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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785615/molecular-characterization-of-proton-beam-induced-mutations-in-soybean-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#1
Woon Ji Kim, Jaihyunk Ryu, Juhyun Im, Sang Hun Kim, Si-Yong Kang, Jeong-Hee Lee, Sung-Hwan Jo, Bo-Keun Ha
Proton beam irradiation is a next-generation technique to develop mutant crop varieties. The mutagenic effects and molecular mechanisms of radiation are important multi-disciplinary research subjects. This study was conducted to investigate the types of mutations induced in the soybean genome by proton beam irradiation. In total, 22 plants, including 10 M2 plants treated with proton beam irradiation at 118 and 239 Gy, each, and two wild-type plants (Daepung) were sequenced by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785201/speed-breeding-for-multiple-quantitative-traits-in-durum-wheat
#2
Samir Alahmad, Eric Dinglasan, Kung Ming Leung, Adnan Riaz, Nora Derbal, Kai P Voss-Fels, Jason A Able, Filippo M Bassi, Jack Christopher, Lee T Hickey
Background: Plant breeding requires numerous generations to be cycled and evaluated before an improved cultivar is released. This lengthy process is required to introduce and test multiple traits of interest. However, a technology for rapid generation advance named 'speed breeding' was successfully deployed in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) to achieve six generations per year while imposing phenotypic selection for foliar disease resistance and grain dormancy. Here, for the first time the deployment of this methodology is presented in durum wheat ( Triticum durum Desf...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783940/small-rna-based-prediction-of-hybrid-performance-in-maize
#3
Felix Seifert, Alexander Thiemann, Tobias A Schrag, Dominika Rybka, Albrecht E Melchinger, Matthias Frisch, Stefan Scholten
BACKGROUND: Small RNA (sRNA) sequences are known to have a broad impact on gene regulation by various mechanisms. Their performance for the prediction of hybrid traits has not yet been analyzed. Our objective was to analyze the relation of parental sRNA expression with the performance of their hybrids, to develop a sRNA-based prediction approach, and to compare it to more common SNP and mRNA transcript based predictions using a factorial mating scheme of a maize hybrid breeding program...
May 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780395/genetic-analysis-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-cimmyt-bread-wheat-line-c615-using-traditional-and-conditional-qtl-mapping
#4
Xin Yi, Jingye Cheng, Zhengning Jiang, Wenjing Hu, Tongde Bie, Derong Gao, Dongsheng Li, Ronglin Wu, Yuling Li, Shulin Chen, Xiaoming Cheng, Jian Liu, Yong Zhang, Shunhe Cheng
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive wheat disease present throughout the world, and host resistance is an effective and economical strategy used to control FHB. Lack of adequate resistance resource is still a main bottleneck for FHB genetics and wheat breeding research. The synthetic-derived bread wheat line C615, which does not carry the Fhb1 gene, is a promising source of FHB resistance for breeding. A population of 198 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) produced by crossing C615 with the susceptible cultivar Yangmai 13 was evaluated for FHB response using point and spray inoculations...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779095/crispr-cas13a-targeting-of-rna-virus-in-plants
#5
Kulbhushan Chaudhary
This approach is quite promising to control plant viral diseases and create synthetic networks to better understand the structure/function relationship in RNA and proteins. Plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites which causes enormous losses in crop yield worldwide. These viruses replicate into infected cells by highjacking host cellular machinery. Over the last two decades, diverse approaches such as conventional breeding, transgenic approach and gene silencing strategies have been used to control RNA viruses, but escaped due to high rate of mutation...
May 19, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778643/inheritance-of-co-edited-genes-by-crispr-based-targeted-nucleotide-substitutions-in-rice
#6
Zenpei Shimatani, Ushio Fujikura, Hisaki Ishii, Yusuke Matsui, Minoru Suzuki, Yuki Ueke, Ken-Ichiro Taoka, Rie Terada, Keiji Nishida, Akihiko Kondo
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a revolutionary genome-editing tool for directed gene editing in various organisms. Cas9 variants can be applied as molecular homing devices when combined with various functional effectors such as transcriptional activators or DNA modification enzymes. Target-AID is a synthetic complex of nuclease deficient Cas9 fused to an activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) that enables targeted nucleotide substitution (C to T or G to A). We previously demonstrated that the introduction of desired point mutations into target genes by Target-AID confers herbicide tolerance to rice callus...
April 25, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777991/co-evolutionary-associations-between-root-associated-microbiomes-and-root-transcriptomes-in-wild-and-cultivated-rice-varieties
#7
Lei Tian, Shaohua Shi, Lina Ma, Fahad Nasir, Xiujun Li, Lam-Son Phan Tran, Chunjie Tian
The plants and root-associated microbiomes are closely related. Plant metabolic substances can serve as a nutrient source for the microbiome, and in return, the microbiome can regulate the production of plant metabolic substances. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), as the ancestor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), has changed several metabolic pathways and root-associated microbiome during evolution. Thus, the study of the different associations between metabolic pathways and root-associated microbiomes in wild and cultivated rice varieties is important for rice breeding...
April 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777502/oxi1-kinase-plays-a-key-role-in-resistance-of-arabidopsis-towards-aphids-myzus-persicae
#8
Tahsin Shoala, Martin G Edwards, Marc R Knight, Angharad M R Gatehouse
Plants have co-evolved with a diverse array of pathogens and insect herbivores and so have evolved an extensive repertoire of constitutive and induced defence mechanisms activated through complex signalling pathways. OXI1 kinase is required for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and is an essential part of the signal transduction pathway linking oxidative burst signals to diverse downstream responses. Furthermore, changes in the levels of OXI1 appear to be crucial for appropriate signalling...
May 17, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777486/physiological-and-quantitative-proteomic-analyses-unraveling-potassium-deficiency-stress-response-in-alligator-weed-alternanthera-philoxeroides-l-root
#9
Li-Qin Li, Lun Liu, Wei Zhuo, Qian Chen, Sheng Hu, Shuang Peng, Xi-Yao Wang, Yi-Fei Lu, Li-Ming Lu
Physiological and iTRAQ based proteomic analysis provided new insights into potassium deficiency stress response in alligator weed root. Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) has a strong ability to adapt to potassium deficiency (LK) stress. Proteomic changes in response to this stress are largely unknown in alligator weed. In this study, we investigated physiological and molecular mechanisms under LK using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation to characterize proteome-level changes in this plant...
May 18, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777105/phenotypic-diversification-by-enhanced-genome-restructuring-after-induction-of-multiple-dna-double-strand-breaks
#10
Nobuhiko Muramoto, Arisa Oda, Hidenori Tanaka, Takahiro Nakamura, Kazuto Kugou, Kazuki Suda, Aki Kobayashi, Shiori Yoneda, Akinori Ikeuchi, Hiroki Sugimoto, Satoshi Kondo, Chikara Ohto, Takehiko Shibata, Norihiro Mitsukawa, Kunihiro Ohta
DNA double-strand break (DSB)-mediated genome rearrangements are assumed to provide diverse raw genetic materials enabling accelerated adaptive evolution; however, it remains unclear about the consequences of massive simultaneous DSB formation in cells and their resulting phenotypic impact. Here, we establish an artificial genome-restructuring technology by conditionally introducing multiple genomic DSBs in vivo using a temperature-dependent endonuclease TaqI. Application in yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana generates strains with phenotypes, including improved ethanol production from xylose at higher temperature and increased plant biomass, that are stably inherited to offspring after multiple passages...
May 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776333/transcriptomic-analysis-of-genes-in-soybean-in-response-to-peronospora-manshurica-infection
#11
Hang Dong, Shuangfeng Shi, Chong Zhang, Sihui Zhu, Mei Li, Jie Tan, Yue Yu, Liping Lin, Shirong Jia, Xujing Wang, Yuanhua Wu, Yuhui Liu
BACKGROUND: Soybean downy mildew (SDM), caused by Peronospora manshurica (Pm), is a major fungal disease in soybean. To date, little is known regarding the defense mechanism at molecular level and how soybean plants response to Pm infection. In this study, differential gene expression in SDM-resistant (HR) and SDM-susceptible (HS) genotype was analyzed by RNA-seq to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) following Pm infection. RESULTS: Of a total of 55,017 genes mapped to the soybean reference genome sequences, 2581 DEGs were identified...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775612/crystal-structure-of-wa352-provides-insight-into-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-rice
#12
Xiang Wang, Zeyuan Guan, Zhou Gong, Junjie Yan, Guangsheng Yang, Yao-Guang Liu, Ping Yin
Plant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important phenomenon and is widely utilized in hybrid crop breeding. The Wild Abortive CMS (CMS-WA), a well-known CMS type, has been successfully applied in the commercial production of hybrid rice seeds for more than 40 years. The CMS-WA causal gene WA352 encodes a novel transmenbrane protein and the interacts with the mitochondrial copper chaperone COX11, triggering reactive oxygen species production and resulting in male sterility in CMS-WA lines. However, the structure of WA352 is currently unknown, and the structural mechanism whereby WA352 perturbs COX11 function to cause CMS remains largely unknown...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775494/osa-mir164a-targets-osnac60-and-negatively-regulates-rice-immunity-against-the-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#13
Zhaoyun Wang, Yeqiang Xia, Siyuan Lin, Yanru Wang, Baohuan Guo, Xiaoning Song, Shaochen Ding, Liyu Zheng, Ruiying Feng, Shulin Chen, Yalin Bao, Cong Sheng, Xin Zhang, Jianguo Wu, Dongdong Niu, Hailing Jin, Hongwei Zhao
Exploring the regulatory mechanism played by endogenous rice miRNAs in defense responses against the blast disease is of great significance in both resistant variety breeding and disease control management. We identified rice defense-related miRNAs by comparing rice miRNA expression patterns before and after Magnaporthe oryzae strain Guy11 infection. We discovered that osa-miR164a expression reduced upon Guy11 infection at both early and late stages, which was perfectly associated with the induced expression of its target gene, OsNAC60...
May 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774952/plant-roots-redesign-the-rhizosphere-to-alter-the-three-dimensional-physical-architecture-and-water-dynamics
#14
Sheikh M F Rabbi, Matthew K Tighe, Richard J Flavel, Brent N Kaiser, Chris N Guppy, Xiaoxian Zhang, Iain M Young
The mechanisms controlling the genesis of rhizosheaths are not well understood, despite their importance in controlling the flux of nutrients and water from soil to root. Here, we examine the development of rhizosheaths from drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive chickpea varieties; focusing on the three-dimensional characterization of the pore volume (> 16 μm voxel spatial resolution) obtained from X-ray microtomography, along with the characterization of mucilage and root hairs, and water sorption. We observe that drought-tolerant plants generate a larger diameter root, and a greater and more porous mass of rhizosheath, which also has a significantly increased water sorptivity, as compared with bulk soil...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774556/physiological-response-of-tomatoes-at-drought-heat-and-their-combination-followed-by-recovery
#15
Rong Zhou, Lingpeng Kong, Zhen Wu, Eva Rosenqvist, Yinlei Wang, Liping Zhao, Tongmin Zhao, Carl-Otto Ottosen
In nature, crops encounter a combination of abiotic stresses that severely limit yield. Our aim was to dynamically expose the changes of tomatoes' physiological parameters to drought, heat and their combination and thereby clarify the relationship between the responses to single and combined stress. We studied the effect of single and combined drought and heat stresses on the shoot and root of two tomato cultivars (Sufen No.14 as CV1; Jinlingmeiyu as CV2). After being exposed to combined stress for six days, the dry weight of shoot and root significantly decreased...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774036/the-pattern-and-distribution-of-induced-mutations-in-j-curcas-using-reduced-representation-sequencing
#16
Fatemeh Maghuly, Stephan Pabinger, Julie Krainer, Margit Laimer
Mutagenesis in combination with Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) is a powerful tool for introducing variation, studying gene function and identifying causal mutations underlying phenotypes of interest in crop plant genomes. About 400 million paired-end reads were obtained from 82 ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) induced mutants and 14 wild-type accessions of Jatropha curcas for the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Insertion/Deletions (InDels) by two different approaches (nGBS and ddGBS) on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770456/effect-of-elevated-co-2-on-yield-intra-plant-nutrient-dynamics-and-grain-quality-of-rice-cultivars-in-eastern-india
#17
Usha Rani Jena, Dillip Kumar Swain, K K Hazra, Mrinal K Maity
BACKGROUND: Climate models predict an increase in global temperature in response to a doubling of atmospheric [CO2 ] that may impact future rice production and quality. In this study, the effect of elevated [CO2 ] on yield, nutrient acquisition and utilization, and grain quality of rice genotypes was investigated in subtropical climate of eastern India (Kharagpur). Three environments (open field, ambient, and elevated [CO2 ]) were tested using four rice cultivars of eastern India. RESULTS: Under elevated [CO2 ] (25% higher), yield of high yielding cultivars (HYCs) viz...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768574/growth-yield-and-grain-nutritional-quality-in-three-brazilian-pearl-millets-pennisetum-americanum-l-with-african-or-indian-origins
#18
Leonardo O Medici, Fabíola V Gonçalves, Marcos Paulo S DA Fonseca, Salete A Gaziola, Daiana Schmidt, Ricardo A Azevedo, Carlos Pimentel
In this study, we are presenting recommendations to the best agricultural use as well as for plant breeding of three millet cultivars namely ENA1 and ENA2, which have African origin, and BRS1501 originally from India. These cultivars were evaluated for growth, yield and grain quality traits. The morphological traits evaluated in this study indicated that the African genotypes ENA1 and ENA2 are better than the Indian genotype BRS1501 for no-till farming or to produce forage with 15% of crude protein at flowering and at harvest to produce stover (around 7% of crude protein content) for livestock feeding...
May 14, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767758/turgor-maintenance-by-osmotic-adjustment-40-years-of-progress
#19
Neil C Turner
Osmotic adjustment (OA), the accumulation of solutes in higher plant cells in response to water deficits, was first reported more than four decades ago. Since then, variation in OA among genotypes/cultivars in response to drought has been reported in many crop plants, but its role in maintaining growth and yield in water-limited environments has been questioned. The role of OA in the physiological and agronomic adaptation to water stress of crops, the methods of reliably measuring the degree of OA among genotypes or species, the range of OA in many studies and its impact on grain yield in water-limited environments are reviewed...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767279/identification-and-validation-of-qtl-for-grain-yield-and-plant-water-status-under-contrasting-water-treatments-in-fall-sown-spring-wheats
#20
Junli Zhang, Shiferaw Abate Gizaw, Eligio Bossolini, Joshua Hegarty, Tyson Howell, Arron H Carter, Eduard Akhunov, Jorge Dubcovsky
Chromosome regions affecting grain yield, grain yield components and plant water status were identified and validated in fall-sown spring wheats grown under full and limited irrigation. Increases in wheat production are required to feed a growing human population. To understand the genetic basis of grain yield in fall-sown spring wheats, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 262 photoperiod-insensitive spring wheat accessions grown under full and limited irrigation treatments. Analysis of molecular variance showed that 4...
May 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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