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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535196/characterization-of-antixenosis-in-soybean-genotypes-to-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-biotype-b
#1
E L L Baldin, P L Cruz, R Morando, I F Silva, J P F Bentivenha, L R S Tozin, T M Rodrigues
Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) is one of the most important soybean pest worldwide. Herein, 15 soybean genotypes were evaluated, to characterize the occurrence of antixenosis to B. tabaci biotype B. Initially, a multiple-choice test with all genotypes was carried out, evaluating the settling and oviposition preference at 3 d after infestation, and the colonization by nymphs after 48 d of infestation. Subsequently, a no-choice test, using 14 genotypes, was conducted with infested plants individually, and the number of eggs was counted after 72 h...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533896/sex-specific-differences-in-functional-traits-and-resource-acquisition-in-five-cycad-species
#2
Christopher Krieg, James E Watkins, Sally Chambers, Chad E Husby
Selective pressures acting on plant life histories can drive extreme specialization. One example of such specialization is the evolution of dioecious breeding systems. Evolutionary and ecological theory posits that dioecy may subject male and female individuals to different selective pressures and result in unique sex-mediated adaptive traits related to resource allocation and ecophysiology. Cycads are the earliest diverging lineage of seed plants with strict dioecy, yet we know almost nothing about the ecology and physiology of this group...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533786/high-density-linkage-map-construction-and-mapping-of-yield-trait-qtls-in-maize-zea-mays-using-the-genotyping-by-sequencing-gbs-technology
#3
Chengfu Su, Wei Wang, Shunliang Gong, Jinghui Zuo, Shujiang Li, Shizhong Xu
Increasing grain yield is the ultimate goal for maize breeding. High resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping can help us understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation of yield and thus facilitate marker assisted breeding. The aim of this study is to use genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of all F2 individuals from a cross between two varieties of maize that are in clear contrast in yield and related traits. A set of 199 F2 progeny derived from the cross of varieties SG-5 and SG-7 were generated and genotyped by GBS...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533335/rapid-cycling-genomic-selection-in-a-multi-parental-tropical-maize-population
#4
Xuecai Zhang, Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez, Juan Burgueño, Michael Olsen, Edward Buckler, Gary Atlin, Boddupalli M Prasanna, Mateo Vargas, Félix San Vicente, José Crossa
Genomic selection (GS) increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of bi-parental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is the first to show realized genetic gains of rapid cycling genomic selection (RCGS) for four recombination cycles in a multi-parental tropical maize population. Eighteen elite tropical maize lines were intercrossed twice and self-pollinated once to form the cycle 0 (C0) training population...
May 22, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530677/whole-genome-resequencing-of-292-pigeonpea-accessions-identifies-genomic-regions-associated-with-domestication-and-agronomic-traits
#5
Rajeev K Varshney, Rachit K Saxena, Hari D Upadhyaya, Aamir W Khan, Yue Yu, Changhoon Kim, Abhishek Rathore, Dongseon Kim, Jihun Kim, Shaun An, Vinay Kumar, Ghanta Anuradha, Kalinati Narasimhan Yamini, Wei Zhang, Sonnappa Muniswamy, Jong-So Kim, R Varma Penmetsa, Eric von Wettberg, Swapan K Datta
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), a tropical grain legume with low input requirements, is expected to continue to have an important role in supplying food and nutritional security in developing countries in Asia, Africa and the tropical Americas. From whole-genome resequencing of 292 Cajanus accessions encompassing breeding lines, landraces and wild species, we characterize genome-wide variation. On the basis of a scan for selective sweeps, we find several genomic regions that were likely targets of domestication and breeding...
May 22, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529710/introducing-the-brassica-information-portal-towards-integrating-genotypic-and-phenotypic-brassica-crop-data
#6
Annemarie H Eckes, Tomasz Gubała, Piotr Nowakowski, Tomasz Szymczyszyn, Rachel Wells, Judith A Irwin, Carlos Horro, John M Hancock, Graham King, Sarah C Dyer, Wiktor Jurkowski
The Brassica Information Portal (BIP) is a centralised repository for Brassica phenotypic data. Trait data associated with Brassica research and breeding experiments conducted on Brassica crops, used as vegetables, for livestock fodder and biofuels, is hosted on the site, together with information on the experimental plant materials used, as well as trial design. BIP is an open access and open source project, built on the schema of CropStoreDB, and as such can provide trait data management strategies for any crop data...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529703/prima-facie-reasons-to-question-enclosed-intellectual-property-regimes-and-favor-open-source-regimes-for-germplasm
#7
Madeleine-Thérèse Halpert, M Jahi Chappell
In principle, intellectual property protections (IPPs) promote and protect important but costly investment in research and development. However, the empirical reality of IPPs has often gone without critical evaluation, and the potential of alternative approaches to lend equal or greater support for useful innovation is rarely considered. In this paper, we review the mounting evidence that the global intellectual property regime (IPR) for germplasm has been neither necessary nor sufficient to generate socially beneficial improvements in crop plants and maintain agrobiodiversity...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528530/evaluation-of-ratite-skinning-force-in-order-to-fix-plant-and-mechanical-solutions
#8
Biagio Bianchi
The skin is the most requested product of ratite slaughter and 'first-rate' ratite's skin has a high economic market. Ostrich hide is tanned in South Africa and sold all over the world. Besides, the ostrich meat is considered a niche production in the marketplace, thus allowing for another pro t for the ostrich breeding. Theorical analysis of skinning process has been carried out, and an automatic measurement system has been designed to record the drawing-force on the animal's body during skinning tests. The aim of this study was to indentify the best animal position and provide values of drawing-force in order to design a speci c machine for ostrich skinning...
May 12, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527114/current-and-future-editing-reagent-delivery-systems-for-plant-genome-editing
#9
REVIEW
Yidong Ran, Zhen Liang, Caixia Gao
Many genome editing tools have been developed and new ones are anticipated; some have been extensively applied in plant genetics, biotechnology and breeding, especially the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These technologies have opened up a new era for crop improvement due to their precise editing of user-specified sequences related to agronomic traits. In this review, we will focus on an update of recent developments in the methodologies of editing reagent delivery, and consider the pros and cons of current delivery systems...
May 1, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525655/genetic-parameters-and-path-analysis-in-cowpea-genotypes-grown-in-the-cerrado-pantanal-ecotone
#10
K V Lopes, P E Teodoro, F A Silva, M T Silva, R L Fernandes, T C Rodrigues, T C Faria, A M Corrêa
Estimating genetic parameters in plant breeding allows us to know the population potential for selecting and designing strategies that can maximize the achievement of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of a population of 20 cowpea genotypes by estimating genetic parameters and path analysis among the traits to guide the selection strategies. The trial was conducted in randomized block design with four replications. Its morphophysiological components, components of green grain production and dry grain yield were estimated from genetic use and correlations between the traits...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523919/editing-plants-for-virus-resistance-using-crispr-cas
#11
J C Green, J S Hu
This minireview summarizes recent advancements using the clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats-associated nuclease systems (CRISPR-Cas) derived from prokaryotes to breed plants resistant to DNA and RNA viruses. The CRISPR-Cas system represents a powerful tool able to edit and insert novel traits into plants precisely at chosen loci offering enormous advantages to classical breeding. Approaches to engineering plant virus resistance in both transgenic and non-transgenic plants are discussed. Iterations of the CRISPR-Cas system, FnCas9 and C2c2 capable of editing RNA in eukaryotic cells offer a particular advantage for providing resistance to RNA viruses which represent the great majority of known plant viruses...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523009/transgenerational-defense-priming-for-crop-protection-against-plant-pathogens-a-hypothesis
#12
Gabriela Ramírez-Carrasco, Keren Martínez-Aguilar, Raúl Alvarez-Venegas
Throughout evolution, plants have developed diverse mechanisms of defense that "prime" their innate immune system for more robust and active induction of defense responses against different types of stress. Nowadays there are numerous reports concerning the molecular bases of priming, as well as the generational priming mechanisms. Information concerning transgenerational priming, however, remains deficient. Some reports have indicated, nonetheless, that the priming status of a plant can be inherited to its offspring...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523007/transcriptomic-identification-of-drought-related-genes-and-ssr-markers-in-sudan-grass-based-on-rna-seq
#13
Yongqun Zhu, Xia Wang, Linkai Huang, Chaowen Lin, Xinquan Zhang, Wenzhi Xu, Jianhua Peng, Zhou Li, Haidong Yan, Fuxiang Luo, Xie Wang, Li Yao, Dandan Peng
Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense) is an annual warm-season gramineous forage grass that is widely used as pasture, hay, and silage. However, drought stress severely impacts its yield, and there is limited information about the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Sudan grass. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the Sudan grass variety Wulate No.1, and we developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with drought stress. From 852,543,826 raw reads, nearly 816,854,366 clean reads were identified and used for analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522357/the-analysis-of-an-effect-of-seed-propagation-on-defense-strategy-against-pathogen-transmission-within-clonal-plant-population-using-lattice-model
#14
Yuma Sakai, Takenori Takada
Many clonal plants have two breeding systems, vegetative and seed propagation. In vegetative propagation, plants reproduce genetically identical offspring that have lower mortality rates. By contrast, the seed propagated offspring has higher mortality rate, however, the seed propagation "acts an important role in maintaining the genetic diversity and reproduce widely. According to the experimental studies, the balance between the breeding systems, vegetative and seed propagation, is determined by several functions, such as resource allocation...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520950/a-novel-economical-way-to-assess-virulence-in-field-populations-of-hessian-fly-diptera-cecidomyiidae-utilizing-wheat-resistance-gene-h13-as-a-model
#15
Alisha J Johnson, Hossam E M Abdel Moniem, Kathy L Flanders, G David Buntin, Francis P F Reay-Jones, Dominic Reisig, Jeffery J Stuart, Subhashree Subramanyam, Richard H Shukle, Brandon J Schemerhorn
Mayetiola destructor (Say) is a serious pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in North America, North Africa, and Central Asia. Singly deployed resistance genes in wheat cultivars have provided effective management of Hessian fly populations for >50 yr. Thirty-five H genes have been documented. Defense mediated by the H gene constitutes strong selection on the Hessian fly population, killing 100% of larvae. A mutation in a matching Hessian fly avirulence gene confers virulence to the H gene, leading to survival on the resistant plant...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510185/morphological-physiological-cytological-and-phytochemical-studies-in-diploid-and-colchicine-induced-tetraploid-plants-of-fagopyrum-tataricum-l-gaertn
#16
Lin-Jiao Wang, Mao-Yin Sheng, Pei-Cai Wen, Jia-Ying Du
BACKGROUND: Tartary buckwheat are very popular as an important functional food material and its cultivation is very widespread in our whole world, but there obviously lack works in the researches of genetic breeding for agricultural and medicinal utilization. The aim of this study is to obtain good germplasm resources for agricultural and medicinal use of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) by inducing the tetraploid plants. RESULTS: Four cultivars of F. tataricum, that is, Qianwei 2#, Jinku 2#, Chuanqiao 1#, and Liuqiao 1# were selected to experiment...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509421/crispr-cas9-mediated-targeted-mutagenesis-of-gmft2a-delays-flowering-time-in-soybean
#17
Yupeng Cai, Li Chen, Xiujie Liu, Chen Guo, Shi Sun, Cunxiang Wu, Bingjun Jiang, Tianfu Han, Wensheng Hou
Flowering is an indication of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth and has considerable effects on the life cycle of soybean (Glycine max). In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to specifically induce targeted mutagenesis of GmFT2a, an integrator in the photoperiod flowering pathway in soybean. The soybean cultivar Jack was transformed with three sgRNA/Cas9 vectors targeting different sites of endogenous GmFT2a via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Site-directed mutations were observed at all targeted sites by DNA sequencing analysis...
May 16, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509353/engineering-heat-tolerance-in-potato-by-temperature-dependent-expression-of-a-specific-allele-of-heat-shock-cognate-70
#18
Almudena Trapero-Mozos, Wayne L Morris, Laurence J M Ducreux, Karen McLean, Jennifer Stephens, Lesley Torrance, Glenn J Bryan, Robert D Hancock, Mark A Taylor
For many commercial potato cultivars, tuber yield is optimal at average day time temperatures in the range of 14-22⁰C. Further rises in ambient temperature can reduce or completely inhibit potato tuber production, with damaging consequences for both producer and consumer. The aim of this study was to use a genetic screen based on a model tuberisation assay to identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with enhanced tuber yield. A candidate gene encoding HSc70 was identified within one of the three QTL intervals associated with elevated yield in a Phureja-Tuberosum hybrid diploid potato population (06H1)...
May 16, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507554/large-differences-in-gene-expression-responses-to-drought-and-heat-stress-between-elite-barley-cultivar-scarlett-and-a-spanish-landrace
#19
Carlos P Cantalapiedra, María J García-Pereira, María P Gracia, Ernesto Igartua, Ana M Casas, Bruno Contreras-Moreira
Drought causes important losses in crop production every season. Improvement for drought tolerance could take advantage of the diversity held in germplasm collections, much of which has not been incorporated yet into modern breeding. Spanish landraces constitute a promising resource for barley breeding, as they were widely grown until last century and still show good yielding ability under stress. Here, we study the transcriptome expression landscape in two genotypes, an outstanding Spanish landrace-derived inbred line (SBCC073) and a modern cultivar (Scarlett)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505203/cytological-and-morphological-analysis-of-hybrids-between-brassicoraphanus-and-brassica-napus-for-introgression-of-clubroot-resistant-trait-into-brassica-napus-l
#20
Zongxiang Zhan, Chinedu Charles Nwafor, Zhaoke Hou, Jianfang Gong, Bin Zhu, Yingfen Jiang, Yongming Zhou, Jiangsheng Wu, Zhongyun Piao, Yue Tong, Chao Liu, Chunyu Zhang
Interspecific hybridization is a powerful tool for improvement of crop species, it has the potential to broaden the genetic base and create new plant forms for breeding programs. Synthetic allopolyploid is a widely-used model for the study of genetic recombination and fixed heterosis in Brassica. In Brassica napus breeding, identification and introgression of new sources of clubroot resistance trait from wild or related species into it by hybridization is a long-term crop management strategy for clubroot disease...
2017: PloS One
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