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Plant breeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922071/a-carotenogenic-mini-pathway-introduced-into-white-corn-does-not-affect-development-or-agronomic-performance
#1
Daniela Zanga, Teresa Capell, Gustavo A Slafer, Paul Christou, Roxana Savin
High-carotenoid corn (Carolight®) has been developed as a vehicle to deliver pro-vitamin A in the diet and thus address vitamin A deficiency in at-risk populations in developing countries. Like any other novel crop, the performance of Carolight® must be tested in different environments to ensure that optimal yields and productivity are maintained, particularly in this case to ensure that the engineered metabolic pathway does not attract a yield penalty. Here we compared the performance of Carolight® with its near isogenic white corn inbred parental line under greenhouse and field conditions, and monitored the stability of the introduced trait...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921396/frequency-and-type-of-inheritable-mutations-induced-by-%C3%AE-rays-in-rice-as-revealed-by-whole-genome-sequencing
#2
Shan Li, Yun-Chao Zheng, Hai-Rui Cui, Hao-Wei Fu, Qing-Yao Shu, Jian-Zhong Huang
Mutation breeding is based on the induction of genetic variations; hence knowledge of the frequency and type of induced mutations is of paramount importance for the design and implementation of a mutation breeding program. Although γ ray irradiation has been widely used since the 1960s in the breeding of about 200 economically important plant species, molecular elucidation of its genetic effects has so far been achieved largely by analysis of target genes or genomic regions. In the present study, the whole genomes of six γ-irradiated M2 rice plants were sequenced; a total of 144-188 million high-quality (Q>20) reads were generated for each M2 plant, resulting in genome coverage of >45 times for each plant...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920790/characterization-of-resistance-mechanisms-in-faba-bean-vicia-faba-against-broomrape-species-orobanche-and-phelipanche-spp
#3
Diego Rubiales, Maria M Rojas-Molina, Josefina C Sillero
Faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920785/a-jasmonate-inducible-defense-trait-transferred-from-wild-into-cultivated-tomato-establishes-increased-whitefly-resistance-and-reduced-viral-disease-incidence
#4
Rocío Escobar-Bravo, Juan M Alba, Clara Pons, Antonio Granell, Merijn R Kant, Enrique Moriones, Rafael Fernández-Muñoz
Whiteflies damage tomatoes mostly via the viruses they transmit. Cultivated tomatoes lack many of the resistances of their wild relatives. In order to increase protection to its major pest, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its transmitted Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV), we introgressed a trichome-based resistance trait from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium into cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. The tomato backcross line BC5S2 contains acylsucrose-producing type-IV trichomes, unlike cultivated tomatoes, and exhibits increased, yet limited protection to whiteflies at early development stages...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920227/geographic-variation-of-plant-circadian-clock-function-in-natural-and-agricultural-settings
#5
Kathleen Greenham, Ping Lou, Joshua R Puzey, Ganesh Kumar, Cindy Arnevik, Hany Farid, John H Willis, C Robertson McClung
The increasing demand for improved agricultural production will require more efficient breeding for traits that maintain yield under heterogeneous environments. The internal circadian oscillator is essential for perceiving and coordinating environmental cues such as day length, temperature, and abiotic stress responses within physiological processes. To investigate the contribution of the circadian clock to local adaptability, we have analyzed circadian period by leaf movement in natural populations of Mimulus guttatus and domesticated cultivars of Glycine max We detected consistent variation in circadian period along a latitudinal gradient in annual populations of the wild plant and the selectively bred crop, and this provides novel evidence of natural and artificial selection for circadian performance...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918628/phenotypic-and-genome-wide-association-analysis-of-spike-ethylene-in-diverse-wheat-genotypes-under-heat-stress
#6
Ravi Valluru, Matthew P Reynolds, William J Davies, Sivakumar Sukumaran
The gaseous phytohormone ethylene plays an important role in spike development in wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, the genotypic variation and the genomic regions governing spike ethylene (SET) production in wheat under long-term heat stress remain unexplored. We investigated genotypic variation in the production of SET and its relationship with spike dry weight (SDW) in 130 diverse wheat elite lines and landraces under heat-stressed field conditions. We employed an Illumina iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array to identify the genetic loci for SET and SDW through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a subset of the Wheat Association Mapping Initiative (WAMI) panel...
December 5, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918538/variation-in-the-flowering-gene-self-pruning-5g-promotes-day-neutrality-and-early-yield-in-tomato
#7
Sebastian Soyk, Niels A Müller, Soon Ju Park, Inga Schmalenbach, Ke Jiang, Ryosuke Hayama, Lei Zhang, Joyce Van Eck, José M Jiménez-Gómez, Zachary B Lippman
Plants evolved so that their flowering is triggered by seasonal changes in day length. However, day-length sensitivity in crops limits their geographical range of cultivation, and thus modification of the photoperiod response was critical for their domestication. Here we show that loss of day-length-sensitive flowering in tomato was driven by the florigen paralog and flowering repressor SELF-PRUNING 5G (SP5G). SP5G expression is induced to high levels during long days in wild species, but not in cultivated tomato because of cis-regulatory variation...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918076/genome-wide-association-analyses-of-54-traits-identified-multiple-loci-for-the-determination-of-floret-fertility-in-wheat
#8
Zifeng Guo, Dijun Chen, Ahmad M Alqudah, Marion S Röder, Martin W Ganal, Thorsten Schnurbusch
Increasing grain yield is still the main target of wheat breeding; yet today's wheat plants utilize less than half of their yield potential. Owing to the difficulty of determining grain yield potential in a large population, few genetic factors regulating floret fertility (i.e. the difference between grain yield potential and grain number) have been reported to date. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) by quantifying 54 traits (16 floret fertility traits and 38 traits for assimilate partitioning and spike morphology) in 210 European winter wheat accessions...
December 5, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917185/fire-and-brimstone-molecular-interactions-between-sulfur-and-glucosinolate-biosynthesis-in-model-and-crop-brassicaceae
#9
REVIEW
Priyakshee Borpatragohain, Terry J Rose, Graham J King
Glucosinolates (GSLs) represent one of the most widely studied classes of plant secondary metabolite, and have a wide range of biological activities. Their unique properties also affect livestock and human health, and have been harnessed for food and other end-uses. Since GSLs are sulfur (S)-rich there are many lines of evidence suggesting that plant S status plays a key role in determining plant GSL content. However, there is still a need to establish a detailed knowledge of the distribution and remobilization of S and GSLs throughout the development of Brassica crops, and to represent this in terms of primary and secondary sources and sinks...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914284/applying-crispr-cas-for-genome-engineering-in-plants-the-best-is-yet-to-come
#10
REVIEW
Holger Puchta
Less than 5 years ago the CRISPR/Cas nuclease was first introduced into eukaryotes, shortly becoming the most efficient and widely used tool for genome engineering. For plants, efforts were centred on obtaining heritable changes in most transformable crop species by inducing mutations into open reading frames of interest, via non-homologous end joining. Now it is important to take the next steps and further develop the technology to reach its full potential. For breeding, besides using DNA-free editing and avoiding off target effects, it will be desirable to apply the system for the mutation of regulatory elements and for more complex genome rearrangements...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913864/losing-a-battle-but-winning-the-war-moving-past-preference-performance-to-understand-native-herbivore-novel-host-plant-interactions
#11
Leone M Brown, Greg A Breed, Paul M Severns, Elizabeth E Crone
Introduced plants can positively affect population viability by augmenting the diet of native herbivores, but can negatively affect populations if they are subpar or toxic resources. In organisms with complex life histories, such as insects specializing on host plants, the impacts of a novel host may differ across life stages, with divergent effects on population persistence. Most research on effects of novel hosts has focused on adult oviposition preference and larval performance, but adult preference may not optimize offspring performance, nor be indicative of host quality from a demographic perspective...
December 2, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909913/plant-extracts-as-phytogenic-additives-considering-intake-digestibility-and-feeding-behavior-of-sheep
#12
Camila Sousa da Silva, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira de Souza, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti Pereira, Edwilka Oliveira Cavalcante, Ewerton Ivo Martins de Lima, Thaysa Rodrigues Torres, José Ricardo Coelho da Silva, Daniel Cézar da Silva
The objective was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and ingestive sheep behavior with feeding phytogenic additives derived from plant extracts. Five non-emasculated sheep without defined breed at 28 ± 1.81 kg initial body weight and 6 months age were used. Treatments consisted of administering four phytogenic additives from the garlic extracts, coriander seed, oregano, and pods of mesquite, plus a control treatment (without additive). The ration was composed of Tifton 85 hay grass, corn, soybean meal, and mineral salt...
December 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903632/genomic-prediction-with-pedigree-and-genotype-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-in-spring-wheat-grown-in-south-and-west-asia-north-africa-and-mexico
#13
Sivakumar Sukumaran, Jose Crossa, Diego Jarquin, Marta Lopes, Mathew P Reynolds
Developing genomic selection (GS) models is an important step in applying GS to accelerate the rate of genetic gain in grain yield in plant breeding. In this study, seven genomic prediction models under two cross-validation scenarios were tested on 287 advanced elite spring wheat lines phenotyped for grain yield (GY), thousand-grain weight (GW), grain number (GN), and thermal time for flowering (TTF) in 18 international environments (year-location combinations) in major wheat producing countries in 2010 and 2011...
November 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902803/alphasim-software-for-breeding-program-simulation
#14
Anne-Michelle Faux, Gregor Gorjanc, R Chris Gaynor, Mara Battagin, Stefan M Edwards, David L Wilson, Sarah J Hearne, Serap Gonen, John M Hickey
This paper describes AlphaSim, a software package for simulating plant and animal breeding programs. AlphaSim enables the simulation of multiple aspects of breeding programs with a high degree of flexibility. AlphaSim simulates breeding programs in a series of steps: (i) simulate haplotype sequences and pedigree; (ii) drop haplotypes into the base generation of the pedigree and select single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN); (iii) assign QTN effects, calculate genetic values, and simulate phenotypes; (iv) drop haplotypes into the burn-in generations; and (v) perform selection and simulate new generations...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902796/target-amplicon-sequencing-for-genotyping-genome-wide-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-identified-by-whole-genome-resequencing-in-peanut
#15
Kenta Shirasawa, Chikara Kuwata, Manabu Watanabe, Masanobu Fukami, Hideki Hirakawa, Sachiko Isobe
Genome-wide genotyping data regarding breeding materials are essential resources for improving breeding efficiency, especially in plants with complex genomes with a high degree of polyploidy. Several current breeding efforts in cultivated peanut ( L.), which has a tetraploid genome, are devoted to developing high oleic acid cultivars. Genetic maps for such breeding programs have been developed using simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers, the use of which requires time-consuming electrophoretic analyses. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology can overcome this technical hurdle...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902790/accuracy-of-genomic-prediction-in-a-commercial-perennial-ryegrass-breeding-program
#16
Dario Fè, Bilal H Ashraf, Morten G Pedersen, Luc Janss, Stephen Byrne, Niels Roulund, Ingo Lenk, Thomas Didion, Torben Asp, Christian S Jensen, Just Jensen
The implementation of genomic selection (GS) in plant breeding, so far, has been mainly evaluated in crops farmed as homogeneous varieties, and the results have been generally positive. Fewer results are available for species, such as forage grasses, that are grown as heterogenous families (developed from multiparent crosses) in which the control of the genetic variation is far more complex. Here we test the potential for implementing GS in the breeding of perennial ryegrass ( L.) using empirical data from a commercial forage breeding program...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900537/rnai-mediated-resistance-to-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-in-transgenic-rice
#17
Mohamed M S Ahmed, Shiquan Bian, Muyue Wang, Jing Zhao, Bingwei Zhang, Qiaoquan Liu, Changquan Zhang, Shuzhu Tang, Minghong Gu, Hengxiu Yu
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, causes significant economic losses in rice production in China and many other Asian countries. Development of resistant varieties by using conventional breeding methods is limited, as germplasm with high level of resistance to RBSDV have not yet been found. One of the most promising methods to confer resistance against RBSDV is the use of RNA interference (RNAi) technology. RBSDV non-structural protein P7-2, encoded by S7-2 gene, is a potential F-box protein and involved in the plant-virus interaction through the ubiquitination pathway...
November 30, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900399/quantitative-trait-loci-mapping-of-heat-tolerance-in-broccoli-brassica-oleracea-var-italica-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#18
Sandra E Branham, Zachary J Stansell, David M Couillard, Mark W Farnham
Five quantitative trait loci and one epistatic interaction were associated with heat tolerance in a doubled haploid population of broccoli evaluated in three summer field trials. Predicted rising global temperatures due to climate change have generated a demand for crops that are resistant to yield and quality losses from heat stress. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is a cool weather crop with high temperatures during production decreasing both head quality and yield. Breeding for heat tolerance in broccoli has potential to both expand viable production areas and extend the growing season but breeding efficiency is constrained by limited genetic information...
November 29, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898839/ap2-erf-transcription-factors-involved-in-response-to-tomato-yellow-leaf-curly-virus-in-tomato
#19
Ying Huang, Bao-Long Zhang, Sheng Sun, Guo-Ming Xing, Feng Wang, Meng-Yao Li, Yong-Sheng Tian, Ai-Sheng Xiong
Tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV), transmitted by the whitefly (), causes leaf curling and yellowing, plant dwarfism, and growth inhibition in tomato ( L.). The APETALA2 (AP2) and ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) family, the largest plant-specific TF family, was identified to function in plant development and pathogen defense. Our study aimed to analyze the mechanism underlying the function of ERF (SlERF) TFs in response to TYLCV infection and improve useful information to increase the resistance to TYLCV in tomato...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898834/the-triticeae-toolbox-combining-phenotype-and-genotype-data-to-advance-small-grains-breeding
#20
Victoria C Blake, Clay Birkett, David E Matthews, David L Hane, Peter Bradbury, Jean-Luc Jannink
The Triticeae Toolbox (; T3) is the database schema enabling plant breeders and researchers to combine, visualize, and interrogate the wealth of phenotype and genotype data generated by the Triticeae Coordinated Agricultural Project (TCAP). T3 enables users to define specific data sets for download in formats compatible with the external tools TASSEL, Flapjack, and R; or to use by software residing on the T3 server for operations such as Genome Wide Association and Genomic Prediction. New T3 tools to assist plant breeders include a Selection Index Generator, analytical tools to compare phenotype trials using common or user-defined indices, and a histogram generator for nursery reports, with applications using the Android OS, and a Field Plot Layout Designer in development...
July 2016: Plant Genome
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