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Cardiomyocyte renewal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927803/dating-the-heart-exploring-cardiomyocyte-renewal-in-humans
#1
REVIEW
Evan Graham, Olaf Bergmann
Regenerative mechanisms reported in the hearts of lower vertebrates have been recapitulated in the mammalian milieu, and recent studies have provided strong evidence for cardiomyocyte turnover in humans. These findings speak to an emerging consensus that adult mammalian cardiomyocytes do have the ability to divide, and it stands to reason that enrichment of this innate proliferative capacity should prove essential for complete cardiac regeneration.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799944/repair-injured-heart-by-regulating-cardiac-regenerative-signals
#2
REVIEW
Wen-Feng Cai, Guan-Sheng Liu, Lei Wang, Christian Paul, Zhi-Li Wen, Yigang Wang
Cardiac regeneration is a homeostatic cardiogenic process by which the sections of malfunctioning adult cardiovascular tissues are repaired and renewed employing a combination of both cardiomyogenesis and angiogenesis. Unfortunately, while high-quality regeneration can be performed in amphibians and zebrafish hearts, mammalian hearts do not respond in kind. Indeed, a long-term loss of proliferative capacity in mammalian adult cardiomyocytes in combination with dysregulated induction of tissue fibrosis impairs mammalian endogenous heart regenerative capacity, leading to deleterious cardiac remodeling at the end stage of heart failure...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798600/hypoxia-induces-heart-regeneration-in-adult-mice
#3
Yuji Nakada, Diana C Canseco, SuWannee Thet, Salim Abdisalaam, Aroumougame Asaithamby, Celio X Santos, Ajay Shah, Hua Zhang, James E Faber, Michael T Kinter, Luke I Szweda, Chao Xing, Ralph Deberardinis, Orhan Oz, Zhigang Lu, Cheng Cheng Zhang, Wataru Kimura, Hesham A Sadek
The adult mammalian heart is incapable of regeneration following cardiomyocyte loss, which underpins the devastating impact of cardiomyopathy. Recently, it has become clear that the mammalian heart is not a post-mitotic organ. For example, the neonatal heart is capable of regenerating lost myocardium(1), and the adult heart is capable of modest self-renewal(2,3). In both these scenarios, cardiomyocyte renewal occurs through proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, and is regulated by aerobic respiration-mediated oxidative DNA damage(4,5)...
October 31, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790620/immune-modulation-of-cardiac-repair-and-regeneration-the-art-of-mending-broken-hearts
#4
REVIEW
Ivana Zlatanova, Cristina Pinto, Jean-Sébastien Silvestre
The accumulation of immune cells is among the earliest responses that manifest in the cardiac tissue after injury. Both innate and adaptive immunity coordinate distinct and mutually non-exclusive events governing cardiac repair, including elimination of the cellular debris, compensatory growth of the remaining cardiac tissue, activation of resident or circulating precursor cells, quantitative and qualitative modifications of the vascular network, and formation of a fibrotic scar. The present review summarizes the mounting evidence suggesting that the inflammatory response also guides the regenerative process following cardiac damage...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679798/the-role-of-cardiac-side-population-cells-in-cardiac-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
Amritha Yellamilli, Jop H van Berlo
The heart has a limited ability to regenerate. It is important to identify therapeutic strategies that enhance cardiac regeneration in order to replace cardiomyocytes lost during the progression of heart failure. Cardiac progenitor cells are interesting targets for new regenerative therapies because they are self-renewing, multipotent cells located in the heart. Cardiac side population cells (cSPCs), the first cardiac progenitor cells identified in the adult heart, have the ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635079/is-stimulation-of-cardiomyocyte-renewal-a-facette-of-reversible-catecholamine-toxicity
#6
EDITORIAL
Thomas Eschenhagen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575008/gsk-3%C3%AE-inhibitor-chir-99021-promotes-proliferation-through-upregulating-%C3%AE-catenin-in-neonatal-atrial-human-cardiomyocytes
#7
Shoubao Wang, Lincai Ye, Minghui Li, Jinfen Liu, Chuan Jiang, Haifa Hong, Hongbin Zhu, Yanjun Sun
BACKGROUND: The renewal capacity of neonate human cardiomyocytes provides an opportunity to manipulate endogenous cardiogenic mechanisms for supplementing the loss of cardiomyocytes caused by myocardial infarction or other cardiac diseases. GSK-3β inhibitors have been recently shown to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation in rats and mice, thus may be ideal candidates for inducing human cardiomyocyte proliferation. METHODS: Human cardiomyocytes were isolated from right atrial specimens obtained during routine surgery for ventricle septal defect and cultured with either GSK-3β inhibitor (CHIR-99021) or β-catenin inhibitor (IWR-1)...
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498864/erk5-is-a-key-regulator-of-naive-primed-transition-and-embryonic-stem-cell-identity
#8
Charles A C Williams, Rosalia Fernandez-Alonso, Jinhua Wang, Rachel Toth, Nathanael S Gray, Greg M Findlay
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can self-renew or differentiate into any cell type, a phenomenon known as pluripotency. Distinct pluripotent states, termed naive and primed pluripotency, have been described. However, the mechanisms that control naive-primed pluripotent transition are poorly understood. Here, we perform a targeted screen for kinase inhibitors, which modulate the naive-primed pluripotent transition. We find that XMD compounds, which selectively inhibit Erk5 kinase and BET bromodomain family proteins, drive ESCs toward primed pluripotency...
August 16, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472922/bmi1-cardiac-progenitor-cells-contribute-to-myocardial-repair-following-acute-injury
#9
Iñigo Valiente-Alandi, Carmen Albo-Castellanos, Diego Herrero, Iria Sanchez, Antonio Bernad
BACKGROUND: The inability of the adult mammalian heart to replace cells lost after severe cardiac injury compromises organ function. Although the heart is one of the least regenerative organs in the body, evidence accumulated in recent decades indicates a certain degree of renewal after injury. We have evaluated the role of cardiac Bmi1 (+) progenitor cells (Bmi1-CPC) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Bmi1 (Cre/+);Rosa26 (YFP/+) (Bmi1-YFP) mice were used for lineage tracing strategy...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453275/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-a-novel-potential-therapeutic-avenue-for-cardiac-regeneration
#10
S Safari, F Malekvandfard, S Babashah, A Alizadehasl, M Sadeghizadeh, M Motavaf
Coronary artery diseases (CADs) represent a significant cause of death worldwide. During recent decades the rate of cardiovascular mortality has been declined as a result of modern medicine and surgery. However, despite the fact that cardiac cells, including cardiomyocytes (CMCs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and vascular endothelial cells (VEC), can be regenerated by cardiac adult stem cell, the regenerative capacity of these cells are limited and inadequate to functionally regenerate heart damaged tissue...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426082/recent-stem-cell-advances-cord-blood-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-for-cardiac-regeneration-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Sheetal Kashinath Medhekar, Vikas Suresh Shende, Anjali Baburao Chincholkar
Stem cells are primitive self renewing undifferentiated cell that can be differentiated into various types of specialized cells like nerve cell, skin cells, muscle cells, intestinal tissue, and blood cells. Stem cells live in bone marrow where they divide to make new blood cells and produces peripheral stem cells in circulation. Under proper environment and in presence of signaling molecules stem cells begin to develop into specialized tissues and organs. These unique characteristics make them very promising entities for regeneration of damaged tissue...
May 30, 2016: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392582/three-dimensional-adult-cardiac-extracellular-matrix-promotes-maturation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#12
Ashley H Fong, Mónica Romero-López, Christopher M Heylman, Mark Keating, David Tran, Agua Sobrino, Anh Q Tran, Hiep H Pham, Cristhian Fimbres, Paul D Gershon, Elliot L Botvinick, Steven C George, Christopher C W Hughes
Pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) have great potential in the development of new therapies for cardiovascular disease. In particular, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may prove especially advantageous due to their pluripotency, their self-renewal potential, and their ability to create patient-specific cell lines. Unfortunately, pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs are immature, with characteristics more closely resembling fetal CMs than adult CMs, and this immaturity has limited their use in drug screening and cell-based therapies...
August 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376799/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-impeded-murine-stem-cell-proliferation-with-an-intact-cardiovascular-differentiation
#13
Li Nie, Shi-Jun Gao, Ya-Nan Zhao, Jacob Masika, Hong-Yan Luo, Xin-Wu Hu, Liang-Pin Zhang, Ying Zeng, Jürgen Hescheler, Hua-Min Liang
Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is a key factor in cardiac development, growth, disease, epicardial integrity, blood vessel formation and has cardio-protective properties. However, its role in murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) proliferation and cardiovascular differentiation remains unclear. Thus we aimed to elucidate the influence of Tβ4 on mESCs. Target genes during mESCs proliferation and differentiation were detected by real-time PCR or Western blotting, and patch clamp was applied to characterize the mESCs-derived cardiomyocytes...
June 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374890/repression-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-is-required-to-maintain-mitotic-progression-and-prevent-loss-of-pluripotency-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
Chia-I Ko, Yunxia Fan, Matthew de Gannes, Qin Wang, Ying Xia, Alvaro Puga
Lack of cell cycle checkpoints and uninterrupted passage through S-phase continuously renew the embryonic stem (ES) cell population and maintain pluripotency. Here, we show that to regulate mitotic progression and pluripotency ES cells must keep the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), an environmental sensor and transcriptional regulator, in a persistent state of repression. This repression, however, is not always absolute, causing the AHR to fluctuate between reversible states of expression and repression, with a fraction of the cells escaping repression at any one time...
July 4, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341741/challenges-to-success-in-heart-failure-cardiac-cell-therapies-in-patients-with-heart-diseases
#15
Hidemasa Oh, Hiroshi Ito, Shunji Sano
Heart failure remains the leading cause of death worldwide, and is a burgeoning problem in public health due to the limited capacity of postnatal hearts to self-renew. The pathophysiological changes in injured hearts can sometimes be manifested as scar formation or myocardial degradation, rather than supplemental muscle regeneration to replenish lost tissue during the healing processes. Stem cell therapies have been investigated as a possible treatment approach for children and adults with potentially fatal cardiovascular disease that does not respond to current medical therapies...
June 21, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335447/rebuilding-the-damaged-heart-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cell-based-therapy-and-engineered-heart-tissue
#16
REVIEW
Samuel Golpanian, Ariel Wolf, Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Joshua M Hare
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are broadly distributed cells that retain postnatal capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. MSCs evade immune detection, secrete an array of anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic mediators, and very importantly activate resident precursors. These properties form the basis for the strategy of clinical application of cell-based therapeutics for inflammatory and fibrotic conditions. In cardiovascular medicine, administration of autologous or allogeneic MSCs in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy holds significant promise...
July 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276715/emerging-roles-and-underlying-molecular-mechanisms-of-dnajb6-in-cancer
#17
Erhong Meng, Lalita A Shevde, Rajeev S Samant
DNAJB6 also known as mammalian relative of DnaJ (MRJ) encodes a highly conserved member of the DnaJ/Hsp40 family of co-chaperone proteins that function with Hsp70 chaperones. DNAJB6 is widely expressed in all tissues, with higher expression levels detected in the brain. DNAJB6 is involved in diverse cellular functions ranging from murine placental development, reducing the formation and toxicity of mis-folded protein aggregates, to self-renewal of neural stem cells. Involvement of DNAJB6 is implicated in multiple pathologies such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's diseases, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cancer...
June 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265266/microrna-mediated-maturation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-towards-a-better-model-for-cardiotoxicity
#18
Matthew C White, Li Pang, Xi Yang
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (PSC-CMs) are a promising human cardiac model system for drug development and toxicity screening, along with cell therapy and mechanistic research. The scalable differentiation of human PSCs into CMs provides a renewable cell source that overcomes species differences present in rodent primary CMs. In addition, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology allows for development of patient-specific CMs, representing a valuable tool that may lead to better prediction, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in this new era of precision medicine...
June 2, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251288/pitx2-promotes-heart-repair-by-activating-the-antioxidant-response-after-cardiac-injury
#19
Ge Tao, Peter C Kahr, Yuka Morikawa, Min Zhang, Mahdis Rahmani, Todd R Heallen, Lele Li, Zhao Sun, Eric N Olson, Brad A Amendt, James F Martin
Myocardial infarction results in compromised myocardial function and heart failure owing to insufficient cardiomyocyte self-renewal. Unlike many vertebrates, mammalian hearts have only a transient neonatal renewal capacity. Reactivating primitive reparative ability in the mature mammalian heart requires knowledge of the mechanisms that promote early heart repair. By testing an established Hippo-deficient heart regeneration mouse model for factors that promote renewal, here we show that the expression of Pitx2 is induced in injured, Hippo-deficient ventricles...
May 25, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27177343/envisioning-metastasis-as-a-transdifferentiation-phenomenon-clarifies-discordant-results-on-cancer
#20
Charly Jehanno, Gilles Flouriot, Floriane Nicol-Benoît, Yann Le Page, Pascale Le Goff, Denis Michel
Cancer is generally conceived as a dedifferentiation process in which quiescent post-mitotic differentiated cells acquire stem-like properties and the capacity to proliferate. This view holds for the initial stages of carcinogenesis but is more questionable for advanced stages when the cells can transdifferentiate into the contractile phenotype associated to migration and metastasis. Singularly from this perspective, the hallmark of the most aggressive cancers would correspond to a genuine differentiation status, even if it is different from the original one...
February 17, 2016: Breast Disease
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