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Plant breeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340278/path-analysis-and-canonical-correlations-for-indirect-selection-of-jatropha-genotypes-with-higher-oil-yield
#1
L A Silva, L A Peixoto, P E Teodoro, E V Rodrigues, B G Laviola, L L Bhering
Jatropha is a species with great potential for biodiesel production, and the knowledge on how the main agronomic traits are correlated will contribute to its improvement. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters of the traits: plant height at 12 and 40 months, canopy projection on the row at 12 and 40 months, canopy projection between the row at 12 and 40 months, number of branches at 40 months, grain yield, and oil yield; to verify the existence of phenotypic correlation between these traits; to verify the influence of the morphological traits on oil yield by means of path analysis; and to evaluate the relationship between the productive traits in Jatropha and the morphological traits measured at different ages...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340276/multivariate-diallel-analysis-allows-multiple-gains-in-segregating-populations-for-agronomic-traits-in-jatropha
#2
P E Teodoro, E V Rodrigues, L A Peixoto, L A Silva, B G Laviola, L L Bhering
Jatropha is research target worldwide aimed at large-scale oil production for biodiesel and bio-kerosene. Its production potential is among 1200 and 1500 kg/ha of oil after the 4th year. This study aimed to estimate combining ability of Jatropha genotypes by multivariate diallel analysis to select parents and crosses that allow gains in important agronomic traits. We performed crosses in diallel complete genetic design (3 x 3) arranged in blocks with five replications and three plants per plot. The following traits were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, canopy projection between rows, canopy projection on the line, number of branches, mass of hundred grains, and grain yield...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339482/a-genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-the-dyw-deaminase-genes-in-the-pentatricopeptide-repeat-gene-family-in-cotton-gossypium-spp
#3
Bingbing Zhang, Guoyuan Liu, Xue Li, Liping Guo, Xuexian Zhang, Tingxiang Qi, Hailin Wang, Huini Tang, Xiuqin Qiao, Jinfa Zhang, Chaozhu Xing, Jianyong Wu
The RNA editing occurring in plant organellar genomes mainly involves the change of cytidine to uridine. This process involves a deamination reaction, with cytidine deaminase as the catalyst. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins with a C-terminal DYW domain are reportedly associated with cytidine deamination, similar to members of the deaminase superfamily. PPR genes are involved in many cellular functions and biological processes including fertility restoration to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338049/breeding-system-and-spatial-isolation-from-congeners-strongly-constrain-seed-set-in-an-insect-pollinated-apomictic-tree-sorbus-subcuneata-rosaceae
#4
Tracey J Hamston, Robert J Wilson, Natasha de Vere, Tim C G Rich, Jamie R Stevens, James E Cresswell
In plants, apomixis results in the production of clonal offspring via seed and can provide reproductive assurance for isolated individuals. However, many apomicts require pollination to develop functional endosperm for successful seed set (pseudogamy) and therefore risk pollination-limitation, particularly in self-incompatible species that require heterospecific pollen. We used microsatellite paternity analysis and hand pollinations to investigate pollen-limitation in Sorbus subcuneata, a threatened endemic tree that co-occurs with its congener, S...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337069/detection-of-alien-genetic-introgressions-in-bread-wheat-using-dot-blot-genomic-hybridisation
#5
María-Dolores Rey, Pilar Prieto
Simple, reliable methods for the identification of alien genetic introgressions are required in plant breeding programmes. The use of genomic dot-blot hybridisation allows the detection of small Hordeum chilense genomic introgressions in the descendants of genetic crosses between wheat and H. chilense addition or substitution lines in wheat when molecular markers are difficult to use. Based on genomic in situ hybridisation, DNA samples from wheat lines carrying putatively H. chilense introgressions were immobilised on a membrane, blocked with wheat genomic DNA and hybridised with biotin-labelled H...
2017: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334098/untangling-the-reticulate-history-of-species-complexes-and-horticultural-breeds-in-abelia-caprifoliaceae
#6
Sven Landrein, Sven Buerki, Hua-Feng Wang, James J Clarkson
Background and Aims: The genetic and morphological consequences of natural selection and selective breeding are explored in the genus Abelia . The genus consists of ornamental shrubs endemic to China, which have been bred to create attractive and diverse cultivars. Methods: DNA fingerprinting (AFLP) and DNA sequence data are used to investigate the genetic diversity among 46 accessions of Abelia (22 natural taxa and 24 horticultural breeds). In the cultivated varieties these data are used to explore taxon boundaries, hybridisation and backcrossing...
February 20, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330552/ectopic-expression-of-taoep16-2-5b-a-wheat-plastid-outer-envelope-protein-gene-enhances-heat-and-drought-stress-tolerance-in-transgenic-arabidopsis-plants
#7
Xinshan Zang, Xiaoli Geng, Kelu Liu, Fei Wang, Zhenshan Liu, Liyuan Zhang, Yue Zhao, Xuejun Tian, Zhaorong Hu, Yingyin Yao, Zhongfu Ni, Mingming Xin, Qixin Sun, Huiru Peng
Abiotic stresses, such as heat and drought, are major environmental factors restricting crop productivity and quality worldwide. A plastid outer envelope protein gene, TaOEP16-2, was identified from our previous transcriptome analysis [1,2]. In this study, the isolation and functional characterization of the TaOEP16-2 gene was reported. Three homoeologous sequences of TaOEP16-2 were isolated from hexaploid wheat, which were localized on the chromosomes 5A, 5B and 5D, respectively. These three homoeologues exhibited different expression patterns under heat stress conditions, TaOEP16-2-5B was the dominant one, and TaOEP16-2-5B was selected for further analysis...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330205/dna-record-of-some-traditional-small-millet-landraces-in-india-and-nepal
#8
Subramanyam Ragupathy, Shanmughanandhan Dhivya, Kirit Patel, Abiran Sritharan, Kathirvelu Sambandan, Hom Gartaula, Ramalingam Sathishkumar, Kamal Khadka, Balasubramanian C Nirmala, A Nirmala Kumari, Steven G Newmaster
Despite the extensive use of small millet landraces as an important source of nutrition for people living in semi-arid regions, they are presently marginalized and their diversity and distribution are threatened at a global scale. Local farmers have developed ancient breeding programs entrenched in traditional knowledge (TK) that has sustained rural cultures for thousands of years. The convention on biological diversity seeks fair and equitable sharing of genetic resources arising from local knowledge and requires signatory nations to provide appropriate policy and legal framework to farmers' rights over plant genetic resources and associated TK...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330124/somaclonal-variations-and-their-applications-in-horticultural-crops-improvement
#9
REVIEW
Hare Krishna, Mahdi Alizadeh, Dhurendra Singh, Udayvir Singh, Nitesh Chauhan, Maliheh Eftekhari, Radha Kishan Sadh
The advancements made in tissue culture techniques has made it possible to regenerate various horticultural species in vitro as micropropagation protocols for commercial scale multiplication are available for a wide range of crops. Clonal propagation and preservation of elite genotypes, selected for their superior characteristics, require high degree of genetic uniformity amongst the regenerated plants. However, plant tissue culture may generate genetic variability, i.e., somaclonal variations as a result of gene mutation or changes in epigenetic marks...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330092/development-of-molecular-method-for-sex-identification-in-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-plantlets-using-novel-sex-linked-microsatellite-markers
#10
Maryam, Muhammad Jafar Jaskani, Faisal Saeed Awan, Saeed Ahmad, Iqrar A Khan
Microsatellite markers containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are a valuable tool for genetic analysis. Date palm is a dioecious and slow flowering and is very difficult to identify the gender of the trees until it reaches the reproductive age (5-10 years). A total of 12 microsatellite primers were used with 30 date palm samples, 14 parents (8 male + 6 females) and 16 progeny (developed from parents breeding) which showed that microsatellites were highly polymorphic, having a great number of alleles. A total of 124 alleles were characterized in 12 SSR loci...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327519/identification-of-quantitative-trait-loci-conditioning-the-main-biomass-yield-components-and-resistance-to-melampsora-spp-in-salix-viminalis-%C3%A3-salix-schwerinii-hybrids
#11
Paweł Sulima, Jerzy A Przyborowski, Anna Kuszewska, Dariusz Załuski, Małgorzata Jędryczka, Witold Irzykowski
The biomass of Salix viminalis is the most highly valued source of green energy, followed by S. schwerinii, S. dasyclados and other species. Significant variability in productivity and leaf rust resistance are noted both within and among willow species, which creates new opportunities for improving willow yield parameters through selection of desirable recombinants supported with molecular markers. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked with biomass yield-related traits and the resistance/susceptibility of Salix mapping population to leaf rust...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326434/genetic-architecture-of-male-fertility-restoration-of-triticum-timopheevii-cytoplasm-and-fine-mapping-of-the-major-restorer-locus-rf3-on-chromosome-1b
#12
Tobias Würschum, Willmar L Leiser, Sigrid Weissmann, Hans Peter Maurer
Restoration of fertility in the cytoplasmic male sterility-inducing Triticum timopheevii cytoplasm can be achieved with the major restorer locus Rf3 located on chromosome 1B, but is also dependent on modifier loci. Hybrid breeding relies on a hybrid mechanism enabling a cost-efficient hybrid seed production. In wheat and triticale, cytoplasmic male sterility based on the T. timopheevii cytoplasm is commonly used, and the aim of this study was to dissect the genetic architecture underlying fertility restoration...
March 21, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326185/dna-informed-breeding-of-rosaceous-crops-promises-progress-and-prospects
#13
REVIEW
Cameron P Peace
Crops of the Rosaceae family provide valuable contributions to rural economies and human health and enjoyment. Sustained solutions to production challenges and market demands can be met with genetically improved new cultivars. Traditional rosaceous crop breeding is expensive and time-consuming and would benefit from improvements in efficiency and accuracy. Use of DNA information is becoming conventional in rosaceous crop breeding, contributing to many decisions and operations, but only after past decades of solved challenges and generation of sufficient resources...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321828/genome-wide-association-analysis-tracks-bacterial-leaf-blight-resistance-loci-in-rice-diverse-germplasm
#14
Christine Jade Dilla-Ermita, Erwin Tandayu, Venice Margarette Juanillas, Jeffrey Detras, Dennis Nicuh Lozada, Maria Stefanie Dwiyanti, Casiana Vera Cruz, Edwige Gaby Nkouaya Mbanjo, Edna Ardales, Maria Genaleen Diaz, Merlyn Mendioro, Michael J Thomson, Tobias Kretzschmar
BACKGROUND: A range of resistance loci against different races of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the pathogen causing bacterial blight (BB) disease of rice, have been discovered and characterized. Several have been deployed in modern varieties, however, due to rapid evolution of Xoo, a number have already become ineffective. The continuous "arms race" between Xoo and rice makes it imperative to discover new resistance loci to enable durable deployment of multiple resistance genes in modern breeding lines...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315794/initiation-of-leaf-somatic-embryogenesis-involves-high-pectin-esterification-auxin-accumulation-and-dna-demethylation-in-quercus-alba
#15
Elena Corredoira, Vanesa Cano, Ivett Bárány, María-Teresa Solís, Héctor Rodríguez, Ana-María Vieitez, María C Risueño, Pilar S Testillano
Somatic embryogenesis is considered a convenient tool for investigating the regulating mechanisms of embryo formation; it is also a feasible system for in vitro regeneration procedures, with many advantages in woody species. Nevertheless, trees have shown recalcitrance to somatic embryogenesis, and its efficiency remains very low in many cases. Consequently, despite the clear potential of somatic embryogenesis in tree breeding programs, its application is limited since factors responsible for embryogenesis initiation have not yet been completely elucidated...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315718/absolute-quantification-of-cassava-brown-streak-virus-mrna-by-real-time-qpcr
#16
Rudolph R Shirima, Daniel Maeda, Edward Kanju, Gloria Ceasar, Flora I Tibazarwa, James P Legg
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is the most important virus disease of cassava and a major food security threat in Africa. Yearly economic losses of up to $100 million USD have been attributed to CBSD. The lack of information on plant-virus interactions has restricted progress in breeding for CBSD resistance. Virus quantification is becoming a major tool for the quick and reliable assessment of plant host resistance. Therefore, a protocol for specific absolute quantification of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) was developed...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315389/variations-in-the-chemical-composition-and-content-of-salicylic-glycosides-in-the-bark-of-salix-purpurea-from-natural-locations-and-their-significance-for-breeding
#17
Paweł Sulima, Mirosława Krauze-Baranowska, Jerzy Andrzej Przyborowski
Willow bark is one of the few plant raw materials which contain natural active substances that have analgesic, fever-reducing, anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic effects. Salix purpurea, listed as widespread and common in many countries, belongs to the willow species with the highest content of salicylic compounds. The chemical composition and content of major salicylic glycosides (SGs) in the bark of S. purpurea genotypes from natural locations were investigated in this study to evaluate their applicability for pharmaceutical processing and creative breeding...
March 15, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314933/major-genes-determining-yield-related-traits-in-wheat-and-barley
#18
REVIEW
Anna Nadolska-Orczyk, Izabela K Rajchel, Wacław Orczyk, Sebastian Gasparis
Current development of advanced biotechnology tools allows us to characterize the role of key genes in plant productivity. The implementation of this knowledge in breeding strategies might accelerate the progress in obtaining high-yielding cultivars. The achievements of the Green Revolution were based on a specific plant ideotype, determined by a single gene involved in gibberellin signaling or metabolism. Compared with the 1950s, an enormous increase in our knowledge about the biological basis of plant productivity has opened new avenues for novel breeding strategies...
March 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314113/genome-wide-estimation-of-heritability-and-its-functional-components-for-flowering-defense-ionomics-and-developmental-traits-in-a-geographically-diverse-population-of-i-arabidopsis-thaliana-i
#19
Rong-Cai Yang
Narrow-sense heritability (portion of the total phenotypic variation due to additive genetic effect, <i>h</i><sup>2</sup>) is a critical parameter in plant breeding and genetics, but its estimation is difficult for populations with unknown pedigree information. This study applied a marker-based linear mixed model (LMM) analysis to estimate narrow-sense heritability and its seven functional components corresponding to SNPs in coding and noncoding regions for each of 107 flowering, defense, ionomics and developmental traits in an Arabidopsis (<i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>) population of 199 inbred lines with unknown genetic relatedness...
March 17, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304072/dealing-with-iron-metabolism-in-rice-from-breeding-for-stress-tolerance-to-biofortification
#20
Railson Schreinert Dos Santos, Artur Teixeira de Araujo, Camila Pegoraro, Antonio Costa de Oliveira
Iron is a well-known metal. Used by humankind since ancient times in many different ways, this element is present in all living organisms, where, unfortunately, it represents a two-way problem. Being an essential block in the composition of different proteins and metabolic pathways, iron is a vital component for animals and plants. That is why iron deficiency has a severe impact on the lives of different organisms, including humans, becoming a major concern, especially in developing countries where access to adequate nutrition is still difficult...
March 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
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