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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342304/introduction-of-standardised-tobacco-packaging-during-a-12-month-transition-period-findings-from-small-retailers-in-the-united-kingdom
#1
Nathan Critchlow, Martine Stead, Crawford Moodie, Douglas Eadie, Anne Marie MacKintosh
Introduction: Factory-made cigarettes (FMC) and roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco have had to be produced in standardised packaging since 20th May 2016 in the United Kingdom, with a minimum pack size of 20 sticks for FMC and 30 grams for RYO. Manufacturers and retailers were given a 12-month transition period. Methods: An observational study was conducted using monthly Electronic Point of Sale data from 500 small retailers in England, Scotland, and Wales, between May 2016 and May 2017...
January 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342191/changes-in-balance-and-joint-position-sense-during-a-12-day-high-altitude-trek-the-british-services-dhaulagiri-medical-research-expedition
#2
Sarah B Clarke, Kevin Deighton, Caroline Newman, Gareth Nicholson, Liam Gallagher, Christopher J Boos, Adrian Mellor, David R Woods, John P O'Hara
Postural control and joint position sense are essential for safely undertaking leisure and professional activities, particularly at high altitude. We tested whether exposure to a 12-day trek with a gradual ascent to high altitude impairs postural control and joint position sense. This was a repeated measures observational study of 12 military service personnel (28±4 years). Postural control (sway velocity measured by a portable force platform) during standing balance, a Sharpened Romberg Test and knee joint position sense were measured, in England (113m elevation) and at 3 research camps (3619m, 4600m and 5140m) on a 12-day high altitude trek in the Dhaulagiri region of Nepal...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341463/synthetic-phonics-and-decodable-instructional-reading-texts-how-far-do-these-support-poor-readers
#3
Ruth Maria Price-Mohr, Colin Bernard Price
This paper presents data from a quasi-experimental trial with paired randomisation that emerged during the development of a reading scheme for children in England. This trial was conducted with a group of 12 children, aged 5-6, and considered to be falling behind their peers in reading ability and a matched control group. There were two intervention conditions (A: using mixed teaching methods and a high percentage of non-phonically decodable vocabulary; P: using mixed teaching methods and low percentage of non-decodable vocabulary); allocation to these was randomised...
January 17, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341454/socioeconomic-deprivation-and-the-burden-of-head-and-neck-cancer-regional-variations-of-incidence-and-mortality-in-merseyside-and-cheshire-north-west-england
#4
B G Taib, J Oakley, Y Dailey, I Hodge, P Wright, R du Plessis, J Rylands, D Taylor-Robinson, S Povall, A Schache, R Shaw, A Dingle, T M Jones
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the distribution of head and neck cancer (HANC) disease burden across the region comparing it to national trends. DESIGN: We undertook a retrospective study of routine data combining it with indicators of deprivation and lifestyle at small geographical areas within the nine Local Authorities (LAs) of Merseyside and Cheshire Network (MCCN)for head and neck cancers. Data from the North West of England and England were used as comparator regions...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341200/human-agency-in-disaster-planning-a-systems-approach
#5
John Hamer Powell, Michael Hammond, Albert Chen, Navonil Mustafee
Current approaches to risk management place insufficient emphasis on the system knowledge available to the assessor, particularly in respect of the dynamic behavior of the system under threat, the role of human agents (HAs), and the knowledge available to those agents. In this article, we address the second of these issues. We are concerned with a class of systems containing HAs playing a variety of roles as significant system elements-as decisionmakers, cognitive agents, or implementers-that is, human activity systems...
January 16, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341109/the-prescribable-drugs-with-efficacy-in-experimental-epilepsies-pde3-database-for-drug-repurposing-research-in-epilepsy
#6
Shayeeshan Sivapalarajah, Mathangi Krishnakumar, Harry Bickerstaffe, YikYing Chan, Joseph Clarkson, Alistair Hampden-Martin, Ahmad Mirza, Matthew Tanti, Anthony Marson, Munir Pirmohamed, Nasir Mirza
OBJECTIVE: Current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have several shortcomings. For example, they fail to control seizures in 30% of patients. Hence, there is a need to identify new AEDs. Drug repurposing is the discovery of new indications for approved drugs. This drug "recycling" offers the potential of significant savings in the time and cost of drug development. Many drugs licensed for other indications exhibit antiepileptic efficacy in animal models. Our aim was to create a database of "prescribable" drugs, approved for other conditions, with published evidence of efficacy in animal models of epilepsy, and to collate data that would assist in choosing the most promising candidates for drug repurposing...
January 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340519/evaluating-the-current-state-of-the-art-of-huntington-disease-research-a-scientometric-analysis
#7
L A Barboza, N C Ghisi
Huntington disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dominant mutation on the 4th chromosome. We aim to present a scientometric analysis of the extant scientific undertakings devoted to better understanding HD. Therefore, a quantitative study was performed to examine the current state-of-the-art approaches that foster researchers' understandings of the current knowledge, research trends, and research gaps regarding this disorder. We performed literature searches of articles that were published up to September 2016 in the "ISI Web of Science™" (http://apps...
January 11, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338807/genetic-diversity-of-blastocystis-in-non-primate-animals
#8
Emma L Betts, Eleni Gentekaki, Adele Thomasz, Vicki Breakell, Angus I Carpenter, Anastasios D Tsaousis
Blastocystis is an anaerobic protist, commonly inhabiting the intestinal tract of both humans and other animals. Blastocystis is extremely diverse comprising 17 genetically distinct subtypes in mammals and birds. Pathogenicity of this enteric microbe is currently disputed and knowledge regarding its distribution, diversity and zoonotic potential is fragmentary. Most research has focused on Blastocystis from primates, while sampling from other animals remains limited. Herein, we investigated the prevalence and distribution of Blastocystis in animals held within a conservation park in South East England...
January 17, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337218/calcium-dependent-disorder-to-order-transitions-are-central-to-the-secretion-and-folding-of-the-cyaa-toxin-of-bordetella-pertussis-the-causative-agent-of-whooping-cough
#9
Darragh P O'Brien, Ana Cristina Sotomayor Perez, Johanna Karst, Sara E Cannella, Véronique Yvette Ntsogo Enguéné, Audrey Hessel, Dorothée Raoux-Barbot, Alexis Voegele, Orso Subrini, Marilyne Davi, J Inaki Guijarro, Bertrand Raynal, Bruno Baron, Patrick England, Belen Hernandez, Mahmoud Ghomi, Véronique Hourdel, Christian Malosse, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Patrice Vachette, Dominique Durand, Sébastien Brier, Daniel Ladant, Alexandre Chenal
The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) plays an essential role in the early stages of respiratory tract colonization by Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Once secreted, CyaA invades eukaryotic cells, leading to cell death. The cell intoxication process involves a unique mechanism of translocation of the CyaA catalytic domain directly across the plasma membrane of the target cell. Herein, we review our recent results describing how calcium is involved in several steps of this intoxication process...
January 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336101/recurrence-of-vulval-intraepithelial-neoplasia-following-treatment-with-cidofovir-or-imiquimod-results-from-a-multi-centre-randomised-phase-ii-trial-rt3vin
#10
Christopher N Hurt, Sadie E F Jones, Tracie-Ann Madden, Alison Fiander, Andrew J Nordin, Raj Naik, Ned Powell, Margherita Carucci, Amanda Tristram
OBJECTIVE: To compare the recurrence rates after complete response to topical treatment with either cidofovir or imiquimod for vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) 3. DESIGN: A prospective, open, randomised multicentre trial. SETTING: 32 general hospitals located in Wales and England. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: 180 patients were randomised consecutively between Oct 21, 2009, and Jan 11, 2013, 89 to cidofoovir (of whom 41 completely responded to treatment) and 91 to imiquimod (of whom 42 completely responded to treatment)...
January 16, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335327/gps-experiences-of-diagnosing-and-managing-childhood-eczema-a-qualitative-study-in-primary-care
#11
Emma Le Roux, Kingsley Powell, Jonathan P Banks, Matthew J Ridd
BACKGROUND: Eczema is common among children, and in the UK the majority are managed by GPs. The most common cause of poor disease control is incorrect use of topical treatments. There is a lack of research into the challenges faced by GPs in diagnosing and managing this condition. AIM: To explore the experiences of GPs in assessing and managing children with eczema. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative study in primary care in England. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews with 15 GPs were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically using the framework method...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335323/antibiotic-prescribing-quality-for-children-in-primary-care-an-observational-study
#12
Megan Rose Williams, Giles Greene, Gurudutt Naik, Kathryn Hughes, Christopher C Butler, Alastair D Hay
BACKGROUND: Overuse and inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics is driving antibiotic resistance. GPs often prescribe antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in young children despite their marginal beneficial effects. AIM: To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing for common infections in young children attending primary care and to investigate influencing factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: An observational, descriptive analysis, including children attending primary care sites in England and Wales...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335161/health-equity-monitoring-for-healthcare-quality-assurance
#13
R Cookson, M Asaria, S Ali, R Shaw, T Doran, P Goldblatt
Population-wide health equity monitoring remains isolated from mainstream healthcare quality assurance. As a result, healthcare organizations remain ill-informed about the health equity impacts of their decisions - despite becoming increasingly well-informed about quality of care for the average patient. We present a new and improved analytical approach to integrating health equity into mainstream healthcare quality assurance, illustrate how this approach has been applied in the English National Health Service, and discuss how it could be applied in other countries...
January 6, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335155/investigating-the-potential-impact-of-dose-banding-for-systemic-anti-cancer-therapy-in-the-paediatric-setting-based-on-pharmacokinetic-evidence
#14
Melanie White-Koning, Caroline Osborne, Angelo Paci, Alan V Boddy, Etienne Chatelut, Gareth J Veal
BACKGROUND: To make systemic anti-cancer therapy (SACT) preparation more practicable, dose-banding approaches are currently being introduced in many clinical centres. The present study aimed to determine the potential impact of using recently developed National Health Service in England (NHSE) dose-banding tables in a paediatric setting. METHODS: Using pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from 385 drug administrations in 352 children aged from 1 month to 18 years, treated with five drugs (dactinomycin, busulfan, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide and etoposide), individual exposures (area under the plasma drug concentration versus time curve; AUC) obtained using doses rounded according to the published NHSE tables were calculated and compared with those obtained by standard dose calculation methods...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334349/research-outputs-of-england-s-hospital-episode-statistics-hes-database-bibliometric-analysis
#15
Zain Chaudhry, Fahmida Mannan, Angela Gibson-White, Usama Syed, Shirin Ahmed, Azeem Majeed
BACKGROUND: Hospital administrative data, such as those provided by the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database in England, are increasingly being used for research and quality improvement. To date, no study has tried to quantify and examine trends in the use of HES for research purposes. OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in the use of HES data for research. METHODS: Publications generated from the use of HES data were extracted from PubMed and analysed...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334043/a-tribute-to-james-parkinson
#16
André Parent
Exactly 200 years ago, the London surgeon-apothecary James Parkinson (1755-1824) published a 66-page-long booklet entitled An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, which contains the first clear clinical description of the shaking palsy or paralysis agitans, which we now refer to as Parkinson's disease. However, the value of this essay was not fully recognized during Parkinson's lifetime, which spanned the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars. James Parkinson was one of the most singular figures of his time and place...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332187/human-bite-injuries-to-the-head-and-neck-current-trends-and-management-protocols-in-england-and-wales
#17
Glyndwr W Jenkins, Robert Isaac, Shakir Mustafa
INTRODUCTION: Human bite injuries can be challenging in their presentation to the examining physician. In a study by Merchant et al., 18% of patients presenting with a human bite injury had suffered wounds to the head and neck region. Current trends in their initial management at presentation to emergency departments throughout England and Wales will be discussed in this paper. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A postal survey was sent out to 100 A&E lead clinicians. This was followed up by telephone enquiries to improve the response rate...
January 14, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332172/spirituality-as-a-protective-health-asset-for-young-people-an-international-comparative-analysis-from-three-countries
#18
Fiona Brooks, Valerie Michaelson, Nathan King, Jo Inchley, William Pickett
OBJECTIVES: Spirituality has been proposed as a potential health asset a 'developmental engine' that works by fostering the search for connectedness, meaning and purpose. The aim is to examine to what extent spiritual health might be protective of young people's overall health and well-being. METHODS: In 2014, young people aged 11, 13, and 15 years in England, Scotland and Canada were surveyed as part of the HBSC study (n = 26,701). The perceived importance of spiritual health and domains (connections with self, others, nature, and the transcendent) was measured in these countries...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330310/social-determinants-of-community-level-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-coverage-in-a-school-based-vaccination-programme
#19
Stephen Jean, Malak Elshafei, Alison Buttenheim
OBJECTIVE: To assess social patterns in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in a school-based, government-funded vaccination programme located within a single-payer universal healthcare system. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of HPV vaccine uptake data for the 2013-2014 school year for 131 local authorities in England, and then evaluated the association between vaccine uptake and socioeconomic status at the aggregate level. DATA SOURCES: HPV vaccination coverage data from Public Health England's vaccine uptake guidance and the UK's March 2011 Census...
January 12, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330166/impact-of-free-access-to-leisure-facilities-and-community-outreach-on-inequalities-in-physical-activity-a-quasi-experimental-study
#20
James Higgerson, Emma Halliday, Aurora Ortiz-Nunez, Richard Brown, Ben Barr
BACKGROUND: There are large inequalities in levels of physical activity in the UK, and this is an important determinant of health inequalities. Little is known about the effectiveness of community-wide interventions to increase physical activity and whether effects differ by socioeconomic group. METHODS: We conducted interrupted time series and difference-in-differences analyses using local administrative data and a large national survey to investigate the impact of an intervention providing universal free access to leisure facilities alongside outreach and marketing activities in a deprived local authority area in the northwest of England...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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