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Hand,foot,and mouth disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905343/unilateral-hemorrhagic-maculopathy-an-uncommon-manifestation-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#1
Manish Tandon, Abhishek Gupta, Priyanka Singh, Gnanavelu N Subathra
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFD) is a common systemic infection occurring in childhood or immunocompromised adults caused by enteroviruses, the most common being coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71. It is characterized by maculopapular eruptions over the hands and feet and ulcerative stomatitis. Ocular involvement is a rare complication and commonly manifests as inflammatory macular pathology. We report a case of HFD in an immunocompetent adult male with unilateral ocular involvement presenting as hemorrhagic maculopathy and its management with complete anatomical and functional recovery...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898715/hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-hunan-province-china-2009-2014-epidemiology-and-death-risk-factors
#2
Kai-Wei Luo, Li-Dong Gao, Shi-Xiong Hu, Hong Zhang, Zhi-Hong Deng, Wei Huang, Qian-Lai Sun, Fan Zhang, Si-Yu Zhang, Yu Chen
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an arising public health problem in Asia, including China. Epidemiological data is necessary to enable judicious public health responses and interventions. We analyzed the epidemiological and laboratory data of 759,301 HFMD cases reported to the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2014. Univariate and multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors of fatality in HFMD. The incidence of HFMD was highest among children aged 1-3 years, compared with other age groups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894305/identification-of-molecular-determinants-of-cell-culture-growth-characteristics-of-enterovirus-71
#3
Pinn Tsin Isabel Yee, Kuan Onn Tan, Iekhsan Othman, Chit Laa Poh
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackieviruses. EV-A71 infection is associated with high fever, rashes and ulcers but more severe symptoms such as cardiopulmonary failure and death have been reported. The lack of vaccines highlighted the urgency of developing preventive agents against EV-A71. The molecular determinants of virulent phenotypes of EV-A71 is unclear. It remains to be investigated if specific molecular determinants would affect the cell culture growth characteristics of the EV-A71 fatal strain in Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells...
November 28, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890633/comparison-analysis-of-micrornas-in-response-to-ev71-and-ca16-infection-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-by-high-throughput-sequencing-to-reveal-differential-infective-mechanisms
#4
Yajie Hu, Jie Song, Longding Liu, Jing Li, Beibei Tang, Ying Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Lichun Wang, Shengtao Fan, Ming Feng, Qihan Li
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) infections which presented significantly different clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, the factors underlying these differences remain unclear. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. Here, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing...
November 24, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878462/enterovirus-a71-and-coxsackievirus-a16-show-different-replication-kinetics-in-human-neuronal-and-non-neuronal-cell-lines
#5
Thinesshwary Yogarajah, Kien Chai Ong, David Perera, Kum Thong Wong
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are closely related enteroviruses that cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Serious neurological complications almost always occur in EV-A71 infection, but are rare in CV-A16 infection. Based on the hypothesis that this may be because EV-A71 infects neuronal cells more easily than CV-A16, we compared virus infection, replication and spread of EV-A71 and CV-A16 in SK-N-SH cells. We found that CV-A16 invariably showed significantly lower replication and caused less necrotic cell death in SK-N-SH cells, compared with EV-A71...
November 23, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871252/age-patterns-and-transmission-characteristics-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-china
#6
Jijun Zhao, Fachun Jiang, Lianfa Zhong, Jianping Sun, Junhang Ding
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has circulated in China and caused yearly outbreak. To understand the transmission of the disease and to assess the spatial variation in cases reported, we examined age-specific transmission characteristics and reporting rates of HFMD for 31 provinces in mainland China. METHODS: We first analyzed incidence spatial patterns and age-specific incidence patterns using dataset from 2008 to 2012. Transmission characteristics were estimated based on catalytic model...
November 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870604/immunoreactivity-analysis-of-the-nonstructural-proteins-of-human-enterovirus-71
#7
Xuyan Chen, Bo Qin, Min Shi, Longying Zhu, Menglin Sun, Xufeng Liu, Jianhua Zhang
Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is one of the main etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which has been prevalent mainly in the Asia-Pacific region in the past several decades. The nonstructural proteins of EV-A71 will be expressed significantly during viral replication in host cells after EV-A71 infection. For the determination of the antibodies response against nonstructural proteins of EV-A71, in this study, the complete 2ABC, 3ABC, and 3D proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and were then studied for their immunoreactivity by immunoblot assay and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively...
November 21, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864074/clinically-isolated-enterovirus-a71-subgenogroup-c4-strain-with-lethal-pathogenicity-in-14-day-old-mice-and-the-application-as-an-ev-a71-mouse-infection-model
#8
Yi Xu, Shuzhi Ma, Limeng Zhu, Zhiqiu Huang, Liyun Chen, Yuhua Xu, Haibin Yin, Tao Peng, Yi Wang
The Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) subgenogroup C4 is prevalent in China. EV-A71 causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children and may lead to severe neurological diseases. The development of antiviral and protective vaccines against EV-A71 is significantly hindered by the lack of suitable animal models to recapitulate human neurological symptoms. In this study, GZ-CII, a highly virulent EV-A71 subgenogroup C4 strain, was isolated from hospitalized children with HFMD. Intraperitoneal infections of GZ-CII resulted in progressive neurological disease in mice as old as 14 days...
November 15, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859744/hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-an-overview-of-clinical-features-in-adult-patients
#9
I Neri, M A Chessa, A Virdi, A Patrizi
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly affects children aged <5 years and is caused by several serotypes of enteroviruses, more frequently Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackie A16 (CA16)(1) . The disease presents with vesicles in the mouth, hands, feet and buttocks. Only 1% of infected adults develop clinical manifestations, probably as a result of immunological memory(1). Nevertheless, in the atypical HFMD caused by Coxsackie virus A6 (CVA6) the involvement of immunocompetent adults has been recently described(2-6) ...
November 11, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849036/enterovirus-71-infection-of-motor-neuron-like-nsc-34-cells-undergoes-a-non-lytic-exit-pathway
#10
Issac Horng Khit Too, Huimin Yeo, October Michael Sessions, Benedict Yan, Eshele Anak Libau, Josephine L C Howe, Ze Qin Lim, Shalini Suku-Maran, Wei-Yi Ong, Kaw Bing Chua, Boon Seng Wong, Vincent T K Chow, Sylvie Alonso
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, is regarded as the most important neurotropic virus worldwide. EV71 is believed to replicate in muscles and infect motor neurons to reach the central nervous system (CNS). To further investigate the mechanisms involved, we have employed the motor neuron cell line NSC-34. NSC-34 cells were permissive to EV71 and virus production yields were strain-dependent with differential efficacy at the entry, replication and egress steps. Furthermore, unlike all the other cell lines previously reported, EV71-infected NSC-34 cells neither displayed cytopathic effect nor underwent apoptosis...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848955/the-threshold-effects-of-meteorological-factors-on-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-hfmd-in-china-2011
#11
Zhicheng Du, Wangjian Zhang, Dingmei Zhang, Shicheng Yu, Yuantao Hao
We explored the threshold effects of meteorological factors on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in mainland China to improve the prevention and early warning. Using HFMD surveillance and meteorological data in 2011, we identified the threshold effects of predictors on the monthly incidence of HFMD and predicted the high risk months, with classification and regression tree models (CART). The results of the classification tree showed that there was an 82.35% chance for a high risk of HFMD when the temperature was greater than 24...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848175/glucocorticoids-prevent-enterovirus-71-capsid-protein-vp1-induced-calreticulin-surface-exposure-by-alleviating-neuronal-er-stress
#12
Dan-Dan Hu, Jian-Ning Mai, Li-Ya He, Pei-Qing Li, Wen-Xiong Chen, Jian-Jiang Yan, Wei-Dong Zhu, Li Deng, Dan Wei, Di-Hui Liu, Si-Da Yang, Zhi-Bin Yao
Severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) always accompanies with inflammation and neuronal damage in the central nervous system (CNS). During neuronal injuries, cell surface-exposed calreticulin (Ecto-CRT) is an important mediator for primary phagocytosis of viable neurons by microglia. Our data confirmed that brainstem neurons underwent neuronophagia by glia in EV71-induced death cases of HFMD. EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, or VP4 did not induce apoptosis of brainstem neurons...
November 15, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847364/enterovirus-71-3c-promotes-apoptosis-through-cleavage-of-pinx1-a-telomere-binding-protein
#13
Jing Li, Yunfang Yao, Yu Chen, Xiao Xu, Yongquan Lin, Zhilong Yang, Wentao Qiao, Juan Tan
: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging pathogen causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and fatal neurological diseases in infants and young children due to their under-developed immune-competence. EV71 infection can induce cellular apoptosis through a variety of pathways that promotes EV71 release. The viral protease 3C plays an important role in EV71-induced apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for 3C-triggered apoptosis remains elusive. Here, we found that EV71 3C directly interacted with PinX1, a telomere binding protein...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843944/systematic-identification-and-bioinformatic-analysis-of-micrornas-in-response-to-infections-of-coxsackievirus-a16-and-enterovirus-71
#14
Zheng Zhu, Yuhua Qi, Huan Fan, Lunbiao Cui, Zhiyang Shi
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), mainly caused by coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, remains a serious public health issue with thousands of newly diagnostic cases each year since 2008 in China. The mechanisms underlying viral infection, however, are elusive to date. In the present study, we systematically investigated the host cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns in response to CVA16 and EV71 infections. Through microarray examination, 27 miRNAs (15 upregulated and 12 downregulated) were found to be coassociated with the replication process of two viruses, while the expression levels of 15 and 5 miRNAs were significantly changed in CVA16- and EV71-infected cells, respectively...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829175/pathologic-and-immunologic-characteristics-of-coxsackievirus-a16-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#15
Jingjing Wang, Ying Zhang, Xiaolong Zhang, Yajie Hu, Chenghong Dong, Longding Liu, Erxia Yang, Yanchun Che, Jing Pu, Xi Wang, Jie Song, Yun Liao, Min Feng, Yan Liang, Ting Zhao, Li Jiang, Zhanlong He, Shuaiyao Lu, Lichun Wang, Yanyan Li, Shengtao Fan, Lei Guo, Qihan Li
Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) causes human hand, foot and mouth disease, but its pathogenesis is unclear. In rhesus macaques, CV-A16 infection causes characteristic vesicles in the oral mucosa and limbs as well as viremia and positive viral loads in the tissues, suggesting that these animals reflect the pathologic process of the infection. An immunologic analysis indicated a defective immune response, which included undetectable neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ-specific memory T-cells in macaques infected with CV-A16...
November 6, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826325/enterovirus-71-infection-and-neurological-complications
#16
REVIEW
Kyung Yeon Lee
Since the outbreak of the enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in Malaysia in 1997, large epidemics of EV71 have occurred in the Asia-Pacific region. Many children and infants have died from serious neurological complications during these epidemics, and EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in these areas. EV71 infection causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, and usually resolves spontaneously. However, EV71 occasionally involves the central nervous system (CNS), and induces diverse neurological complications such as brainstem encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819276/children-s-caregivers-and-public-playgrounds-potential-reservoirs-of-infection-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#17
Pengyuan Li, Tao Li, Qiuyun Gu, Xiaomin Chen, Jiahui Li, Xiashi Chen, Yan Chen, Danwei Zhang, Rong Gao, Zhenjian He, Xun Zhu, Wangjian Zhang, Yuantao Hao, Dingmei Zhang
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease, which has led to millions of clinical cases and hundreds of deaths every year in China. This study aimed to exploring the effects on HFMD transmission of children's caregivers and public area, as well as trying to locate the potential reservoirs of infections in primary cases. Total children's 257 samples (98 children's caregivers and 159 environmental samples) were tested for the presence of universal enterovirus, enterovirus 71, coxsackie virus A6 and A16 by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818360/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-for-the-prognostic-prediction-of-severe-enterovirus-71-associated-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#18
Jun Qiu, Xiulan Lu, Pingping Liu, Xinping Zhang, Chao Zuo, Zhenghui Xiao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) can predict impending brainstem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, pulmonary hemorrhage, cardiopulmonary failure, and death in children with severe enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). METHODS: Plasma NT-proBNP levels of 282 children with severe EV71-associated HFMD were measured. RESULTS: NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in patients with elevated blood glucose (>7...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817774/-expression-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-in-peripheral-blood-of-children-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#19
Jin-Song Ren, Hao-Miao Sun, Lei Zhang, Jing-De Lin, Cheng Wen, Dai-Hua Fang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in peripheral blood of children with hand, foot and mouth disease and its significance. METHODS: According to the condition of the disease, 86 children with hand, foot and mouth disease were classified into phase 1 group (19 children) and phase 2 group (67 children). ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of plasma VIP, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in peripheral blood...
November 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816018/sequence-analysis-of-the-first-c2-subgenogroup-strain-of-enterovirus-71-isolated-in-korea
#20
Jung-Ah Lee, Young Sil Yoon, Ji-Yeon Hyeon, Jung Sik Yoo, Sang-Won Lee, June-Woo Lee, Sang-Won Lee
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease with severe neurological complications, which may lead to death in children. Large outbreaks caused by EV71 have frequently occurred in Asia-Pacific region. OBJECTIVES: In Korea, the outbreaks have been caused by EV71 subgenogroups C3, and C4. Only genogroup C, especially subgenogroup C1, C3, C4, and C5, has been detected by the national enterovirus surveillance system in Korea...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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