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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144774/strategies-for-enhanced-crop-resistance-to-insect-pests
#1
Angela E Douglas
Insect pests are responsible for substantial crop losses worldwide through direct damage and transmission of plant diseases, and novel approaches that complement or replace broad-spectrum chemical insecticides will facilitate the sustainable intensification of food production in the coming decades. Multiple strategies for improved crop resistance to insect pests, especially strategies relating to plant secondary metabolism and immunity and microbiome science, are becoming available. Recent advances in metabolic engineering of plant secondary chemistry offer the promise of specific toxicity or deterrence to insect pests; improved understanding of plant immunity against insects provides routes to optimize plant defenses against insects; and the microbiomes of insect pests can be exploited, either as a target or as a vehicle for delivery of insecticidal agents...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143712/accuracy-and-bias-of-genomic-prediction-with-different-de-regression-methods
#2
H Song, L Li, Q Zhang, S Zhang, X Ding
Genomic selection has become increasingly important in the breeding of animals and plants. The response variable is an important factor, influencing the accuracy of genomic selection. The de-regressed proof (DRP) based on traditional estimated breeding value (EBV) is commonly used as response variable. In the current study, simulated data from 16th QTL-MAS Workshop and real data from Chinese Holstein cattle were used to compare accuracy and bias of genomic prediction with two methods of calculating DRP. Our results with simulated data showed that the correlation between genomic EBV and true breeding value achieved using the Jairath method (DRP_J) was superior to that achieved using the Garrick method (DRP_G) for simulated trait 1 but the reverse was true for simulated trait 3, and these two methods performed comparably for simulated trait 2...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143671/gwas-of-agronomic-traits-in-soybean-collection-included-in-breeding-pool-in-kazakhstan
#3
Alibek Zatybekov, Saule Abugalieva, Svetlana Didorenko, Yelena Gerasimova, Ivan Sidorik, Shynar Anuarbek, Yerlan Turuspekov
BACKGROUND: In recent years soybean is becoming one of the most important oilseed crops in Kazakhstan. Only within the last ten years (2006-2016), the area under soybean is expanded from 45 thousand hectares (ha) in 2006 to 120 thousand ha in 2016. The general trend of soybean expansion is from south-eastern to eastern and northern regions of the country, where average temperatures are lower and growing seasons are shorter. These new soybean growing territories were poorly examined in terms of general effects on productivity level among the diverse sample of soybean accessions...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143606/metabolic-pathways-and-genes-identified-by-rna-seq-analysis-of-barley-near-isogenic-lines-differing-by-allelic-state-of-the-black-lemma-and-pericarp-blp-gene
#4
Anastasiya Y Glagoleva, Nikolay A Shmakov, Olesya Y Shoeva, Gennady V Vasiliev, Natalia V Shatskaya, Andreas Börner, Dmitry A Afonnikov, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: Some plant species have 'melanin-like' black seed pigmentation. However, the chemical and genetic nature of this 'melanin-like' black pigment have not yet been fully explored due to its complex structure and ability to withstand almost all solvents. Nevertheless, identification of genetic networks participating in trait formation is key to understanding metabolic processes involved in the expression of 'melanin-like' black seed pigmentation. The aim of the current study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in barley near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing by allelic state of the Blp (black lemma and pericarp) locus...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143598/gwas-for-plant-growth-stages-and-yield-components-in-spring-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-harvested-in-three-regions-of-kazakhstan
#5
Yerlan Turuspekov, Aida Baibulatova, Kanat Yermekbayev, Laura Tokhetova, Vladimir Chudinov, Grigoriy Sereda, Martin Ganal, Simon Griffiths, Saule Abugalieva
BACKGROUND: Spring wheat is the largest agricultural crop grown in Kazakhstan with an annual sowing area of 12 million hectares in 2016. Annually, the country harvests around 15 million tons of high quality grain. Despite environmental stress factors it is predicted that the use of new technologies may lead to increases in productivity from current levels of 1.5 to up to 3 tons per hectare. One way of improving wheat productivity is by the application of new genomic oriented approaches in plant breeding projects...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142024/a-model-of-leaf-coordination-to-scale-up-leaf-expansion-from-the-organ-to-the-canopy
#6
Pierre Martre, Anaelle Dambreville
Process-based crop growth models are popular tools to analyze and understand the impact of crop management, genotype by environment interactions, or climate change. The ability to predict leaf area development is critical to predict crop growth, particularly under conditions of limited resources. Here, we aimed at deciphering growth coordination rules between wheat plant organs, i.e. between leaves within a stem, between laminae and sheaths, and between the mainstem and axillary tillers, to model the dynamics of canopy development...
November 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138904/rice-diversity-panel-provides-accurate-genomic-predictions-for-complex-traits-in-the-progenies-of-biparental-crosses-involving-members-of-the-panel
#7
M Ben Hassen, T V Cao, J Bartholomé, G Orasen, C Colombi, J Rakotomalala, L Razafinimpiasa, C Bertone, C Biselli, A Volante, F Desiderio, L Jacquin, G Valè, N Ahmadi
Rice breeding programs based on pedigree schemes can use a genomic model trained with data from their working collection to predict performances of progenies produced through rapid generation advancement. So far, most potential applications of genomic prediction in plant improvement have been explored using cross validation approaches. This is the first empirical study to evaluate the accuracy of genomic prediction of the performances of progenies in a typical rice breeding program. Using a cross validation approach, we first analyzed the effects of marker selection and statistical methods on the accuracy of prediction of three different heritability traits in a reference population (RP) of 284 inbred accessions...
November 14, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138433/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-regulation-of-stalk-development-in-flowering-chinese-cabbage-brassica-campestris-by-rna-sequencing
#8
Xinmin Huang, Yuling Lei, Hongling Guan, Yanwei Hao, Houcheng Liu, Guangwen Sun, Riyuan Chen, Shiwei Song
Flowering Chinese cabbage is a stalk vegetable whose quality and yield are directly related to stalk development. However, no comprehensive investigations on stalk development have been performed. To address this issue, the present study used RNA sequencing to investigate transcriptional regulation at three key stages (seedling, bolting, and flowering) of stalk development in flowering Chinese cabbage. Anatomical analysis revealed that cell division was the main mode of stalk thickening and elongation at all key stages...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137491/characterization-of-biochemical-traits-of-dog-rose-rosa-canina-l-ecotypes-in-the-central-part-of-iran
#9
Milad Javanmard, Hossein Ali Asadi-Gharneh, Pejman Nikneshan
Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) is a wild native species in Iran, with a significant genetic diversity. This plant serves as a rich source of vitamin C, anthocyanins, phenolic contents and carotenoids. Rose hips have been used in several food products, as well as perfumery and cosmetics industries. In this research, we investigate biochemical characteristics of five dog rose ecotypes (Kopehjamshid, Zarneh, Miyankish, Aghcheh and Sadeghiyeh), that were collected from the central part of Iran (Isfahan province). Amounts of vitamin C, total carotenoids, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, macro and micro minerals were measured...
November 14, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133511/which-individuals-to-choose-to-update-the-reference-population-minimizing-the-loss-of-genetic-diversity-in-animal-genomic-selection-programs
#10
S E Eynard, P Croiseau, D Laloë, S Fritz, M P L Calus, G Restoux
Genomic selection is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, genomic selection allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a potential loss of genetic diversity. Existing methods to conserve genetic diversity depend mostly on the choice of the breeding individuals. In this study we propose a modification of the reference population composition to mitigate diversity loss...
November 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132315/comprehensive-genomic-analysis-of-the-cngc-gene-family-in-brassica-oleracea-novel-insights-into-synteny-structures-and-transcript-profiles
#11
Kaleem U Kakar, Zarqa Nawaz, Khadija Kakar, Essa Ali, Abdulwareth A Almoneafy, Raqeeb Ullah, Xue-Liang Ren, Qing-Yao Shu
BACKGROUND: The cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (CNGC) family affects the uptake of cations, growth, pathogen defence, and thermotolerance in plants. However, the systematic identification, origin and function of this gene family has not been performed in Brassica oleracea, an important vegetable crop and genomic model organism. RESULTS: In present study, we identified 26 CNGC genes in B. oleracea genome, which are non-randomly localized on eight chromosomes, and classified into four major (I-IV) and two sub-groups (i...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132087/traditional-cattle-vs-introduced-deer-management-in-chaco-serrano-woodlands-argentina-analysis-of-environmental-sustainability-at-increasing-densities
#12
José Luis Charro, Aida López-Sánchez, Ramón Perea
Wild ungulate populations have increased and expanded considerably in many regions, including austral woodlands and forests where deer (Cervus elaphus) have been introduced as an alternative management to traditional cattle grazing. In this study, we compared traditional cattle with introduced deer management at increasing deer densities in the "Chaco Serrano" woodlands of Argentina to assess their ecological sustainability. We used three ecological indicators (abundance of tree regeneration, woody plant diversity and browsing damage) as proxies for environmental sustainability in woody systems...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131853/transcriptome-analysis-of-crossostephium-chinensis-provides-insight-into-the-molecular-basis-of-salinity-stress-responses
#13
Haiyan Yang, Ming Sun, Shuangji Lin, Yanhong Guo, Yongjuan Yang, Tengxun Zhang, Jingxing Zhang
Soil salinization is becoming a limitation to the utilization of ornamental plants worldwide. Crossostephium chinensis (Linnaeus) Makino is often cultivated along the southeast coast of China for its desirable ornamental qualities and high salt tolerance. However, little is known about the genomic background of the salt tolerance mechanism in C. chinensis. In the present study, we used Illumina paired-end sequencing to systematically investigate leaf transcriptomes derived from C. chinensis seedlings grown under normal conditions and under salt stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127881/grapevine-immune-signaling-network-in-response-to-drought-stress-as-revealed-by-transcriptomic-analysis
#14
Muhammad S Haider, Mahantesh M Kurjogi, M Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Fiaz, Tariq Pervaiz, Songtao Jiu, Jia Haifeng, Wang Chen, Jinggui Fang
Drought is a ubiquitous abiotic factor that severely impedes growth and development of horticulture crops. The challenge postured by global climate change is the evolution of drought-tolerant cultivars that could cope with concurrent stress. Hence, in this study, biochemical, physiological and transcriptome analysis were investigated in drought-treated grapevine leaves. The results revealed that photosynthetic activity and reducing sugars were significantly diminished which were positively correlated with low stomatal conductance and CO2 exchange in drought-stressed leaves...
October 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126994/a-dual-promoter-gene-orchestrates-the-sucrose-coordinated-synthesis-of-starch-and-fructan
#15
Yunkai Jin, Mingliang Fei, Sara Rosenquist, Lu Jin, Suresh Gohil, Corine Sandström, Helena Olsson, Cecilia Persson, Anna-Stina Höglund, Gunnel Fransson, Ying Ruan, Per Åman, Christer Jansson, Chunlin Liu, Roger Andersson, Chuanxin Sun
Sequential carbohydrate synthesis is important for plant survival because it guarantees energy supplies for growth and development during plant ontogeny and reproduction. Starch and fructan are two important carbohydrates in many flowering plants and in human diets. Understanding this coordinated starch and fructan synthesis and unravelling how plants allocate photosynthates and prioritize different carbohydrate synthesis for survival could lead to improvements to cereals in agriculture for the purposes of greater food security and production quality...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126790/translational-research-exploring-and-creating-genetic-diversity
#16
REVIEW
Pierre Jacob, Adi Avni, Abdelhafid Bendahmane
The crop selection process has created a genetic bottleneck ultimately restricting breeding output. Wild relatives of major crops as well as the so-called 'neglected plant' species represent a reservoir of genetic diversity that remains underutilized. These species could be used as a tool to discover new alleles of agronomic interest or could be the target of breeding programs. Targeted induced local lesions in the genome (TILLING) can be used to translate in neglected crops what has been discovered in major crops and reciprocally...
November 7, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126789/molecular-control-of-male-fertility-for-crop-hybrid-breeding
#17
REVIEW
Yu-Jin Kim, Dabing Zhang
In many plant species, male-sterile female lines with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) or nuclear-controlled environment-sensitive genic male sterility (EGMS) have long been used to efficiently produce hybrids that harness hybrid vigor or heterosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for these applications have only recently been uncovered in a few species. We provide here an update on the understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear communication based on the discovery of mitochondrial CMS genes and their corresponding nuclear fertility determinants...
November 7, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125620/metabolite-profiling-of-peppers-of-various-colors-reveals-relationships-between-tocopherol-carotenoid-and-phytosterol-content
#18
Tae Jin Kim, Jaehyuk Choi, Kil Won Kim, Soon Kil Ahn, Sun-Hwa Ha, Yongsoo Choi, Nam Il Park, Jae Kwang Kim
Peppers are widely consumed in Korea; the varietal development of peppers with increased content of beneficial plant metabolites is, therefore, of considerable interest. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic profile of pepper plants and the factors affecting this profile. To this end, we determined the content of various metabolites, such as hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and capsaicinoids in peppers of various colors (green, red, pale green, and violet peppers) and in a high-pungency (green) pepper...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123537/association-mapping-of-ferrous-zinc-and-aluminum-tolerance-at-the-seedling-stage-in-indica-rice-using-magic-populations
#19
Lijun Meng, Baoxiang Wang, Xiangqian Zhao, Kimberly Ponce, Qian Qian, Guoyou Ye
Excessive amounts of metal are toxic and severely affect plant growth and development. Understanding the genetic control of metal tolerance is crucial to improve rice resistance to Fe, Zn, and Al toxicity. The multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations were genotyped using a 55 K rice SNP array and screened at the seedling stage for Fe, Zn, and Al toxicity using a hydroponics system. Association analysis was conducted by implementing a mixed linear model (MLM) for each of the five MAGIC populations double cross DC1 (founders were SAGC-08, HHZ5-SAL9-Y3-Y1, BP1976B-2-3-7-TB-1-1, PR33282-B-8-1-1-1-1-1), double cross DC2 (founders of double cross were FFZ1, CT 16658-5-2-2SR-2-3-6MP, IR 68, IR 02A127), eight parents population 8way (founders were SAGC-08, HHZ5-SAL9-Y3-Y1, BP1976B-2-3-7-TB-1-1, PR33282-B-8-1-1-1-1-1, FFZ1, CT 16658-5-2-2SR-2-3-6MP, IR 68, IR 02A127), DC12 (DC1+DC2) and rice multi-parent recombinant inbred line population RMPRIL (DC1+DC2+8way)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123532/food-legumes-and-rising-temperatures-effects-adaptive-functional-mechanisms-specific-to-reproductive-growth-stage-and-strategies-to-improve-heat-tolerance
#20
REVIEW
Kumari Sita, Akanksha Sehgal, Bindumadhava HanumanthaRao, Ramakrishnan M Nair, P V Vara Prasad, Shiv Kumar, Pooran M Gaur, Muhammad Farooq, Kadambot H M Siddique, Rajeev K Varshney, Harsh Nayyar
Ambient temperatures are predicted to rise in the future owing to several reasons associated with global climate changes. These temperature increases can result in heat stress- a severe threat to crop production in most countries. Legumes are well-known for their impact on agricultural sustainability as well as their nutritional and health benefits. Heat stress imposes challenges for legume crops and has deleterious effects on the morphology, physiology, and reproductive growth of plants. High-temperature stress at the time of the reproductive stage is becoming a severe limitation for production of grain legumes as their cultivation expands to warmer environments and temperature variability increases due to climate change...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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