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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651022/can-natural-variation-in-grain-p-concentrations-be-exploited-in-rice-breeding-to-lower-fertilizer-requirements
#1
Fanmiao Wang, James Douglas Morrison King, Terry Rose, Tobias Kretzschmar, Matthias Wissuwa
Agricultural usage of phosphorus (P) is largely driven by the amount of P removed from fields in harvested plant matter as offtake needs to be balanced by P fertilizer application. Reducing P concentration in grains is a way to decrease P offtake and reduce P fertilizer requirements or soil P mining where insufficient P is applied. Our objective was to assesses the genotypic variation for grain P concentration present within the rice gene pool and resolve to what extent it is affected by environment (P supply) or associated with genetic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650988/transcriptomic-analysis-to-uncover-genes-affecting-cold-resistance-in-the-chinese-honey-bee-apis-cerana-cerana
#2
Kai Xu, Qingsheng Niu, Huiting Zhao, Yali Du, Yusuo Jiang
The biological activity and geographical distribution of honey bees is strongly temperature-dependent, due to their ectothermic physiology. In China, the endemic Apis cerana cerana exhibits stronger cold hardiness than Western honey bees, making the former species important pollinators of winter-flowering plants. Although studies have examined behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying cold resistance in bees, data are scarce regarding the exact molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated gene expression in A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650735/evolution-made-to-order-plant-breeding-and-technological-innovation-in-twentieth-century-america
#3
Deborah Fitzgerald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 26, 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650654/evaluation-of-a-rapid-method-for-screening-heat-stress-tolerance-using-three-korean-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-cultivars
#4
Hai An Truong, Chan Young Jeong, Won Je Lee, Byung Cheon Lee, Namhyun Chung, Chon-Sik Kang, Young-Keun Cheong, Suk-Whan Hong, Hojoung Lee
Thermotolerance in plants is a topic of concern given the current trends in global warming. Here, we aimed to develop a rapid and reproducible screening method for selection of heat stress- tolerant wheat varieties to expedite the breeding process. We tested the robustness of the screen in three Korean wheat cultivars, 'BackJung', 'KeumKang', and 'ChoKyeong'. We showed that 4-day-old seedlings of 'KeumKang' had the highest survival rates after a 45C treatment for 20 h. Moreover, the ability to retain chlorophyll and antioxidant activity was also highest in 'KeumKang'...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649264/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-pvhsp20-family-in-switchgrass-motif-genomic-organization-and-identification-of-stress-or-developmental-related-hsp20s
#5
Haidong Yan, Ailing Zhang, Jing Chen, Xiaoyan He, Bin Xu, Guanqi Xie, Zhiming Miao, Xinquan Zhang, Linkai Huang
Hsp20 proteins exist in all plant species and represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) in plants. Hsp20s were known as chaperones maintaining cellular homeostasis during heat or other kinds of abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to understand the phylogenetic relationship, genomic organization, diversification of motif modules, genome localization, expression profiles, and interaction networks of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Hsp20s (PvHsp20s). A total of 63 PvHsp20s were identified with their consensus as well as unique ACD motifs and gene structures analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648997/effects-tolerance-mechanisms-and-management-of-salt-stress-in-grain-legumes
#6
REVIEW
Muhammad Farooq, Nirmali Gogoi, Mubshar Hussain, Sharmistha Barthakur, Sreyashi Paul, Nandita Bharadwaj, Hussein M Migdadi, Salem S Alghamdi, Kadambot H M Siddique
Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647896/omics-based-hybrid-prediction-in-maize
#7
Matthias Westhues, Tobias A Schrag, Claas Heuer, Georg Thaller, H Friedrich Utz, Wolfgang Schipprack, Alexander Thiemann, Felix Seifert, Anita Ehret, Armin Schlereth, Mark Stitt, Zoran Nikoloski, Lothar Willmitzer, Chris C Schön, Stefan Scholten, Albrecht E Melchinger
Complementing genomic data with other "omics" predictors can increase the probability of success for predicting the best hybrid combinations using complex agronomic traits. Accurate prediction of traits with complex genetic architecture is crucial for selecting superior candidates in animal and plant breeding and for guiding decisions in personalized medicine. Whole-genome prediction has revolutionized these areas but has inherent limitations in incorporating intricate epistatic interactions. Downstream "omics" data are expected to integrate interactions within and between different biological strata and provide the opportunity to improve trait prediction...
June 24, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647758/a-meta-analysis-of-quantitative-trait-loci-for-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-resistance-in-tetraploid-cotton
#8
Abdelraheem Abdelraheem, Feng Liu, Mingzhou Song, Jinfa F Zhang
The number and location of mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) depend on genetic populations and testing environments. The identification of consistent QTL across genetic backgrounds and environments is a pre-requisite to marker-assisted selection. This study analyzed a total of 661 abiotic and biotic stress resistance QTL based on our previous work and other publications using the meta-analysis software Biomercator. It identified chromosomal regions containing QTL clusters for different resistance traits and hotspots for a particular resistance trait in cotton from 98 QTL for drought tolerance under greenhouse (DT) and 150 QTL in field conditions (FDT), 80 QTL for salt tolerance in the greenhouse conditions (ST), 201 QTL for resistance to Verticillium wilt (VW, Verticillium dahliae), 47 QTL for resistance to Fusarium wilt (FW, Fusarium oxysporum f...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645179/system-wide-analysis-of-short-term-response-to-high-temperature-in-pinus-radiata
#9
Mónica Escandón, Luis Valledor, Jesús Pascual, Gloria Pinto, María Jesús Cañal, Mónica Meijón
Pinus radiata seedlings, the most widely planted pine species in the world, were exposed to temperatures within a range mimicking future scenarios based on current models of heat increase. The short-term heat response in P. radiata was studied in detail by exploring the metabolome, proteome and targeted transcriptome. The use of complementary mass spectrometry techniques, GC-MS and LC-Orbitrap-MS, together with novel bioinformatics tools allowed the reliable quantification of 2,075 metabolites and 901 protein groups...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642784/novel-miscanthus-germplasm-based-value-chains-a-life-cycle-assessment
#10
Moritz Wagner, Andreas Kiesel, Astley Hastings, Yasir Iqbal, Iris Lewandowski
In recent years, considerable progress has been made in miscanthus research: improvement of management practices, breeding of new genotypes, especially for marginal conditions, and development of novel utilization options. The purpose of the current study was a holistic analysis of the environmental performance of such novel miscanthus-based value chains. In addition, the relevance of the analyzed environmental impact categories was assessed. A Life Cycle Assessment was conducted to analyse the environmental performance of the miscanthus-based value chains in 18 impact categories...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642778/characterization-of-salt-induced-epigenetic-segregation-by-genome-wide-loss-of-heterozygosity-and-its-association-with-salt-tolerance-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#11
Min Li, Wen-Sheng Wang, Yun-Long Pang, Jessica R Domingo, Jauhar Ali, Jian-Long Xu, Bin-Ying Fu, Elec B Venus, Zhi-Kang Li
In a breeding effort to develop salt tolerant (ST) rice varieties by designed QTL pyramiding, large numbers of progenies derived from four crosses between salt- or drought- tolerant BC2F5 IR64 introgression lines, were subjected to severe salt stress, resulting in 422 ST plants. The progeny testing of the selected F3 lines under more severe salt stress resulted in identification of 16 promising homozygous lines with high levels of ST. Genetic characterization of the 422 ST F3 progeny and 318 random F2 plants from the same four crosses using 105 segregating SSR markers lead to three interesting discoveries: (1) salt stress can induce genome-wide epigenetic segregation (ES) characterized by complete loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and nearly complete loss of an allele (LOA) in the F3 progenies of four rice populations in a single generation; (2) ∼25% of the stress-induced ES loci were transgenerational and inherited from their salt- and drought- selected parents; and (3) the salt-induced LOH and LOA loci (regions) appeared to contain genes/alleles associated with ST and/or drought tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642772/assessment-of-five-chilling-tolerance-traits-and-gwas-mapping-in-rice-using-the-usda-mini-core-collection
#12
Michael R Schläppi, Aaron K Jackson, Georgia C Eizenga, Aiju Wang, Chengcai Chu, Yao Shi, Naoki Shimoyama, Debbie L Boykin
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is often exposed to cool temperatures during spring planting in temperate climates. A better understanding of genetic pathways regulating chilling tolerance will enable breeders to develop varieties with improved tolerance during germination and young seedling stages. To dissect chilling tolerance, five assays were developed; one assay for the germination stage, one assay for the germination and seedling stage, and three for the seedling stage. Based on these assays, five chilling tolerance indices were calculated and assessed using 202 O...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640355/screening-of-melon-genotypes-for-resistance-to-vegetable-leafminer-and-your-phenotypic-correlations-with-colorimetry
#13
Frederico I C DE Oliveira, Leonardo B C Fiege, Elaine F Celin, Renato Innecco, Glauber H S Nunes, Fernando A S DE Aragão
Melon is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. With short cycle in a system of phased planting, phytosanitary control is compromised, and a great volume of agricultural chemicals is used to control vegetable leafminer. Genetic control is an ideal alternative to avoid the damage caused by this insect. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate Cucumis accessions in regard to resistance to leafminer and correlate the variables analyzed. Fifty-four accessions and four commercial hybrids of melon were tested...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639116/integration-of-transcriptomic-and-metabolic-data-reveals-hub-transcription-factors-involved-in-drought-stress-response-in-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l
#14
Sebastián Moschen, Julio A Di Rienzo, Janet Higgins, Takayuki Tohge, Mutsumi Watanabe, Sergio González, Máximo Rivarola, Francisco García-García, Joaquin Dopazo, H Esteban Hopp, Rainer Hoefgen, Alisdair R Fernie, Norma Paniego, Paula Fernández, Ruth A Heinz
By integration of transcriptional and metabolic profiles we identified pathways and hubs transcription factors regulated during drought conditions in sunflower, useful for applications in molecular and/or biotechnological breeding. Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses that effects crop productivity in many agricultural regions. Sunflower is tolerant to drought conditions but the mechanisms involved in this tolerance remain unclear at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to characterize and integrate transcriptional and metabolic pathways related to drought stress in sunflower plants, by using a system biology approach...
June 21, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638623/the-genetic-architecture-of-growth-traits-in-salix-matsudana-under-salt-stress
#15
Jian Zhang, Huwei Yuan, Qingshan Yang, Min Li, Ying Wang, Yujuan Li, Xiangjian Ma, Feng Tan, Rongling Wu
Willow (Salix) is one of the most important ornamental tree species in landscape plants. One species, Salix matsudana, is widely used as a shade tree and border tree because of its soft branches and plump crown. Some varieties of S. matsudana were salt tolerant and could grow normally in coastal regions. However, the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance for S. matsudana have been less clear. Here, we addressed this issue by performing a mapping experiment containing 195 intraspecific F1 progeny of S. matsudana, derived from salt-sensitive 'yanjiang' and salt-tolerant '9901', grown by cuttings in a 100 mM NaCl solution...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638399/recent-genetic-gains-in-nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-oilseed-rape
#16
Andreas Stahl, Mara Pfeifer, Matthias Frisch, Benjamin Wittkop, Rod J Snowdon
Nitrogen is essential for plant growth, and N fertilization allows farmers to obtain high yields and produce sufficient agricultural commodities. On the other hand, nitrogen losses potentially cause adverse effects to ecosystems and to human health. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is vital to solve the conflict between productivity, to secure the demand of a growing world population, and the protection of the environment. To ensure this, genetic improvement is considered to be a paramount aspect toward ecofriendly crop production...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638390/characterization-genomic-organization-abundance-and-chromosomal-distribution-of-ty1-copia-retrotransposons-in-erianthus-arundinaceus
#17
Yongji Huang, Ling Luo, Xuguang Hu, Fan Yu, Yongqing Yang, Zuhu Deng, Jiayun Wu, Rukai Chen, Muqing Zhang
Erianthus arundinaceus is an important wild species of the genus Saccharum with many valuable traits. However, the composition and structure of its genome are largely unknown, which have hindered its utilization in sugarcane breeding and evolutionary research. Retrotransposons constitute an appreciable fraction of plant genomes and may have played a significant role in the evolution and sequence organization of genomes. In the current study, we investigate the phylogenetic diversity and genomic abundance of Ty1-copia retrotransposons for the first time and inspect their chromosomal distribution patterns in E...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637346/an-ion-beam-induced-arabidopsis-mutant-with-marked-chromosomal-rearrangement
#18
Ayako N Sakamoto, Vo Thi Thuong Lan, Satoru Fujimoto, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Atsushi Tanaka
Ion beams have been used as an effective tool in mutation breeding for the creation of crops with novel characteristics. Recent analyses have revealed that ion beams induce large chromosomal alterations, in addition to small mutations comprising base changes or frameshifts. In an effort to understand the potential capability of ion beams, we analyzed an Arabidopsis mutant possessing an abnormal genetic trait. The Arabidopsis mutant uvh3-2 is hypersensitive to UVB radiation when photoreactivation is unavailable...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635663/assessing-genetic-diversity-and-population-differentiation-of-colored-calla-lily-zantedeschia-hybrid-for-an-efficient-breeding-program
#19
Zunzheng Wei, Huali Zhang, Yi Wang, Youli Li, Min Xiong, Xian Wang, Di Zhou
Plastome-genome incompatibility (PGI) is prevalent in several plants including the Zantedeschia species, a worldwide commercial flower crop native to South Africa. Generally, hybrids suffering from PGI appear less vigorous and more susceptible than normal plants. Previous reports revealed that the PGI level in interspecific hybrids is correlated with the relatedness of the parental species in the genus Zantedeschia. To provide a basis for utilizing and improving resources in breeding programs, a total of 117 accessions of colored calla lily (Zantedeschia hybrid), collected from New Zealand, the Netherlands and the United States, were genotyped using 31 transferable expressed sequence tags-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) markers from the white calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica)...
June 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634826/tai-vacuolar-invertase-orthologs-the-interspecific-variability-in-tomato-plants-solanum-section-lycopersicon
#20
M A Slugina, A V Shchennikova, E Z Kochieva
Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying carbohydrate metabolism can promote the development of biotechnological advances in fruit plants. The flesh tomato fruit represents an ideal system for examining the role of sucrose cleavage enzymes in fruit development, and wild tomato species differing in storage sugars serve as an excellent research material for this purpose. Plant vacuolar invertase is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in the sink organs. In the present study, we identified complete gene sequences encoding the TAI vacuolar invertase in 11 wild and one cultivated tomato accessions of the Solanum section Lycopersicon...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
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