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Amy Y Tsou, Jonathan R Treadwell
BACKGROUND: Systematic review (SR) abstracts are important for disseminating evidence syntheses to inform medical decision making. We assess reporting quality in SR abstracts using PRISMA for Abstracts (PRISMA-A), Cochrane Handbook, and Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality guidance. METHODS: We evaluated a random sample of 200 SR abstracts (from 2014) comparing interventions in the general medical literature. We assessed adherence to PRISMA-A criteria, problematic wording in conclusions, and whether "positive" studies described clinical significance...
October 20, 2016: Research Synthesis Methods
Eleonora Bassino, Edoardo Vallariello, Franco Gasparri, Luca Munaron
The biological importance of circulatory blood supply and angiogenesis for hair growth is now well recognized, but the their regulatory mechanisms require more mechanistic investigation. In vitro cocultures and tricultures can be successfully employed to greatly improve our knowledge on paracrine crosstalk between cell types that populate the dermal-epidermal interface and cutaneous vasculature. Here we report that human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) promote viability and proliferation of microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC), while HMVEC are not mitogenic for NHDF...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Cheng-Shiuan Lee, Nicholas S Fisher
Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to biomagnify in marine food chains, resulting in higher concentrations in upper trophic level animals than their prey. To better understand how marine copepods, an important intermediate between phytoplankton and forage fish at the bottom of the food chain, assimilate and release MeHg, we performed a series of laboratory experiments using the gamma-emitting radiotracer (203) Hg(2+) and Me(203) Hg with the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of Hg(2+) and MeHg ranged from 25 to 31% and 58 to 79%, respectively, depending on algal diets...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Yao Cheng, Jie Xia, Mingliang Lai, Nansheng Cheng, Sirong He
BACKGROUND: The use of surgical drains has been considered mandatory after pancreatic surgery. The role of prophylactic abdominal drainage to reduce postoperative complications after pancreatic surgery is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of routine abdominal drainage after pancreatic surgery, compare the effects of different types of surgical drains, and evaluate the optimal time for drain removal. SEARCH METHODS: For the initial version of this review, we searched the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1946 to 9 April 2015), Embase (1980 to 9 April 2015), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to 9 April 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to 9 April 2015)...
October 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Su Jin Lee, Jeong Han Kang, Da Eun Lee, Min Jeong Nam, Hyun-Shik Lee, Oh-Shin Kwon
Chronic alcohol consumption causes hepatic steatosis, which is characterized by a considerable increase in free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride levels. To identify the possible proteins involved in the progression to alcoholic hepatosteatosis, we performed proteomic analysis on livers of mice exposed to alcohol. 2D-based proteomic analysis revealed that EtOH exposure in mice changed the expression of 43 proteins compared with that in mice fed a normal diet (ND). The most notable protein changes were proteins involved in Met metabolism and oxidative stress, most of which were significantly downregulated in alcohol-exposed animals...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jingeng Liu, Zhiru Wei, Yuebin Wang, Zongjiang Xia, Gaofeng Zhao
BACKGROUND: Liver metastasis is common in patients with oesophageal cancer. The effect of operative intervention for post-operative solitary liver metastasis from oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not previously been examined. This research was to compare the effect of surgery and non-surgical therapy in patients with post-operative solitary liver metastasis from ESCC. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the clinical data of 69 consecutive patients with solitary hepatic metastasis who had undergone oesophagectomy for ESCC and were subsequently referred to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2005 to December 2013...
October 20, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Mohammed A Zwawi, Faissal A Moslehy, Christopher Rose, Victor Huayamave, Alain J Kassab, Eduardo Divo, Brendan J Jones, Charles T Price
: This study utilized a computational biomechanical model and applied the least energy path principle to investigate two pathways for closed reduction of high grade infantile hip dislocation. The principle of least energy when applied to moving the femoral head from an initial to a final position considers all possible paths that connect them and identifies the path of least resistance. Clinical reports of severe hip dysplasia have concluded that reduction of the femoral head into the acetabulum may occur by a direct pathway over the posterior rim of the acetabulum when using the Pavlik harness, or by an indirect pathway with reduction through the acetabular notch when using the modified Hoffman-Daimler method...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Johanna M Kraus, Polly P Gibson, David M Walters, Marc A Mills
Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that riparian spiders may be effectively used to track spatial patterns of sediment pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity. We found that spatial pattern of ΣPCB concentrations in two common families of riparian spiders sampled in 2011-2013 generally tracked spatial variation in sediment ΣPCBs across all sites within the Manistique River Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), a rivermouth ecosystem located on the south shore of the Upper Peninsula, Manistique, MI, that includes harbor, river, backwater, and lake habitats...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jinmin Zhang, Jiankun Yu, Jingzheng Jiang, Xiao Chen, Yanping Sun, Zhen Yang, Tianzhi Yang, Cuifang Cai, Xiaoyun Zhao, Pingtian Ding
Polymers of guanidinylated disulfide containing poly(amido amine)s (Gua-SS-PAAs), have shown high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Previously we synthesized two Gua-SS-PAA polymers, using guanidino containing monomers (i.e., arginine and agmatine, denoted as ARG and AGM, respectively) and N,N'-cystaminebisacrylamide (CBA). In this study, these two polymers, AGM-CBA and ARG-CBA were complexed with plasmid DNA, and their uptake pathway was investigated. Complexes distribution in MCF-7 cells, and changes on cell endosomes/lysosomes and membrane after the cells were exposed to complexes were tested...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Sam Schulman
During the past 7 years, results from phase III trials comparing nonvitamin antagonist K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or with placebo, including 34,900 patients, have been published. Recent guidelines have been updated and now suggest treatment with NOACs rather than with VKA. Other updates in the guidelines concern the initial thrombolytic treatment for selected patients with deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism as well as the possibility of withholding anticoagulation for minimal venous thromboembolism...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Paolo Prandoni, Enrico Bernardi, Fabio Dalla Valle, Adriana Visonà, Pietro F Tropeano, Carlo Bova, Eugenio Bucherini, Md Shahidul Islam, Andrea Piccioli
Patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) may harbor occult cancer. Whether an extensive diagnostic work-up for cancer has additional value over a more limited screening for detection of underlying malignancy in these patients is controversial. We performed a randomized multicenter trial to assess if in patients with unprovoked VTE, a computed tomography (CT)-based diagnostic strategy including thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic CT in combination with fecal occult blood test yields a higher cancer detection rate than a nonstandardized testing approach based on physicians' clinical judgment and patients' preferences...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
David J Cote, Heloise M Dubois, Aditya V Karhade, Timothy R Smith
Background Patients who undergo craniotomy for brain tumor have an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) registry, patients undergoing craniotomy for brain tumor from 2006 and 2014 were analyzed to identify risk factors for postoperative VTE. Methods The study population, identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes, included all NSQIP-reported patients who underwent a craniotomy for brain tumor resection. Results There were 629 instances of VTE among 19,409 craniotomies for brain tumor (3...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Gerhard Batz, Michael Dinkel
Echocardiography as an imaging method in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine has enabled a new dimension of hemodynamic monitoring: the direct visualization of the cardiac function and its disruptions. Preconditions for a broad application in this area was the development of mobile, high-definition ultrasonic devices and the origination of focused examination techniques. A successful application of this method requires the respective know-how of the examiner, in order to take relevant decisions and avoid misdiagnoses...
October 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
L Kuball, R Sailer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
C Mozet, T Kuhnt, B Sattler, J Remmele, U Thome, H Stepan, R Kluge, A Dietz, M Knoedler
Objective: The diagnosis of cancer in pregnancy is rare, but might become more relevant even for head and neck cancer patients due to a shift of age of primipara towards the last third of reproductive years. Unsureness exists about the risk and benefit of diagnostic and therapeutic cancer modalities for the unborn and established recommendations are still missing. But, according to recent data, even multimodal therapeutic approaches (e. g. surgery, radiation, chemotherapy) seem possible in face of pregnancy and should be traded against the risk of prematurity...
October 2016: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Lary A Robinson, Crystal J Jaing, Christine Pierce Campbell, Anthony Magliocco, Yin Xiong, Genevra Magliocco, James B Thissen, Scott Antonia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Antonio Ponzetto, Natale Figura, John Holton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Matt Williams, Peter Treasure, David Greenberg, Andrew Brodbelt, Peter Collins
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that surgeons who perform more operations have better outcomes. However, in patients with brain tumours, all of the evidence comes from the USA. METHODS: We examined all English patients with an intracranial neoplasm who had an intracranial resection in 2008-2010. We included surgeons who performed at least six operations over 3 years, and at least one operation in the first and last 6 months of the period. RESULTS: The analysis data set comprised 9194 operations, 163 consultant neurosurgeons and 30 centres...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Prunella Blinman, Linda Mileshkin, Pearly Khaw, Geraldine Goss, Carol Johnson, Anne Capp, Susan Brooks, Gerard Wain, Ilka Kolodziej, Anne-Sophie Veillard, Rachel O'Connell, Carien L Creutzberg, Martin R Stockler
BACKGROUND: To determine the minimum survival benefits that patients, and their clinicians, judged sufficient to make adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) worthwhile, in addition to pelvic radiotherapy, for women with high risk and advanced stage endometrial cancer. METHODS: Eighty-three participants in the PORTEC-3 trial completed a time trade-off questionnaire before and after adjuvant therapy; 44 of their clinicians completed it once only. The questionnaire used four hypothetical scenarios including baseline survival times without ACT of 5 and 8 years, and baseline survival rates at 5 years without ACT of 50 and 65%...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Aurélie Moskal, Heinz Freisling, Graham Byrnes, Nada Assi, Michael T Fahey, Mazda Jenab, Pietro Ferrari, Anne Tjønneland, Kristina En Petersen, Christina C Dahm, Camilla Plambeck Hansen, Aurélie Affret, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Claire Cadeau, Tilman Kühn, Verena Katzke, Khalid Iqbal, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Christina Bamia, Androniki Naska, Giovanna Masala, Maria Santucci de Magistris, Sabina Sieri, Rosario Tumino, Carlotta Sacerdote, Petra H Peeters, Bas H Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dagrun Engeset, Idlir Licaj, Guri Skeie, Eva Ardanaz, Genevieve Buckland, José M Huerta Castaño, José R Quirós, Pilar Amiano, Elena Molina-Portillo, Anna Winkvist, Robin Myte, Ulrika Ericson, Emily Sonestedt, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Nick Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Inge Huybrechts, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Heather Ward, Marc J Gunter, Nadia Slimani
BACKGROUND: Much of the current literature on diet-colorectal cancer (CRC) associations focused on studies of single foods/nutrients, whereas less is known about nutrient patterns. We investigated the association between major nutrient patterns and CRC risk in participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: Among 477 312 participants, intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from validated dietary questionnaires...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
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