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Hand,foot,and mouth disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238324/immunopathogenesis-and-virus-host-interactions-of-enterovirus-71-in-patients-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan A Cox, Julian A Hiscox, Tom Solomon, Mong-How Ooi, Lisa F P Ng
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a global infectious disease that affects millions of people. The virus is the main etiological agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease with outbreaks and epidemics being reported globally. Infection can cause severe neurological, cardiac, and respiratory problems in children under the age of 5. Despite on-going efforts, little is known about the pathogenesis of EV71, how the host immune system responds to the virus and the molecular mechanisms behind these responses. Moreover, current animal models remain limited, because they do not recapitulate similar disease patterns and symptoms observed in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235129/association-of-gene-polymorphisms-of-pattern-recognition-receptor-signalling-pathway-with-the-risk-and-severity-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-caused-by-enterovirus-71-in-chinese-han-population
#2
Ya-Ping Li, Mei Li, Xiao-Li Jia, Hui-Ling Deng, Wen-Jun Wang, Feng-Ping Wu, Jun Wang, Shuang-Suo Dang
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) presents with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Host immune response is a factor that influences disease susceptibility and severity. We investigated the potential association of gene polymorphisms in the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) pathway with the risk and severity of EV71 infection. A total of 180 EV71 HFMD cases (108 severe case; 72 mild cases) were enrolled. A group of 201 sex- and age-matched children was included as a control...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233744/a-flavonoid-compound-library-screen-revealed-potent-antiviral-activity-of-plant-derived-flavonoids-on-human-enterovirus-a71-replication
#3
Nyo Min, Leong Pok Thim, Regina Ching Hua Lee, Jeffery Seng Eng Khuan, Justin Jang Hann Chu
Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), resulting from human enterovirus A71 (HEVA71) infection can cause severe neurological complications leading to fatality in young children. Currently, there is no approved antiviral for therapeutic treatment against HEVA71 infection. In this study, a 500-compound flavonoid library was screened to identify potential inhibitors of HEVA71 using high-throughput immunofluorescence-based phenotypic screening method. Two lead flavonoid compounds, ST077124 and ST024734 at the non-cytotoxic concentration of 50 μM were found to be effective antivirals that inhibited replication of HEVA71, reducing infectious viral titers by 3...
December 9, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231065/serum-interleukin-6-levels-as-an-indicator-of-aseptic-meningitis-among-children-with-enterovirus-71-induced-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#4
Joo Young Lee, Minji Son, Jin Han Kang, Ui Yoon Choi
OBJECTIVES: The enterovirus EV71 is a major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Aseptic meningitis is the most common neurologic complication of EV71-induced HFMD. Lumbar puncture is a crucial procedure in the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis. It is often performed based on physicians' clinical suspicion. A diagnostic method that can aid in deciding whether this procedure should be performed is necessary. Cytokines are speculated to be associated with neurologic complications...
December 14, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216216/epidemiological-and-genetic-characteristics-of-ev71-in-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-guangxi-southern-china-from-2010-to-2015
#5
Minmei Chen, Yu Ju, Min Chen, Zhenguo Xie, Kaijiao Zhou, Yi Tan, Jianjun Mo
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a significant public health challenge in China. Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as the predominant causative pathogen of HFMD. Since 2015, two inactivated EV71 vaccines have been approved in mainland China, and because their use could change the HFMD pathogen spectrum, this should now be monitored. However, the epidemiological and genetic trends of EV71 with respect to HFMD in Guangxi, southern China, are still not clear. In this study, we describe the epidemiological and genetic characterization of this virus in clinically-diagnosed HFMD reported from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184105/estimating-the-incubation-period-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-for-children-in-different-age-groups
#6
Zhongzhou Yang, Qiqi Zhang, Benjamin J Cowling, Eric H Y Lau
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a childhood disease causing large outbreaks frequently in Asia and occasionally in Europe and the US. The incubation period of HFMD was typically described as about 3-7 days but empirical evidence is lacking. In this study, we estimated the incubation period of HFMD from school outbreaks in Hong Kong, utilizing information on symptom onset and sick absence dates of students diagnosed with HFMD. A total of 99 HFMD cases from 12 schools were selected for analysis. We fitted parametric models accounting for interval censoring...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182793/atypical-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-caused-by-coxsackievirus-a6-in-denmark-a-diagnostic-mimicker
#7
Hans-Henrik Horsten, Michael Kemp, Thea K Fischer, Kim H Lindahl, Anette Bygum
Since 2008, outbreaks of atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children and adults have been reported worldwide. The majority of these outbreaks are caused by a new lineage of Coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6) presenting a more severe clinical phenotype than the classical childhood HFMD caused by CV-A16. Between June 2014 and January 2016, 23 cases of atypical HFMD disease presented at a Dermatology Department at a regional University Hospital in Denmark. Patients were referred by general practitioners and dermatologists with a variety of clinical diagnoses, including eczema herpeticum, vasculitis, syphilis, dermatophytid, erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome...
November 28, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182509/the-3c-protease-of-enterovirus-a71-counteracts-the-activity-of-host-zinc-finger-antiviral-protein-zap
#8
Li Xie, Baojing Lu, Zhenhua Zheng, Yuanjiu Miao, Yan Liu, Yuan Zhang, Caishang Zheng, Xianliang Ke, Qinxue Hu, Hanzhong Wang
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a positive-strand RNA virus that causes hand-foot-mouth disease and neurological complications in children and infants. Although the underlying mechanisms remain to be further defined, impaired immunity is thought to play an important role. The host zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), an IFN-stimulated gene product, has been reported to specifically inhibit the replication of certain viruses. However, whether ZAP restricts the infection of enteroviruses remains unknown. Here, we report that EV-A71 infection upregulates ZAP mRNA in RD and HeLa cells...
November 28, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180702/developing-a-machine-learning-system-for-identification-of-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-from-electronic-medical-record-data
#9
Guangjian Liu, Yi Xu, Xinming Wang, Xutian Zhuang, Huiying Liang, Yun Xi, Fangqin Lin, Liyan Pan, Taishan Zeng, Huixian Li, Xiaojun Cao, Gansen Zhao, Huimin Xia
Children of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) often present with same clinical features as those of mild HFMD during the early stage, yet later deteriorate rapidly with a fulminant disease course. Our goal was to: (1) develop a machine learning system to automatically identify cases with high risk of severe HFMD at the time of admission; (2) compare the effectiveness of the new system with the existing risk scoring system. Data on 2,532 HFMD children admitted between March 2012 and July 2015, were collected retrospectively from a medical center in China...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180670/mir-16-5p-mediates-a-positive-feedback-loop-in-ev71-induced-apoptosis-and-suppresses-virus-replication
#10
Caishang Zheng, Zhenhua Zheng, Jianhong Sun, Yuan Zhang, Chunyu Wei, Xianliang Ke, Yan Liu, Li Deng, Hanzhong Wang
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the predominant causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Contrary to other HFMD-causing enterovirus, EV71 can lead to severe neurological complications, even death. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that constitute the largest family of gene regulators participating in numerous biological or pathological processes. We previously reported that miR-16-5p increases with severity of HFMD by investigating the expression patterns of host miRNAs in patients with HFMD...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180285/hsc70-regulates-the-ires-activity-and-serves-as-an-antiviral-target-of-enterovirus-a71-infection
#11
Qi Dong, Rutin Men, Xuelian Dan, Ying Chen, Huangcan Li, Gong Chen, Benny Zee, Maggie H T Wong, Ming-Liang He
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a small positive-stranded RNA virus that causes human hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and fatal neurological disorders in some cases without effective treatment. Here we show that heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70), a molecular chaperone, displays pivotal role in viral infections. Knockdown of Hsc70 significantly suppresses viral replication evidenced by reducing not only the level of both viral replication intermediates (negative stranded RNA) and viral genomic RNA (positive stranded RNA), but also the level of viral protein expression; whereas ectopic expression of Hsc70 markedly promotes viral replication...
November 24, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176678/isochlorogenic-acid-c-prevents-enterovirus-71-infection-via-modulating-redox-homeostasis-of-glutathione
#12
Zeyu Cao, Yue Ding, Liang Cao, Gang Ding, Zhenzhong Wang, Wei Xiao
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a key pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children under 6 years of age. The antiviral potency of antioxidant isochlorogenic acid C (ICAC) extracted from foods was evaluated in cellular and animal models. First, the cytotoxicity of ICAC on Vero cells was investigated. The viral plaques, cytopathic effects and yield induced by EV71 infection were obviously reduced by ICAC, which was consistent with the investigation of VP1 transcripts and protein expression. Moreover, the mortality, weight loss and limb paralysis of mice caused by EV71 challenge were remarkably relieved by ICAC injection, which was achieved through decreases in the viral load and cytokine secretion in the mouse brain...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175128/an-evaluation-of-chloroquine-as-a-broad-acting-antiviral-against-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#13
Yong Wah Tan, Wan Keat Yam, Jialei Sun, Justin Jang Hann Chu
A common childhood affliction of viral origin in young children and immunocompromised adults, the Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) has become a significant public health concern in the Asia-Pacific Region. Characterized by the appearance of vesiculopapular rashes on the hands, feet and mouth, the disease is generally mild and self-limiting. In a minority of cases, patients can develop neurological complications that could result in permanent morbidity or even fatality. In the absence of a specific antiviral for treatment, medical care is limited to supportive and symptomatic relief, presenting a need for more research into an effective antiviral to be used in the management of the disease...
November 22, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175108/nonstructural-protein-2a-modulates-replication-and-virulence-of-enterovirus-71
#14
Chun Li, Qiao Qiao, Shu-Bin Hao, Zhen Dong, Li Zhao, Jing Ji, Zhi-Yu Wang, Hong-Ling Wen
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, and severe infections can induce neurological complications and even death. However, the pathogenesis of EV71 remains unknown. The 2A proteinase (2Apro) of EV71 plays an important role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, inhibiting host protein synthesis, and evading innate immunity. This study was to determine the function of EV71 2Apro in replication and virulence. A chimeric strain (SDLY 107-2A-1) was recombined by replacing 2Apro of a severe strain (SDLY107) with that of a mild strain (SDLY1) based on an infectious cDNA clone...
November 21, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172969/interleukin-35-modulates-the-imbalance-between-regulatory-t-cells-and-t-helper-17-cells-in-enterovirus-71-induced-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#15
Qian Huang, Yanhua Wang, Changyun Si, De'an Zhao, Yanping Wang, Yuxiu Duan
Interleukin (IL)-35 modulates the imbalance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (Th) 17 cells, which played vital roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and infectious diseases. However, the role of Tregs/Th17 cell imbalance and the regulatory functions of IL-35 have remained largely unknown in enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In this study, a total of 47 HFMD patients (30 with mild HFMD and 17 with severe HFMD) and 13 healthy individuals were enrolled. The frequencies of CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- Tregs and CD4+IL-17+ Th17 cells, as well as IL-35 expression levels, were measured...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169561/atypical-vesicular-bullous-hand-foot-mouth-disease-in-2-adults
#16
Á Iglesias-Puzas, A Batalla, M Trigo, Á Flórez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165766/clinical-analysis-of-59-children-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-diseases-due-to-enterovirus-ev71-and-concomitant-viral-encephalitis
#17
M-G Wang, H-M Sun, X-M Liu, X-Q Deng
OBJECTIVE: To analyzed the clinical features of children with HFMD and viral encephalitis and to summarize some treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 59 children with HFMD were included in this study. All children underwent complete blood count, blood biochemical test cerebrospinal fluid examination, chest X-ray and brain MRI. RESULTS: One child died 24 hours after admission due to central respiratory failure with myocardial damage...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158768/acute-pancreatitis-in-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-caused-by-coxsackievirus-a16-case-report
#18
Byungsung Park, Hyuckjin Kwon, Kwanseop Lee, Minjae Kang
Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), which primarily causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), is associated with complications, such as encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis, pericarditis, and shock. However, no case of pancreatitis associated with CA16 has been reported in children. We report a case of CA16-associated acute pancreatitis in a 3-year-old girl with HFMD. She was admitted because of poor oral intake and high fever for 1 day. Maculopapular rashes on both hands and feet and multiple vesicles on the soft palate were observed on physical examination...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158047/-fatal-case-of-enterovirus-a71%C3%A2-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-infection
#19
V Corvest, C Archimbaud, A-S L'Honneur, C Henquell, H Peigue-Lafeuille, M Decobert, A Mirand
Hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with enterovirus (EV) infections is a common pediatric pathology that is usually considered as benign. However, neurological complications of varying severity, sometimes fatal, are possible, particularly when EV-A71 is involved. Several Asian countries are regularly affected by large-scale epidemics of EV infections with substantial morbidity and mortality, where early screening and appropriate therapeutic management are a public health challenge. In 2016, Europe experienced an epidemic of unusual magnitude, associated with increasing cases of severe neurological complications in Spain and France, mainly affecting children...
November 17, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156632/neurotropism-in-vitro-and-mouse-models-of-severe-and-mild-infection-with-clinical-strains-of-enterovirus-71
#20
Pin Yu, Linlin Bao, Lili Xu, Fengdi Li, Qi Lv, Wei Deng, Yanfeng Xu, Chuan Qin
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and fatal neurological diseases in children. The neuropathogenicity of severe EV71 infection has been documented, but studies comparing mouse models of severe and mild EV71 infection are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate the neurovirulence of EV71 strains and the differences in serum cytokine and chemokine levels in mouse models of severe and mild EV71 infection. Nine EV71 isolates belonging to the C4 subgenogroup (proposed as genotype D) displayed infectivity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells; moreover, ultrastructural observation confirmed viral particle replication...
November 20, 2017: Viruses
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