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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092933/estimation-of-the-size-of-the-iatrogenic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-outbreak-associated-with-cadaveric-dura-mater-grafts-in-korea
#1
Byoug-Hak Jeon, Jinseob Kim, GangHyun Kim Kim, Soo Chul Park, SangYun Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong
Purpose: This study estimated the overall magnitude of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) based on dura graft cases in Korea using a mathematical model. Methods: We estimated the number of annual cases of dura grafts performed between 1980 and 1995 by applying the proportion of dura grafts recorded by the Health Insurance Review Agency claim dataset in Korea to the number of nationwide neurosurgery cases. The distribution of the incubation period was assumed to fall under a Weibull distribution with density function or a log-logistic distribution with density function...
December 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092931/the-criteria-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-national-health-checkup-and-education-system-in-japan
#2
Kazumasa Yamagishi, Hiroyasu Iso
Two major definitions of metabolic syndrome have been proposed. One focuses on accumulation of risk factors such as the American Heart Association (AHA) and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) criteria; and the other focuses on abdominal obesity such as the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Japanese criteria. The latter consider waist circumference as an obligatory component, whereas the former does not. In 2009, the IDF, NHLBI, AHA and the other organizations attempted to unify these criteria, and waist circumference is no longer an obligatory component...
January 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092926/effect-of-gravity-and-microgravity-on-intracranial-pressure
#3
Justin S Lawley, Lonnie G Petersen, Erin J Howden, Satyam Sarma, William K Cornwell, Rong Zhang, Louis A Whitworth, Michael A Williams, Benjamin D Levine
Astronauts have recently been discovered to have impaired vision, with a presentation that resembles syndromes of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). This syndrome is considered the most mission critical medical problem identified in the past decade of manned spaceflight. We recruited five men and three women who had an Ommaya reservoir inserted for the delivery of prophylactic central nervous system chemotherapy, but were free of their malignant disease for at least 1 year. ICP was assessed by placing a fluid-filled 25 ga butterfly needle into the Ommaya reservoir...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092924/evaluation-of-the-use-of-rotational-thromboelastometry-in-the-assessment-of-fxi-deficency
#4
G N Pike, A M Cumming, J Thachil, C R M Hay, P H B Bolton-Maggs, J Burthem
INTRODUCTION: The absence of a reliable clinical test to predict bleeding tendency leaves factor XI (FXI)-deficient individuals at risk of overtreatment or under treatment. AIM: To assess whether rotational thromboelastometry has value in detection of FXI deficiency and identification of bleeding tendency. METHODS: Thromboelastometry was measured in whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) samples containing corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI) from controls (n = 50) and FXI-deficient individuals (n = 93) at tissue factor (TF) 0...
January 16, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092922/the-effectiveness-of-free-vascularized-fibular-flaps-in-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-and-neck-a-systematic-review
#5
Cassandra A Ligh, Jonas A Nelson, John P Fischer, Stephen J Kovach, L Scott Levin
Background Free vascularized fibular flaps (FVFFs) are accepted surgical options to treat osteonecrosis of the femoral head and neck (ONFHN) to prevent conversion to total hip replacement (THR), yet many studies are single institution cohorts, with little generalizability. Purpose The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review examining the comparative effectiveness of FVFF to treat ONFHN, particularly preventing conversion to a THR and improving hip function/symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases using femoral head, free fibula, and femoral neck keywords...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092920/evolutionary-genomics-of-the-cold-adapted-diatom-fragilariopsis-cylindrus
#6
Thomas Mock, Robert P Otillar, Jan Strauss, Mark McMullan, Pirita Paajanen, Jeremy Schmutz, Asaf Salamov, Remo Sanges, Andrew Toseland, Ben J Ward, Andrew E Allen, Christopher L Dupont, Stephan Frickenhaus, Florian Maumus, Alaguraj Veluchamy, Taoyang Wu, Kerrie W Barry, Angela Falciatore, Maria I Ferrante, Antonio E Fortunato, Gernot Glöckner, Ansgar Gruber, Rachel Hipkin, Michael G Janech, Peter G Kroth, Florian Leese, Erika A Lindquist, Barbara R Lyon, Joel Martin, Christoph Mayer, Micaela Parker, Hadi Quesneville, James A Raymond, Christiane Uhlig, Ruben E Valas, Klaus U Valentin, Alexandra Z Worden, E Virginia Armbrust, Matthew D Clark, Chris Bowler, Beverley R Green, Vincent Moulton, Cock van Oosterhout, Igor V Grigoriev
The Southern Ocean houses a diverse and productive community of organisms. Unicellular eukaryotic diatoms are the main primary producers in this environment, where photosynthesis is limited by low concentrations of dissolved iron and large seasonal fluctuations in light, temperature and the extent of sea ice. How diatoms have adapted to this extreme environment is largely unknown. Here we present insights into the genome evolution of a cold-adapted diatom from the Southern Ocean, Fragilariopsis cylindrus, based on a comparison with temperate diatoms...
January 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092919/compensatory-water-effects-link-yearly-global-land-co2-sink-changes-to-temperature
#7
Martin Jung, Markus Reichstein, Christopher R Schwalm, Chris Huntingford, Stephen Sitch, Anders Ahlström, Almut Arneth, Gustau Camps-Valls, Philippe Ciais, Pierre Friedlingstein, Fabian Gans, Kazuhito Ichii, Atul K Jain, Etsushi Kato, Dario Papale, Ben Poulter, Botond Raduly, Christian Rödenbeck, Gianluca Tramontana, Nicolas Viovy, Ying-Ping Wang, Ulrich Weber, Sönke Zaehle, Ning Zeng
Large interannual variations in the measured growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) originate primarily from fluctuations in carbon uptake by land ecosystems. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent temperature and water availability control the carbon balance of land ecosystems across spatial and temporal scales. Here we use empirical models based on eddy covariance data and process-based models to investigate the effect of changes in temperature and water availability on gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at local and global scales...
January 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092917/is-fat-mass-accretion-of-late-preterm-infants-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#8
Nadia Liotto, Maria Lorella Giannì, Francesca Taroni, Paola Roggero, Chiara Cristiana Condello, Anna Orsi, Camilla Menis, Riccardo Bonfanti, Fabio Mosca
BACKGROUND: Late preterm infants show a major fat mass accretion from birth to term. The contribution of preterm birth to the development of the metabolic syndrome is still under investigation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate body composition changes in late preterm infants during the first 3 months and to investigate their insulin sensitivity and resistance. METHODS: We conducted an observational, longitudinal study. A total of 216 late preterm infants underwent body composition assessment using an air displacement plethysmograph at term and at 3 months of corrected age...
January 17, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092913/umbilical-venous-catheter-malposition-is-associated-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-premature-infants
#9
Mustafa Sulemanji, Khashayar Vakili, David Zurakowski, Wayne Tworetzky, Steven J Fishman, Heung Bae Kim
OBJECTIVE: The etiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains elusive despite known associations with several factors, including intestinal ischemia related to the effects of umbilical arterial catheterization on the mesenteric circulation. However, the role of the mesenteric venous circulation has yet to be studied as a potential cause of NEC. We examined the association between umbilical venous catheter (UVC) position and the development of NEC in premature infants. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was performed to examine the effect of UVC on portosystemic shunting via the ductus venosus (DV) and its potential role in NEC...
January 17, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092912/production-and-rheological-properties-of-welan-gum-produced-by-sphingomonas-sp-atcc-31555-with-different-nitrogen-sources
#10
Xiaopeng Xu, Zuoming Nie, Zhiyong Zheng, Li Zhu, Xiaobei Zhan
This study aimed to investigate the effect of nitrogen sources on the production and rheological properties of welan gum produced by Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555. Six different nitrogen sources were used for ATCC 31555 fermentation, and 2 of these were further analyzed due to their more positive influence on welan gum production and bacterial biomass. Bacterial biomass, welan gum yield, welan viscosity, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, acyl content, and welan structure were analyzed. Welan gum production and the biomass concentration of ATCC 31555 were higher in media containing NaNO3 and beef extract...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092911/behaviour-of-cd11b-positive-cells-in-an-animal-model-of-laser-induced-choroidal-neovascularisation
#11
Lu Li, Peter Heiduschka, Anne F Alex, Daniel Niekämper, Nicole Eter
BACKGROUND/AIM: Immune cells, e.g. microglial cells of the retina, appear to be involved in pathological processes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to immunohistochemically check the expression of various factors and cytokines by CD11b-positive (CD11b+) immune cells in an animal model of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). METHODS: We used the animal model of laser-induced CNV in mice. Eyes were isolated at 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after laser treatment...
January 17, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092910/effects-of-in-utero-and-postnatal-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-on-lung-function-by-gender-and-asthma-status-the-seven-northeastern-cities-snec-study
#12
Li-Wen Hu, Mo Yang, Shu Chen, Kuntal Shah, Yismaw Hailegiorgis, Richai Burgens, Michael Vaughn, Jin Huang, Pamela Xaverius, Gunther Paul, Lidia Morawska, Tao Lu, Shao Lin, Shou-Qiang Zhong, Min-Li Kong, Yan-Qi Xie, Yuan-Tao Hao, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Zhengmin Qian, Guang-Hui Dong
BACKGROUND: Little information exists on whether gender or asthma status modifies the effects of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on lung function. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether gender or asthma status modifies the association of SHS exposure with lung function. METHODS: A total of 6,740 children (average 11.6 years) were recruited from 24 districts of 7 cities in northeast China in 2012. SHS exposure included exposure to environmental and maternal smoking both in utero and during early childhood (postnatal)...
January 17, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092868/a-practical-evaluation-of-measurement-uncertainty-in-gamma-ray-efficiency-curve-determination-through-an-analytical-approach
#13
Katsuhiro Shirono, Yasuhiro Unno, Rio Furukawa, Chushiro Yonezawa
An example of uncertainty evaluation of an efficiency curve is reported. In the applied method, the efficiency curve is determined through the weighted least square method based on measured efficiencies employing a mixed-radionuclide standard source. The variance-covariance matrix of the efficiencies is determined by evaluating the uncertainties of the counting, the calibrated radioactivities, the correction factors for true coincidence summing, and the inadequacy of the fitting function. The proposed method can be a basis to develop a more general procedure...
December 15, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092867/expression-of-mmp-2-and-timp-1-during-rapid-maxillary-expansion-in-rats
#14
Jianwei Chen, Jing Zhou, Fan Li, Jianfeng Sun, Guifeng Li, Shujuan Zou, Qingsong Ye
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 during midpalatal suture expansion in rats. DESIGN: 72 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the experimental group and the control group. In the experimental group, opening loops were applied across the midpalatal suture with an initial force of 50g, whereas in the control group, rats were subjected to sham installation of opening loops without activation. On day 1, 4, 7 and 14, nine rats from each group were sacrificed, and the maxillae were dissected and prepared for Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RT- PCR examination of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 expression...
January 4, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092866/transmembrane-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-promotes-the-recruitment-of-mdscs-to-tumor-tissue-by-upregulating-cxcr4-expression-via-tnfr2
#15
Hongping Ba, Baihua Li, Xiaoyan Li, Cheng Li, Anlin Feng, Yazhen Zhu, Jing Wang, Zhuoya Li, Bingjiao Yin
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated in tumor sites promote immune evasion. We found that TNFR deficiency-induced rejection of transplanted tumor was accompanied with markedly decreased accumulation of MDSCs. However, the mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon is not completely understood. Here, we demonstrated that TNFR deficiency did not affect the amount of MDSCs in bone marrow (BM), but decreased accumulation of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) MDSCs in the spleen and tumor tissues. The chemotaxis of Tnfr(-/-) MDSCs was prominently decreased in response to both tumor cell culture supernatants and tumor tissue homogenates from Tnfr(-/-) and wild-type mice, indicating an effect of TNFR signaling on chemokine receptor expression in MDSCs...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092865/investigations-on-the-immunosuppressive-activity-of-derivatives-of-mycophenolic-acid-in-immature-dendritic-cells
#16
Dorota Iwaszkiewicz-Grzes, Grzegorz Cholewinski, Agata Kot-Wasik, Piotr Trzonkowski, Krystyna Dzierzbicka
The main activity of mycophenolic acid 1 (MPA) and its analogs is the inhibition of proliferation of T cells. Here, we hypothesized that MPA and its conjugates inhibits also the activity of antigen-presenting cells (APC) including dendritic cells (DCs). We tested the effect of novel amino acid derivatives of MPA and conjugates of MPA with acridines/acridones on DCs by flow cytometry, ELISA and MLR assay. Both acridines/acridone derivatives could inhibit the maturation of DC, as shown by the decreased expression of B7 family receptors...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092864/augmentation-of-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-in-response-to-tetanus-and-diphtheria-toxoids-by-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-extracts-of-hippophae-rhamnoides-l-leaves
#17
Bindhya Jayashankar, Divya Singh, Himanshi Tanwar, K P Mishra, Swetha Murthy, Sudipta Chanda, Jigni Mishra, R Tulswani, K Misra, S B Singh, Lilly Ganju
Hippophae rhamnoides L. commonly known as Seabuckthorn (SBT), a wild shrub of family Elaegnacea, has extensively used for treating various ailments like skin diseases, jaundice, asthma, lung troubles. SBT leaves have been reported to possess several pharmacological properties including immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and tissue regeneration etc. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adjuvant property of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts (SCEs 300ET and 350ET) of SBT leaves in balb/c mice immunized with Tetanus and Diphtheria toxoids...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092863/adipose-derived-stem-cells-ameliorate-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-through-inhibition-of-emt-and-inflammatory-response-via-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-pathway
#18
Yan Song, Changliang Peng, Shasha Lv, Jing Cheng, Shanshan Liu, Qing Wen, Guangju Guan, Gang Liu
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been successfully used to treat acute kidney injury or acute renal failure. However, the effect of ADSCs on treating renal interstitial fibrosis remains unknown. Here, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of ADSCs on renal interstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) and explored the potential mechanisms. After 7days of UUO, rats were injected with ADSCs (5×10(6)) or vehicle via tail vein. We found that ADSCs administration significantly ameliorated renal interstitial fibrosis, the occurrence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inflammatory response...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092862/protective-effects-of-total-flavonoids-of-astragalus-against-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-rats-by-regulating-opg-rankl-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#19
Xin-Yu Liu, Lu Xu, Ying Wang, Jin-Xia Li, Yu Zhang, Chong Zhang, Sha-Sha Wang, Xue-Mei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Astragalus membranaceus Bunge is one of the oldest and most frequently used crude herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. The total flavonoids of Astragalus (TFA) are the main active components isolated from Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. Our recent study has shown its potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro. However, its anti-arthritic effects and mechanisms of action involved have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects and possible mechanisms of TFA on Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis in rats...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092856/separation-of-antibody-drug-conjugate-species-by-rplc-a-generic-method-development-approach
#20
Szabolcs Fekete, Imre Molnár, Davy Guillarme
This study reports the use of modelling software for the successful method development of IgG1 cysteine conjugated antibody drug conjugate (ADC) in RPLC. The goal of such a method is to be able to calculate the average drug to antibody ratio (DAR) of and ADC product. A generic method development strategy was proposed including the optimization of mobile phase temperature, gradient profile and mobile phase ternary composition. For the first time, a 3D retention modelling was presented for large therapeutic protein...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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