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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945027/-dna-marker-assisted-selection-of-medicinal-plants-%C3%A2-breeding-research-of-disease-resistant-cultivars-of-panax-notoginseng
#1
Min Liu, Wen-Li Huang, Xiao Wang, Rui-Han Wan, Hai Wang, Zhu-Yun Yan
The study is aimed to estimate the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the main producing areas of Salvia miltiorrhiza.Diversity of AMF was surveyed directly on spores isolated from the field soil, collected from 20 sites of 8 provinces. Identification of the AMF was made by observation of spore morphology. At least 27 recognized AMF species were identified in samples from field soil, belonging to seven genera of AMF-Acaulospora, Glomus, Funneliformis, Ambispora, Rhizophagus, Pacispora, and Claroideoglomus...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945026/-dna-marker-assisted-selection-of-medicinal-plants-%C3%A2-breeding-research-of-disease-resistant-cultivars-of-panax-notoginseng
#2
Qing Li, Biao Li, Shun-Xing Guo
SSR is one of the most important molecular markers used in molecular identification and genetic diversity research of Dendrobium nobile. In order to enrich the library of SSR and establish a method for rapid identification of D. nobile, the SSR information was analyzed in the transcriptome of D. nobile. A total of 32 709 SSRs were obtained from the transcriptome of D. nobile, distributed in 26 742 unigenes with the distribution frequency of 12.90%. SSR loci occurred every 3 748 bp. Mono-nucleotide repeat was the main type, account for as much as 72...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945025/-dna-marker-assisted-selection-of-medicinal-plants-%C3%A2-breeding-research-of-disease-resistant-cultivars-of-panax-notoginseng
#3
Lin-Lin Dong, Zhong-Jian Chen, Yong Wang, Fu-Gang Wei, Lian-Juan Zhang, Jiang Xu, Guang-Fei Wei, Rui Wang, Juan Yang, Wei-Lin Liu, Xi-Wen Li, Yu-Qi Yu, Shi-Lin Chen
DNA marker-assisted selection of medicinal plants is based on the DNA polymorphism, selects the DNA sequences related to the phenotypes such as high yields, superior quality, stress-resistance and so on according to the technologies of molecular hybridization, polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput sequencing, and assists the breeding of new cultivars. This study bred the first disease-resistant cultivar of notoginseng "Miaoxiang Kangqi 1" using the technology of DNA marker-assisted selection of medicinal plants and systematic breeding...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938176/genotypic-differences-in-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-to-salinity-stress-in-melon-cucumis-melo-l-plants-prospects-for-selection-of-salt-tolerant-landraces
#4
Behrooz Sarabi, Sahebali Bolandnazar, Nasser Ghaderi, Jaleh Ghashghaie
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most important horticultural crops in Iran often cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the country with salinity problems. The objective of this work was to better understand the mechanisms of physiological and biochemical responses to salinity stress of five Iranian melon landraces "Samsuri", "Kashan", "Khatouni", "Suski-e-Sabz", and "Ghobadlu" from different geographical origins, and "Galia" F1 cultivar. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and irrigated with half-strength Hoagland solution containing 0, 30, 60, or 90 mM NaCl for 60 days...
September 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936669/impedance-flow-cytometry-as-a-tool-to-analyze-microspore-and-pollen-quality
#5
Iris Heidmann, Marco Di Berardino
Analyzing pollen quality in an efficient and reliable manner is of great importance to the industries involved in seed and fruit production, plant breeding, and plant research. Pollen quality parameters, viability and germination capacity, are analyzed by various staining methods or by in vitro germination assays, respectively. These methods are time-consuming, species-dependent, and require a lab environment. Furthermore, the obtained viability data are often poorly related to in vivo pollen germination and seed set...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936220/de-novo-assembly-of-the-camellia-nitidissima-transcriptome-reveals-key-genes-of-flower-pigment-biosynthesis
#6
Xingwen Zhou, Jiyuan Li, Yulin Zhu, Sui Ni, Jinling Chen, Xiaojuan Feng, Yunfeng Zhang, Shuangquan Li, Hongguang Zhu, Yuanguang Wen
The golden camellia, Camellia nitidissima Chi., is a well-known ornamental plant that is known as "the queen of camellias" because of its golden yellow flowers. The principal pigments in the flowers are carotenoids and flavonol glycosides. Understanding the biosynthesis of the golden color and its regulation is important in camellia breeding. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of flower development in C. nitidissima, a number of cDNA libraries were independently constructed during flower development. Using the Illumina Hiseq2500 platform, approximately 71...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936216/genetic-tracing-of-jatropha-curcas-l-from-its-mesoamerican-origin-to-the-world
#7
Haiyan Li, Suguru Tsuchimoto, Kyuya Harada, Masanori Yamasaki, Hiroe Sakai, Naoki Wada, Atefeh Alipour, Tomohiro Sasai, Atsushi Tsunekawa, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Takayuki Ando, Hisashi Tomemori, Shusei Sato, Hideki Hirakawa, Victor P Quintero, Alfredo Zamarripa, Primitivo Santos, Adel Hegazy, Abdalla M Ali, Kiichi Fukui
Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha), a shrub species of the family Euphorbiaceae, has been recognized as a promising biofuel plant for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, recent attempts at commercial cultivation in Africa and Asia have failed because of low productivity. It is important to elucidate genetic diversity and relationship in worldwide Jatropha genetic resources for breeding of better commercial cultivars. Here, genetic diversity was analyzed by using 246 accessions from Mesoamerica, Africa and Asia, based on 59 simple sequence repeat markers and eight retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism markers...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935986/consumption-of-crustaceans-by-megaherbivorous-dinosaurs-dietary-flexibility-and-dinosaur-life-history-strategies
#8
Karen Chin, Rodney M Feldmann, Jessica N Tashman
Large plant-eating dinosaurs are usually presumed to have been strictly herbivorous, because their derived teeth and jaws were capable of processing fibrous plant foods. This inferred feeding behavior offers a generalized view of dinosaur food habits, but rare direct fossil evidence of diet provides more nuanced insights into feeding behavior. Here we describe fossilized feces (coprolites) that demonstrate recurring consumption of crustaceans and rotted wood by large Late Cretaceous dinosaurs. These multi-liter coprolites from the Kaiparowits Formation are primarily composed of comminuted conifer wood tissues that were fungally degraded before ingestion...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935260/insights-of-lr28-mediated-wheat-leaf-rust-resistance-transcriptomic-approach
#9
Dharmendra Singh, Dhananjay Kumar, Lopamudra Satapathy, Jyoti Pathak, Saket Chandra, Adnan Riaz, Govindraj Bhaganagre, Raman Dhariwal, Manish Kumar, Kumble Vinod Prabhu, Harindra Singh Balyan, Pushpendra Kumar Gupta, Kunal Mukhopadhyay
Leaf rust is a fungal disease that causes severe yield losses in wheat. Resistant varieties with major and quantitative resistance genes are the most effective method to control the disease. However, the main problem is inadequate information for understanding resistance mechanism and its usefulness. This paper presents Lr28 mediated genome-wide response of known and unknown genes during wheat-Puccinia triticina interaction. In this study, we prepared Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) libraries using seedling wheat mRNA for infected and mock conditions...
September 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933771/sulfur-protects-pakchoi-brassica-chinensis-l-seedlings-against-cadmium-stress-by-regulating-ascorbate-glutathione-metabolism
#10
Lili Lou, Jingquan Kang, Hongxi Pang, Qiuyu Li, Xiaoping Du, Wei Wu, Junxiu Chen, Jinyin Lv
Cadmium (Cd) pollution in food chains pose a potential health risk for humans. Sulfur (S) is a significant macronutrient that plays a significant role in the regulation of plant responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no information is currently available about the impact of S application on ascorbate-glutathione metabolism (ASA-GSH cycle) of Pakchoi plants under Cd stress. The two previously identified genotypes, namely, Aikangqing (a Cd-tolerant cultivar) and Qibaoqing (a Cd-sensitive cultivar), were utilized to investigate the role of S to mitigate Cd toxicity in Pakchoi plants under different Cd regimes...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933076/-strategies-of-elucidation-of-biosynthetic-pathways-of-natural-products
#11
Li-Qiu Zou, Xue-Jun Kuang, Chao Sun, Shi-Lin Chen
Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways of natural products is not only the major goal of herb genomics, but also the solid foundation of synthetic biology of natural products. Here, this paper reviewed recent advance in this field and put forward strategies to elucidate the biosynthetic pathway of natural products. Firstly, a proposed biosynthetic pathway should be set up based on well-known knowledge about chemical reactions and information on the identified compounds, as well as studies with isotope tracer...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933072/-metabolomics-research-of-medicinal-plants
#12
Li-Xin Duan, Yun-Tao Dai, Chao Sun, Shi-Lin Chen
Metabolomics is the comprehensively study of chemical processes involving small molecule metabolites. It is an important part of systems biology, and is widely applied in complex traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)system. Metabolites biosynthesized by medicinal plants are the effective basis for TCM. Metabolomics studies of medicinal plants will usher in a new period of vigorous development with the implementation of Herb Genome Program and the development of TCM synthetic biology. This manuscript introduces the recent research progresses of metabolomics technology and the main research contents of metabolomics studies for medicinal plants, including identification and quality evaluation for medicinal plants, cultivars breeding, stress resistance, metabolic pathways, metabolic network, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology researches...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929670/-herbgenomics
#13
Shi-Lin Chen, Jing-Yuan Song
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has contributad greatly to improving human health. However, the biological characteristics and molecular mechanisms of TCM in the treatment of human diseases remain largely unknown. Genomics plays an important role in modern medicine and biology. Here, we introduce genomics and other related omics to the study of herbs to propose a new discipline, Herbgenomics, that aims to uncover the genetic information and regulatory networks of herbs and to clarify their molecular mechanisms in the prevention and treatment of human diseases...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929649/-rationality-of-commodity-criteria-and-traditional-breeding-of-polygala-tenuifolia-based-on-agronomic-traits-and-determination-of-chemical-components
#14
Dan-Dan Wang, Lu Bai, Xiao-Shuang Xu, Fu-Sheng Zhang, Jie Xing, Jin-Ping Jia, Hong-Ling Tian, Xue-Mei Qin
The agronomic traits (plant height, root diameter, root length, first lateral root height, lateral root amount, root weight) of 18 Polygala tenuifolia samples with different agronomic traits were analyzed, respectively. HPLC was used to analyze three main characteristic components including tenuifolin, polygalaxanthone Ⅲ, and 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose. At last, the correlation between six agronomic traits and three main characteristic components were analyzed by scatter plot. We found no significant correlation between root diameter and three main characteristic components...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929574/metabolite-and-transcript-markers-for-the-prediction-of-potato-drought-tolerance
#15
Heike Sprenger, Alexander Erban, Sylvia Seddig, Katharina Rudack, Anja Thalhammer, Mai Q Le, Dirk Walther, Ellen Zuther, Karin I Köhl, Joachim Kopka, Dirk K Hincha
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. Current potato varieties are highly susceptible to drought stress. In view of global climate change, selection of cultivars with improved drought tolerance and high yield potential is of paramount importance. Drought tolerance breeding of potato is currently based on direct selection according to yield and phenotypic traits and requires multiple trials under drought conditions. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is cheaper, faster and reduces classification errors caused by non-controlled environmental effects...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928752/climate-clever-clovers-new-paradigm-to-reduce-the-environmental-footprint-of-ruminants-by-breeding-low-methanogenic-forages-utilizing-haplotype-variation
#16
Parwinder Kaur, Rudi Appels, Philipp E Bayer, Gabriel Keeble-Gagnere, Jiankang Wang, Hideki Hirakawa, Kenta Shirasawa, Philip Vercoe, Katia Stefanova, Zoey Durmic, Phillip Nichols, Clinton Revell, Sachiko N Isobe, David Edwards, William Erskine
Mitigating methane production by ruminants is a significant challenge to global livestock production. This research offers a new paradigm to reduce methane emissions from ruminants by breeding climate-clever clovers. We demonstrate wide genetic diversity for the trait methanogenic potential in Australia's key pasture legume, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). In a bi-parental population the broadsense heritability in methanogenic potential was moderate (H(2) = 0.4) and allelic variation in a region of Chr 8 accounted for 7...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928381/crispr-cas9-induced-targeted-mutagenesis-and-gene-replacement-to-generate-long-shelf-life-tomato-lines
#17
Qing-Hui Yu, Baike Wang, Ning Li, Yaping Tang, Shengbao Yang, Tao Yang, Juan Xu, Chunmiao Guo, Peng Yan, Qiang Wang, Patiguli Asmutola
Quickly and precisely gain genetically enhanced breeding elites with value-adding performance traits is desired by the crop breeders all the time. The present of gene editing technologies, especially the CRISPR/Cas9 system with the capacities of efficiency, versatility and multiplexing provides a reasonable expectation towards breeding goals. For exploiting possible application to accelerate the speed of process at breeding by CRISPR/Cas9 technology, in this study, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 system transformation method was used for obtaining tomato ALC gene mutagenesis and replacement, in absence and presence of the homologous repair template...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927400/genome-sequencing-of-the-staple-food-crop-white-guinea-yam-enables-the-development-of-a-molecular-marker-for-sex-determination
#18
Muluneh Tamiru, Satoshi Natsume, Hiroki Takagi, Benjamen White, Hiroki Yaegashi, Motoki Shimizu, Kentaro Yoshida, Aiko Uemura, Kaori Oikawa, Akira Abe, Naoya Urasaki, Hideo Matsumura, Pachakkil Babil, Shinsuke Yamanaka, Ryo Matsumoto, Satoru Muranaka, Gezahegn Girma, Antonio Lopez-Montes, Melaku Gedil, Ranjana Bhattacharjee, Michael Abberton, P Lava Kumar, Ismail Rabbi, Mai Tsujimura, Toru Terachi, Wilfried Haerty, Manuel Corpas, Sophien Kamoun, Günter Kahl, Hiroko Takagi, Robert Asiedu, Ryohei Terauchi
BACKGROUND: Root and tuber crops are a major food source in tropical Africa. Among these crops are several species in the monocotyledonous genus Dioscorea collectively known as yam, a staple tuber crop that contributes enormously to the subsistence and socio-cultural lives of millions of people, principally in West and Central Africa. Yam cultivation is constrained by several factors, and yam can be considered a neglected "orphan" crop that would benefit from crop improvement efforts...
September 19, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927022/salt-stress-response-mechanisms-using-de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-of-salt-tolerant-and-sensitive-corchorus-spp-genotypes
#19
Zemao Yang, Ruike Lu, Zhigang Dai, An Yan, Qing Tang, Chaohua Cheng, Ying Xu, Wenting Yang, Jianguang Su
High salinity is a major environmental stressor for crops. To understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying salt tolerance, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis between salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive jute (Corchorus spp.) genotypes in leaf and root tissues under salt stress and control conditions. In total, 68,961 unigenes were identified. Additionally, 11,100 unigenes (including 385 transcription factors (TFs)) exhibited significant differential expression in salt-tolerant or salt-sensitive genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925957/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-biosynthesis-and-deactivation-of-gibberellin-dioxygenases-gene-family-in-camellia-sinensis-l-o-kuntze
#20
Cheng Pan, Kunhong Tian, Qiuyan Ban, Leigang Wang, Qilu Sun, Yan He, Yuanfei Yang, Yuting Pan, Yeyun Li, Jiayue Jiang, Changjun Jiang
Gibberellins (GAs), a class of diterpenoid phytohormones, play a key role in regulating diverse processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Bioactive GA levels are rapidly regulated by Gibberellin-dioxygenases (GAox), which are involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of gibberellin. In this manuscript, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was carried out to find all GAox in Camellia sinensis. For the first time in a tea plant, 14 CsGAox genes, containing two domains, DIOX_N (PF14226) and 2OG-FeII_Oxy, were identified (PF03171)...
September 19, 2017: Genes
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