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Cardiomyocyte renewal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396901/fine-tuning-of-canonical-wnt-stimulation-enhances-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-independent-of-%C3%AE-catenin-mediated-t-cell-factor-signaling
#1
Joseph Chen, Christian M Nefzger, Fernando J Rossello, Yu B Y Sun, Sue Mei Lim, Xiaodong Liu, Suzan de Boer, Anja S Knaupp, Jinhua Li, Kathryn C Davidson, Jose M Polo, Tiziano Barberi
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is crucial for early embryonic patterning, tissue homeostasis, and regeneration. While canonical Wnt/β-catenin stimulation has been used extensively to modulate pluripotency and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), the mechanism of these two seemingly opposing roles has not been fully characterized and is currently largely attributed to activation of nuclear Wnt target genes. Here, we show that low levels of Wnt stimulation via ectopic expression of Wnt1 or administration of glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 significantly increases PSC differentiation into neurons, cardiomyocytes and early endodermal intermediates...
February 2, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285060/inhibitory-effect-of-oxidative-damage-on-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-from-wharton-s-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Natakarn Nimsanor, Jitrada Phetfong, Chotiros Plabplueng, Kulachart Jangpatarapongsa, Virapong Prachayasittikul, Aungkura Supokawej
Ischemic heart diseases are a serious health problem worldwide. The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been investigated in numerous clinical trials on various other diseases due to the self-renewal capacity of these cells and their potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. The presence of excess reactive oxygen species in injured myocardium causes cardiac dysfunction and leads to inefficient repair of the heart. The poor outcomes of stem cell transplantation have been suggested to result from residual oxidative damage affecting the transplanted cells...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217199/efficient-generation-of-transgene-and-feeder-free-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-human-dental-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-chemically-defined-differentiation-into-cardiomyocytes
#3
Xiaobing Tan, Qingli Dai, Tao Guo, Jingshu Xu, Qingyuan Dai
Advance in stem cell research resulted in several processes to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from adult somatic cells. In our previous study, the reprogramming of iPSCs from human dental mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) including SCAP and DPSCs, has been reported. Herein, safe iPSCs were reprogrammed from SCAP and DPSCs using non-integrating RNA virus vector, which is an RNA virus carrying no risk of altering host genome. DPSCs- and SCAP-derived iPSCs exhibited the characteristics of the classical morphology with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) without integration of foreign genes, indicating the potential of their clinical application...
December 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205098/platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-expressing-cardiac-progenitor-cells-can-be-derived-from-previously-cryopreserved-human-heart-samples
#4
Thi Yen Loan Le, Hilda Pickett, Cristobal Dos Remedios, Pasquale Barbaro, Eddy Kizana, James Chong
Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are being developed as a promising treatment for heart failure. Although clinical trials have predominantly used donor cardiac biopsies to derive CPCs, a better solution could be to use previously cryopreserved human heart tissue. This would enable timely and convenient access to healthy and young heart samples for CPC production. However, few studies have attempted to isolate CPCs from previously cryopreserved heart tissue. In this study, we isolated CPCs from eight non-diseased human heart samples previously cryopreserved as part of the Sydney Heart Bank...
December 5, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190496/rerouting-mesenchymal-stem-cell-trajectory-towards-epithelial-lineage-by-engineering-cellular-niche
#5
REVIEW
Ananya Barui, Farhan Chowdhury, Abhay Pandit, Pallab Datta
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that offer a promising outcome in the field of regenerative medicine. MSCs are present in various tissues including bone marrow, fat, skin, and placenta. The interest in clinical application of these mesoderm-derived MSCs is primarily fueled by their high self-renewal capacity and multipotency. Although, early studies indicated limited differentiation capacity of MSCs into same cell lineages from which they were isolated, subsequent investigations showed differentiation potential into other cell types of mesoderm origin including osteoblasts, adipocytes, fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes, and chondrocytes...
November 21, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163636/a-pipeline-for-high-throughput-concentration-response-modeling-of-gene-expression-for-toxicogenomics
#6
John S House, Fabian A Grimm, Dereje D Jima, Yi-Hui Zhou, Ivan Rusyn, Fred A Wright
Cell-based assays are an attractive option to measure gene expression response to exposure, but the cost of whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing has been a barrier to the use of gene expression profiling for in vitro toxicity screening. In addition, standard RNA sequencing adds variability due to variable transcript length and amplification. Targeted probe-sequencing technologies such as TempO-Seq, with transcriptomic representation that can vary from hundreds of genes to the entire transcriptome, may reduce some components of variation...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083322/cardiomyocyte-proliferation-prevents-failure-in-pressure-overload-but-not-volume-overload
#7
Karl Toischer, Wuqiang Zhu, Mark Hünlich, Belal A Mohamed, Sara Khadjeh, Sean P Reuter, Katrin Schäfer, Deepak Ramanujam, Stefan Engelhardt, Loren J Field, Gerd Hasenfuss
Induction of the cell cycle is emerging as an intervention to treat heart failure. Here, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced cardiomyocyte renewal in transgenic mice expressing cyclin D2 would be beneficial during hemodynamic overload. We induced pressure overload by transthoracic aortic constriction (TAC) or volume overload by aortocaval shunt in cyclin D2-expressing and WT mice. Although cyclin D2 expression dramatically improved survival following TAC, it did not confer a survival advantage to mice following aortocaval shunt...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071403/specific-cell-re-programming-approaches-and-perspectives
#8
Frauke Hausburg, Julia Jeannine Jung, Robert David
Many disorders are manifested by dysfunction of key cell types or their disturbed integration in complex organs. Thereby, adult organ systems often bear restricted self-renewal potential and are incapable of achieving functional regeneration. This underlies the need for novel strategies in the field of cell (re-)programming-based regenerative medicine as well as for drug development in vitro. The regenerative field has been hampered by restricted availability of adult stem cells and the potentially hazardous features of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
October 26, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067089/is-biological-repair-of-heart-on-the-horizon
#9
REVIEW
H R Ahmad, Satwat Hashmi
The stem cells keep us young by endogenously repairing us upon need. They do so bysmartly one step forward towards differentiation while another step backward to nurturethe undifferentiated stem cells. They are building blocks for every organ witha differential rate of repair of worn out tissues. Since stem cells can be cultured with a normal karyo type, they could be the ideal source for heart repair after myocardial infarction. As opposed to lower vertebrates and neonatal mice, cardiac regeneration in adult mammalian heart seems to be difficult to assess with a solid evidence of cytokinesis...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022259/formation-of-new-cardiomyocytes-in-exercise
#10
Liang Shen, Hui Wang, Yihua Bei, Dragos Cretoiu, Sanda Maria Cretoiu, Junjie Xiao
Heart failure is a life-threatening disorder associated with the loss of cardiomyocytes. The heart has some endogenous although limited regenerative capacity, thus enhancing cardiac regeneration or stimulating endogenous repair mechanism after cardiac injury is of great interest. The benefits of exercise in heart diseases have been recognized for centuries. Besides the promotion of a favorable cardiac function, exercise is also associated with new cardiomyocytes formation. Exercise may lead to cardiomyocytes renewal from pre-existing cardiomyocytes proliferation or cardiac stem/progenitor cells differentiation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016556/the-current-status-and-future-of-cardiac-stem-progenitor-cell-therapy-for-congenital-heart-defects-from-diabetic-pregnancy
#11
REVIEW
Jianxiang Zhong, Shengbing Wang, Wei-Bin Shen, Sunjay Kaushal, Peixin Yang
Pregestational maternal diabetes induces congenital heart defects (CHDs). Cardiac dysfunction after palliative surgical procedures contributes to the high mortality of CHD patients. Autologous or allogeneic stem cell therapies are effective for improving cardiac function in animal models and clinical trials. c-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), the most recognized CPCs, have the following basic properties of stem cells: self-renewal, multicellular clone formation, and differentiation into multiple cardiac lineages...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976966/hippo-pathway-deficiency-reverses-systolic-heart-failure-after-infarction
#12
John P Leach, Todd Heallen, Min Zhang, Mahdis Rahmani, Yuka Morikawa, Matthew C Hill, Ana Segura, James T Willerson, James F Martin
Mammalian organs vary widely in regenerative capacity. Poorly regenerative organs, such as the heart are particularly vulnerable to organ failure. Once established, heart failure commonly results in mortality. The Hippo pathway, a kinase cascade that prevents adult cardiomyocyte proliferation and regeneration, is upregulated in human heart failure. Here we show that deletion of the Hippo pathway component Salvador (Salv) in mouse hearts with established ischaemic heart failure after myocardial infarction induces a reparative genetic program with increased scar border vascularity, reduced fibrosis, and recovery of pumping function compared with controls...
October 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974782/nkx2-5-%C3%A2-cardiomyoblasts-contribute-to-cardiomyogenesis-in-the-neonatal-heart
#13
Vahid Serpooshan, Yuan-Hung Liu, Jan W Buikema, Francisco X Galdos, Orlando Chirikian, Sharon Paige, Sneha Venkatraman, Anusha Kumar, David R Rawnsley, Xiaojing Huang, Daniël A Pijnappels, Sean M Wu
During normal lifespan, the mammalian heart undergoes limited renewal of cardiomyocytes. While the exact mechanism for this renewal remains unclear, two possibilities have been proposed: differentiated myocyte replication and progenitor/immature cell differentiation. This study aimed to characterize a population of cardiomyocyte precursors in the neonatal heart and to determine their requirement for cardiac development. By tracking the expression of an embryonic Nkx2.5 cardiac enhancer, we identified cardiomyoblasts capable of differentiation into striated cardiomyocytes in vitro...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943000/histological-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-cardiac-telocytes-in-a-rat-model-of-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-infarction-with-a-reference-to-the-effect-of-grape-seed-extract
#14
Mai Salah Nour, Nahla Reda Sarhan, Shireen A Mazroa, Salwa A Gawish
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac telocytes (TCs) represent a unique type of cells that make a supportive network for stem cells that contribute in cardiac renewal, but their role during myocardial infarction (MI) is not clear. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a powerful natural antioxidant. AIM OF THE WORK: Quantitative study of cardiac TCs in a rat model of Isoproterenol (ISO)-induced MI, and to evaluate the effect of GSE on TCs and MI progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy adult male albino rats were assigned into 4 groups; group I; control rats, group II received GSE (100mg/kg/day) dissolved in distilled water orally, group III received 2 intra-peritoneal injections of 85mg/kg ISO dissolved in saline on 14th and 15th day to induce MI, and group IV received GSE and ISO...
September 21, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877475/a-single-tcf-transcription-factor-regardless-of-its-activation-capacity-is-sufficient-for-effective-trilineage-differentiation-of-escs
#15
Steven Moreira, Enio Polena, Victor Gordon, Solen Abdulla, Sujeivan Mahendram, Jiayi Cao, Alexandre Blais, Geoffrey A Wood, Anna Dvorkin-Gheva, Bradley W Doble
Co-expression and cross-regulation of the four TCF/LEFs render their redundant and unique functions ambiguous. Here, we describe quadruple-knockout (QKO) mouse ESCs lacking all full-length TCF/LEFs and cell lines rescued with TCF7 or TCF7L1. QKO cells self-renew, despite gene expression patterns that differ significantly from WT, and display delayed, neurectoderm-biased, embryoid body (EB) differentiation. QKO EBs have no contracting cardiomyocytes and differentiate poorly into mesendoderm but readily generate neuronal cells...
September 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810678/update-on-heart-failure-biomarkers-intensive-therapy-remote-monitoring-and-cardiomyocyte-renewal
#16
Thomas F Lüscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810672/cardiomyocyte-renewal-in-the-human-heart-insights-from-the-fall-out
#17
Eniko Lázár, Hesham A Sadek, Olaf Bergmann
The capacity of the mammalian heart to regenerate cardiomyocytes has been debated over the last decades. However, limitations in existing techniques to track and identify nascent cardiomyocytes have often led to inconsistent results. Radiocarbon (14C) birth dating, in combination with other quantitative strategies, allows to establish the number and age of human cardiomyocytes, making it possible to describe their age distribution and turnover dynamics. Accurate estimates of cardiomyocyte generation in the adult heart can provide the foundation for novel regenerative strategies that aim to stimulate cardiomyocyte renewal in various cardiac pathologies...
August 7, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684531/cardiomyocyte-regeneration-a-consensus-statement
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Eschenhagen, Roberto Bolli, Thomas Braun, Loren J Field, Bernd K Fleischmann, Jonas Frisén, Mauro Giacca, Joshua M Hare, Steven Houser, Richard T Lee, Eduardo Marbán, James F Martin, Jeffery D Molkentin, Charles E Murry, Paul R Riley, Pilar Ruiz-Lozano, Hesham A Sadek, Mark A Sussman, Joseph A Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655642/the-use-and-abuse-of-cre-lox-recombination-to-identify-adult-cardiomyocyte-renewal-rate-and-origin
#19
REVIEW
Iolanda Aquila, Fabiola Marino, Eleonora Cianflone, Pina Marotta, Michele Torella, Vincenzo Mollace, Ciro Indolfi, Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, Daniele Torella
The adult mammalian heart, including the human, is unable to regenerate segmental losses after myocardial infarction. This evidence has been widely and repeatedly used up-to-today to suggest that the myocardium, contrary to most adult tissues, lacks an endogenous stem cell population or more specifically a bona-fide cardiomyocyte-generating progenitor cell of biological significance. In the last 15 years, however, the field has slowly evolved from the dogma that no new cardiomyocytes were produced from shortly after birth to the present consensus that new cardiomyocytes are formed throughout lifespan...
June 24, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649106/-aging-and-homeostasis-aging-control-through-cardiac-regenerative-medicine
#20
Katsuhisa Matsuura
Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the developed countries and various physical conditions in heart failure attribute to the impaired physical activities, which promotes aging. The principle cause of heart failure is the loss of self-renewal ability of cardiomyocytes in various injuries such as myocardial infarction. The replacement of injured tissues with the regenerated human myocardial tissues using technologies on tissue engineering and iPS cell will provide us the novel therapeutic strategy for heart failure and the related aging issues...
2017: Clinical Calcium
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