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Plant breeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333696/the-plantain-proteome-a-focus-on-allele-specific-proteins-obtained-from-plantain-fruits
#1
Nádia A Campos, Rony Swennen, Sebastien C Carpentier
Proteomics has been applied with great potential to elucidate molecular mechanisms in plants. This is especially valid in the case of non-model crops of which their genome has not been sequenced yet, or is not well annotated. Plantains are a kind of cooking bananas that are economically very important in Africa, India and Latin America. The aim of this work was to characterize the fruit proteome of common dessert bananas and plantains and to identify proteins that are only encoded by the plantain genome. We present the first plantain fruit proteome...
January 15, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331375/xanthomonas-tal-effectors-hijack-host-basal-transcription-factor-iia-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-subunits-for-invasion
#2
Ling Ma, Qiang Wang, Meng Yuan, Tingting Zou, Ping Yin, Shiping Wang
The Xanthomonas genus includes Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria, which infect a broad range of crops and wild plant species, cause symptoms with leaf blights, streaks, spots, stripes, necrosis, wilt, cankers and gummosis on leaves, stems and fruits in a wide variety of plants via injecting their effector proteins into the host cell during infection. Among these virulent effectors, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) interact with the γ subunit of host transcription factor IIA (TFIIAγ) to activate the transcription of host disease susceptibility genes...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330901/floral-contrivances-and-specialized-pollination-mechanism-confer-strong-influence-to-elicit-mixed-mating-in-wrightia-tomentosa-apocynaceae
#3
Chandan Barman, Vineet Kumar Singh, Sandip Das, Rajesh Tandon
• Reproductive success of a plant species is largely influenced by the outcomes of mating pattern in a population. It is believed that a significantly greater proportion of animal-pollinated plants have evolved a mixed-mating strategy, the extent of which may vary among species. It is thus pertinent to investigate the key contributors of mating success, especially to identify the reproductive constraints in depauperated populations of threatened plant species. • We looked into the contribution of floral architecture, pollination mechanism and breeding system on the extent of outcrossing rate in a near threatened tree species, W...
January 13, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329278/t-dna-tagging-based-gain-of-function-of-oshkt1-4-reinforces-na-exclusion-from-leaves-and-stems-but-triggers-na-toxicity-in-roots-of-rice-under-salt-stress
#4
Yuuka Oda, Natsuko I Kobayashi, Keitaro Tanoi, Jian Feng Ma, Yukiko Itou, Maki Katsuhara, Takashi Itou, Tomoaki Horie
The high affinity K⁺ transporter 1;4 (HKT1;4) in rice (Oryza sativa), which shows Na⁺ selective transport with little K⁺ transport activity, has been suggested to be involved in reducing Na in leaves and stems under salt stress. However, detailed physiological roles of OsHKT1;4 remain unknown. Here, we have characterized a transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertion mutant line of rice, which overexpresses OsHKT1;4, owing to enhancer elements in the T-DNA, to gain an insight into the impact of OsHKT1;4 on salt tolerance of rice...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328914/rewiring-of-the-fruit-metabolome-in-tomato-breeding
#5
Guangtao Zhu, Shouchuang Wang, Zejun Huang, Shuaibin Zhang, Qinggang Liao, Chunzhi Zhang, Tao Lin, Mao Qin, Meng Peng, Chenkun Yang, Xue Cao, Xu Han, Xiaoxuan Wang, Esther van der Knaap, Zhonghua Zhang, Xia Cui, Harry Klee, Alisdair R Fernie, Jie Luo, Sanwen Huang
Humans heavily rely on dozens of domesticated plant species that have been further improved through intensive breeding. To evaluate how breeding changed the tomato fruit metabolome, we have generated and analyzed a dataset encompassing genomes, transcriptomes, and metabolomes from hundreds of tomato genotypes. The combined results illustrate how breeding globally altered fruit metabolite content. Selection for alleles of genes associated with larger fruits altered metabolite profiles as a consequence of linkage with nearby genes...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327329/microrna-mediated-r-gene-regulation-molecular-scabbards-for-double-edged-swords
#6
REVIEW
Yingtian Deng, Minglei Liu, Xiaofei Li, Feng Li
Plant resistance (R) proteins are immune receptors that recognize pathogen effectors and trigger rapid defense responses, namely effector-triggered immunity. R protein-mediated pathogen resistance is usually race specific. During plant-pathogen coevolution, plant genomes accumulated large numbers of R genes. Even though plant R genes provide important natural resources for breeding disease-resistant crops, their presence in the plant genome comes at a cost. Misregulation of R genes leads to developmental defects, such as stunted growth and reduced fertility...
January 9, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327217/cryobiotechnology-of-apple-malus-spp-development-progress-and-future-prospects
#7
REVIEW
Min-Rui Wang, Long Chen, Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Gayle M Volk, Qiao-Chun Wang
Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids...
January 11, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327163/manipulating-the-phytic-acid-content-of-rice-grain-toward-improving-micronutrient-bioavailability
#8
REVIEW
Ishara Perera, Saman Seneweera, Naoki Hirotsu
Myo-inositol hexaphosphate, also known as phytic acid (PA), is the most abundant storage form of phosphorus in seeds. PA acts as a strong chelator of metal cations to form phytate and is considered an anti-nutrient as it reduces the bioavailability of important micronutrients. Although the major nutrient source for more than one-half of the global population, rice is a poor source of essential micronutrients. Therefore, biofortification and reducing the PA content of rice have arisen as new strategies for increasing micronutrient bioavailability in rice...
January 11, 2018: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322324/molecular-mapping-of-qbk1-wd-a-major-qtl-for-bakanae-disease-resistance-in-rice
#9
Sais-Beul Lee, Yeon-Jae Hur, Jun-Hyeon Cho, Jong-Hee Lee, Tae-Heon Kim, Soo-Min Cho, You-Chun Song, Young-Su Seo, Jungkwan Lee, Tae-Sung Kim, Yong-Jin Park, Myung-Kyu Oh, Dong-Soo Park
BACKGROUND: Bakanae or foot rot disease is a prominent disease of rice caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. This disease may infect rice plants from the pre-emergence stage to the mature stage. In recent years, raising rice seedlings in seed boxes for mechanical transplanting has increased the incidence of many seedling diseases; only a few rice varieties have been reported to exhibit resistance to bakanae disease. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring bakanae disease resistance from the highly resistant japonica variety Wonseadaesoo...
January 10, 2018: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321893/opposing-deer-and-caterpillar-foraging-preferences-may-prevent-reductions-in-songbird-prey-biomass-in-historically-overbrowsed-forests
#10
R Keating Godfrey, Ellen H Yerger, Timothy J Nuttle
Overbrowsing by ungulates decimates plant populations and reduces diversity in a variety of ecosystems, but the mechanisms by which changes to plant community composition influence other trophic levels are poorly understood. In addition to removal of avian nesting habitat, browsing is hypothesized to reduce bird density and diversity through reduction of insect prey on browse-tolerant hosts left behind by deer. In this study, we excluded birds from branches of six tree species to quantify differences in songbird prey removal across trees that vary in deer browse preference...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321812/construction-of-an-ultrahigh-density-genetic-linkage-map-for-jatropha-curcas-l-and-identification-of-qtl-for-fruit-yield
#11
Zhiqiang Xia, Shengkui Zhang, Mingfu Wen, Cheng Lu, Yufang Sun, Meiling Zou, Wenquan Wang
Background: As an important biofuel plant, the demand for higher yield Jatropha curcas L. is rapidly increasing. However, genetic analysis of Jatropha and molecular breeding for higher yield have been hampered by the limited number of molecular markers available. Results: An ultrahigh-density linkage map for a Jatropha mapping population of 153 individuals was constructed and covered 1380.58 cM of the Jatropha genome, with average marker density of 0.403 cM. The genetic linkage map consisted of 3422 SNP and indel markers, which clustered into 11 linkage groups...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321342/association-between-ssr-markers-and-fibre-traits-in-sea-island-cotton-gossypium-barbadense-germplasm-resources
#12
Qi Ma, Jing Zhao, Hai Lin, Xinzhu Ning, Ping Liu, Fujun Deng, Aijun Si, Jilian Li
Identification of molecular markers associated with fibre traits can accelerate cotton marker-assisted selection (MAS) programmes. In this study, Gossypium barbadense germplasm accessions with diverse origins (n = 123) were used to perform association analysis of fibre traits with 120 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In total, 120 polymorphic primer pairs amplified 258 loci with a mean of 2.15 loci per primer. Population structure analysis identified three main clusters for the accessions, which indicated agreement of genetic and predefined populations...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320569/transcriptome-profiling-of-pumpkin-cucurbita-moschata-duch-leaves-infected-with-powdery-mildew
#13
Wei-Li Guo, Bi-Hua Chen, Xue-Jin Chen, Yan-Yan Guo, He-Lian Yang, Xin-Zheng Li, Guang-Yin Wang
Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PM resistance remain largely unknown, especially in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.). The goal of this study was to identify gene expression differences in PM-treated plants (harvested at 24 h and 48 h after inoculation) and untreated (control) plants of inbred line "112-2" using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The inbred line "112-2" has been purified over 8 consecutive generations of self-pollination and shows high resistance to PM...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318815/-brief-introduction-to-progress-of-national-census-of-chinese-medicine-resources-pilot
#14
Lu-Qi Huang, Li-Ying Sun, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Lan-Ping Guo, Hui Wang, Meng Li, Zhi-Xian Jing
Since the beginning of 2011, with the strong support of the Ministry of Finance, the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine has organized the pilot work on the census of traditional Chinese medicine resources (hereinafter referred to as the "pilot work"). At all levels of Chinese medicine management departments under the joint efforts of the pilot work has achieved initial results. For the fourth national comprehensive implementation of traditional Chinese medicine resources, the technical methods have been optimized, the working teams have been professionally trained, and the experiences are accumulated...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315636/leaf-transpiration-plays-a-role-in-phosphorus-acquisition-among-a-large-set-of-chickpea-genotypes
#15
Jiayin Pang, Hongxia Zhao, Ruchi Bansal, Emilien Bohuon, Hans Lambers, Megan H Ryan, Kadambot H M Siddique
Low availability of inorganic phosphorus (P) is considered a major constraint for crop productivity worldwide. A unique set of 266 chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes, originating from 29 countries and with diverse genetic background were used to study P-use efficiency. Plants were grown in pots containing sterilised river sand supplied with P at a rate of 10 μg P g-1 soil as FePO4 , a poorly soluble form of P. The results showed large genotypic variation in plant growth, shoot P content, physiological P-use efficiency and P-utilisation efficiency in response to low-P supply...
January 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315263/multiscale-and-multimodal-approaches-to-study-autophagy-in-model-plants
#16
REVIEW
Jessica Marion, Romain Le Bars, Laetitia Besse, Henri Batoko, Béatrice Satiat-Jeunemaitre
Autophagy is a catabolic process used by eukaryotic cells to maintain or restore cellular and organismal homeostasis. A better understanding of autophagy in plant biology could lead to an improvement of the recycling processes of plant cells and thus contribute, for example, towards reducing the negative ecological consequences of nitrogen-based fertilizers in agriculture. It may also help to optimize plant adaptation to adverse biotic and abiotic conditions through appropriate plant breeding or genetic engineering to incorporate useful traits in relation to this catabolic pathway...
January 9, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314007/chlorophyll-fluorescence-imaging-reveals-genetic-variation-and-loci-for-a-photosynthetic-trait-in-diploid-potato
#17
Aina E Prinzenberg, Marcela Víquez-Zamora, Jeremy Harbinson, Pim Lindhout, Sjaak van Heusden
Physiology and genetics are tightly interrelated. Understanding the genetic basis of a physiological trait such as the quantum yield of the photosystem II, or photosynthetic responses to environmental changes will benefit the understanding of these processes. By means of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging "CF", the quantum yield of photosystem II can be determined rapidly, precisely and non-invasively. In this article, the genetic control and variation in the steady-state quantum yield of PSII "ΦPSII " is analysed for diploid potato plants...
January 4, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309617/synergistic-effect-of-fertilizer-and-plant-material-combinations-on-the-development-of-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae-and-anopheles-gambiae-diptera-culicidae-mosquitoes
#18
Frédéric Darriet
Chemical fertilizers are used everywhere, which often pollute the breeding sites of mosquitoes. In this laboratory study, the consequences on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles gambiae (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) of water-containing plant matter (PM) alone, or in association with an NPK type of fertilizer (PM+NPK), were evaluated. To obtain a 20% imaginal emergence of An. gambiae (IEt20), the bioassays carried out with PM have evidenced that its larvae need four times as much food as for Ae...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305724/tools-for-monitoring-aquatic-environments-to-identify-anthropic-effects
#19
Monyque Palagano da Rocha, Priscila Leocadia Rosa Dourado, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Liliam Silva Cândido, Joelson Gonçalves Pereira, Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
Anthropic activities are directly related to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems owing to the release of numerous chemicals from agricultural and urban waste. These contaminants cause environmental degradation and a decrease in the availability of water quality. The objective of this search was to evaluate the efficiency of physicochemical, chemical, and microbiological tests; extraction of chlorophyll a; and genetic parameters to identify anthropic activities and weather condition effects on the stream water quality and the consequences of its use by the population...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305700/genetic-architecture-of-aerial-and-root-traits-in-field-grown-grafted-grapevines-is-largely-independent
#20
Jean-Pascal Tandonnet, Elisa Marguerit, Sarah J Cookson, Nathalie Ollat
QTLs were identified for traits assessed on field-grown grafted grapevines. Root number and section had the largest phenotypic variance explained. Genetic control of root and aerial traits was independent. Breeding new rootstocks for perennial crops remains challenging, mainly because of the number of desirable traits which have to be combined, these traits include good rooting ability and root development. Consequently, the present study analyzes the genetic architecture of root traits in grapevine. A segregating progeny of 138 F1 genotypes issued from an inter-specific cross between Vitis vinifera cv...
January 5, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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