita Santana Conceição, Adriano Rocha Germano, José Sandro Pereira da Silva
Several local hemostatic measures have been used to control bleeding in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT); however, the effectiveness of these measures has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of local hemostatic measures in patients taking oral anticoagulants. Various databases were searched using key terms. Selection criteria included publications in English, Spanish, or Portuguese within the last 20 years. The titles and abstracts of papers were initially screened, and reports of 18 clinical trials were selected for a critical review and scored according to CONSORT 2010 guidelines...
October 3, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
S Cerqueira Santos, T C Boaventura, K S S Rocha, A D de Oliveira Filho, T Onozato, D P de Lyra
WHAT IS KNOWN: Documentation is a process indicator utilized to evaluate quality clinical pharmacist services. In this framework, documentation of dispensing, besides supporting patient care, allows evaluation of the impact of counselling. OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess studies of documentation by pharmacists in the dispensing process. METHOD: A systematic review was carried out according to the following steps: (i) identification of studies in the following databases: PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Scopus and Lilacs, using the descriptors 'counselling', 'dispensing', 'community pharmacy services', 'pharmacies' and 'pharmacists' in different combinations; (ii) evaluation of studies, in which the title, abstract and full text of the studies, and the evaluation of the methodological quality of the selected studies were analysed...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Jelena Barbaric, Rachel Abbott, Pawel Posadzki, Mate Car, Laura H Gunn, Alison M Layton, Azeem Majeed, Josip Car
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a very common skin problem that presents with blackheads, whiteheads, and inflamed spots. It frequently results in physical scarring and may cause psychological distress. The use of oral and topical treatments can be limited in some people due to ineffectiveness, inconvenience, poor tolerability or side-effects. Some studies have suggested promising results for light therapies. OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of light treatment of different wavelengths for acne...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
R Green, R Gohil, P Ross
BACKGROUND: Historically dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) has been performed externally with very good outcomes. Current literature shows comparable success rates between endonasal and external approaches. A common reason for the failure of a DCR is the reclosure of the nasolacrimal stoma by granulation tissue and synechiae. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: A systematic review and critical evaluation of the evidence relating to the preservation of nasal mucosal flaps in DCR surgery...
September 23, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Dimitrios Rikos, Efthimios Dardiotis, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Elias Zintzaras, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the best tool to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical interventions. The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement is an evidence-based approach to improve the quality of RCTs reporting. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reporting quality of published RCTs concerning multiple sclerosis from 2000 to 2015 according to a checklist based on the CONSORT statement. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for English-language RCTs involving patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Carmel Moore, Thomas Bolton, Matthew Walker, Stephen Kaptoge, David Allen, Michael Daynes, Susan Mehenny, Jennifer Sambrook, Nicholas A Watkins, Gail Miflin, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Willem H Ouwehand, David J Roberts, John Danesh, Simon G Thompson
BACKGROUND: The interpretation of trial results can be helped by understanding how generalisable they are to the target population for which inferences are intended. INTERVAL, a large pragmatic randomised trial of blood donors in England, is assessing the effectiveness and safety of reducing inter-donation intervals. The trial recruited mainly from the blood service's static centres, which collect only about 10 % of whole-blood donations. Hence, the extent to which the trial's participants are representative of the general blood donor population is uncertain...
2016: Trials
Karen Hansen Kallesøe, Andreas Schröder, Rikard K Wicksell, Per Fink, Eva Ørnbøl, Charlotte Ulrikka Rask
INTRODUCTION: Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) are common in adolescents, characterised by severe disability and reduced quality of life. Behavioural treatments such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has shown promising results in children and adolescents with FSS, but has focused on specific syndromes such as functional pain. The current study will compare the efficacy of group-based ACT with that of enhanced usual care (EUC) in adolescents with a range of FSS operationalised by the unifying construct of multiorgan bodily distress syndrome (BDS)...
September 15, 2016: BMJ Open
Vittoradolfo Tambone, Dario Sacchini, Antonio G Spagnolo, Rosa Menga, Giovanna Ricci, Roberto Valenti, Massimiliano Andrea Vitali, Massimo Ciccozzi
OBJECTIVE: The study proposes a possible roadmap for the ethical assessment of sham surgery clinical trials (CTs), focusing on methodological aspects, as a result of the lack of this type of practical tool in the literature/practice. BACKGROUND: Surgical procedures are frequently conducted without closely controlled studies. For this reason, these procedures are less rigorous than those for drug/device clinical trials. The aim of a sham (placebo) surgery CT is to carry out a surgical CT with a legitimate control group...
September 14, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Hyun-Jung Shin, Hyo-Seok Na, Ah-Young Oh, Jung-Won Hwang, Byung-Gun Kim, Hee-Pyoung Park, Young-Tae Jeon, Seong-Won Min, Jung-Hee Ryu
BACKGROUND: The shoulder area is mainly innervated with the C5 and C6 nerve roots, and interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) is widely used for postoperative analgesia after shoulder surgery. However, it is associated with adverse effects, such as numbness and weakness in the blocked arm due to an unwanted block of the lower brachial plexus (C7-T1). We hypothesized that the C5 approach during ISB would provide postoperative analgesia while minimizing adverse events after arthroscopic shoulder surgery...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Po-Cheng Chen, Mei-Yun Liaw, Lin-Yi Wang, Yu-Chin Tsai, Yi-Jung Hsin, Yung-Che Chen, Shyh-Ming Chen, Meng-Chih Lin
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary function can be adversely affected after a cerebrovascular accident in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) for stroke patients with CHF. METHODS: A prospective randomized single-blind controlled trial was conducted in a single tertiary medical center in southern Taiwan between May 2011 and July 2015. Forty-one patients were enrolled, of whom 21 completed the study (IMT group n = 11 and control group n = 10)...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Caroline Martini, Eva-Maria Gamper, Lisa Wintner, Bernhard Nilica, Barbara Sperner-Unterweger, Bernhard Holzner, Irene Virgolini
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET) are often slow-growing and patients may live for years with metastasised disease. Hence, along with increasing overall and progression-free survival, treatments aim at preserving patients' well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, studies on systematic HRQoL assessment in patients with GEP-NET are scarce. Therefore, the purpose of the current review is to systematically evaluate the methodological quality of the identified studies...
2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Eliot To, Rebecca Dyck, Stephanie Gerber, Shauna Kadavil, Kevin Y Woo
INTRODUCTION: This is the first systematic review to explore the evidence on PHMB and determine how effective this topical agent is for the treatment of chronic wounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, the Cochrane library, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles published from 1946 to February 3, 2014, with no restrictions on publication status. ProQuest was searched for relevant dissertations, editorials, and conference abstracts...
September 10, 2016: Surgical Technology International
MiHye Park, Younghoon Jeon
BACKGROUND: The administration of oral pregabalin preoperatively has been reported to reduce acute postoperative pain. However, no clinical study to date has yet fully investigated whether or not pregabalin premedication affects sensory and motor blocks using spinal anesthesia and its effect upon early postoperative pain management. This prospective, randomized, and double-blind clinical study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of pregabalin in terms of spinal blockade duration and its potential opioid-sparing effect during the first 24 hours subsequent to urogenital surgery...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kamilla W Miskowiak, André F Carvalho, Eduard Vieta, Lars V Kessing
Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging treatment target in bipolar disorder (BD). Several trials have assessed the efficacy of novel pharmacological and psychological treatments on cognition in BD but the findings are contradictory and unclear. A systematic search following the PRISMA guidelines was conducted on PubMed and PsychInfo. Eligible articles reported randomized, controlled or open-label trials investigating pharmacological or psychological treatments targeting cognitive dysfunction in BD. The quality of the identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was evaluated with the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool...
October 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Angus G K McNair, Rhiannon C Macefield, Natalie S Blencowe, Sara T Brookes, Jane M Blazeby
PURPOSE: The CONSORT extension for patient reported outcomes (PROs) aims to improve reporting, but guidance on the optimal integration with clinical data is lacking. This study examines in detail the reporting of PROs and clinical data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in gastro-intestinal cancer to inform design and reporting of combined PRO and clinical data from trials to improve the 'take home' message for clinicians to use in practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case study was undertaken in gastro-intestinal cancer trials...
2016: PloS One
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