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Synaesthesia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025017/automatic-numerical-spatial-association-in-synaesthesia-an-fmri-investigation
#1
Isabel Arend, Sarit Ashkenazi, Kenneth Yuen, Shiran Ofir, Avishai Henik
A horizontal mental number line (MNL) is used to describe how quantities are represented across space. In humans, the neural correlates associated with such a representation are found in different areas of the posterior parietal cortex, especially, the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). In a phenomenon known as number-space synaesthesia, individuals visualise numbers in specific spatial locations. The experience of a MNL for number-space synaesthetes is explicit, idiosyncratic, and highly stable over time. It remains an open question whether the mechanisms underlying numerical-spatial association are shared by synaesthetes and nonsynaesthetes...
December 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024253/language-use-statistics-and-prototypical-grapheme-colours-predict-synaesthetes-and-non-synaesthetes-word-colour-associations
#2
Stephanie C Goodhew, Evan Kidd
Synaesthesia is the neuropsychological phenomenon in which individuals experience unusual sensory associations, such as experiencing particular colours in response to particular words. While it was once thought the particular pairings between stimuli were arbitrary and idiosyncratic to particular synaesthetes, there is now growing evidence for a systematic psycholinguistic basis to the associations. Here we sought to assess the explanatory value of quantifiable lexical association measures (via latent semantic analysis; LSA) in the pairings observed between words and colours in synaesthesia...
December 23, 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013176/the-prevalence-of-synaesthesia-depends-on-early-language-learning
#3
Marcus R Watson, Jan Chromý, Lyle Crawford, David M Eagleman, James T Enns, Kathleen A Akins
According to one theory, synaesthesia develops, or is preserved, because it helps children learn. If so, it should be more common among adults who faced greater childhood learning challenges. In the largest survey of synaesthesia to date, the incidence of synaesthesia was compared among native speakers of languages with transparent (easier) and opaque (more difficult) orthographies. Contrary to our prediction, native speakers of Czech (transparent) were more likely to be synaesthetes than native speakers of English (opaque)...
December 22, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937073/social-perception-in-synaesthesia-for-colour
#4
Agnieszka B Janik McErlean, Tirta Susilo, Constantin Rezlescu, Amy Bray, Michael J Banissy
Synaesthesia is a rare phenomenon in which stimulation in one modality (e.g., audition) evokes a secondary percept not associated with the first (e.g., colour). Prior work has suggested links between synaesthesia and other neurodevelopmental conditions that are linked to altered social perception abilities. With this in mind, here we sought to examine social perception abilities in grapheme-colour synaesthesia (where achromatic graphemes evoke colour experiences) by examining facial identity and facial emotion perception in synaesthetes and controls...
December 11, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893181/synaesthesia-lost-and-found-two-cases-of-person-and-music-colour-synaesthesia
#5
Francesca R Farina, Kevin J Mitchell, Richard A P Roche
Synaesthesia is a developmental condition involving cross-communication between sensory modalities or substreams whereby an inducer (e.g. a sound) automatically evokes a concurrent percept in another modality (e.g. a colour). Whether this condition arises due to atypical structural connectivity (e.g., between normally unconnected cortical areas) or altered neurochemistry remains a central question. We report the exceptional cases of two synaesthetes - subjects AB and CD - both of whom experience coloured auras around individuals, as well as coloured perceptions in response to music...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553270/social-responsiveness-to-inanimate-entities-altered-white-matter-in-a-social-synaesthesia
#6
J Simner, M K Rehme, D A Carmichael, M E Bastin, E Sprooten, A M McIntosh, S M Lawrie, M Zedler
Judgments about personalities and social traits can be made by relatively brief exposure to animate living things. Here we show that unusual architecture in the microstructure of the human brain is related to atypical mental projections of personality and social structure onto things that are neither living nor animate. Our participants experience automatic, life-long and consistent crossmodal associations between language sequences (e.g., letters, numbers and days) and complex personifications (e.g., A is a businessman; 7 a good-natured woman)...
August 20, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515202/hypothesis-concerning-embodied-calendars-a-case-study-of-number-form-color-spreading-and-taste-color-synaesthesia
#7
V S Ramachandran, C Chunharas, Z Marcus
We propose a hypothesis concerning the neural basis of the mental 'calendar' we all carry around in our brains, based on observations we made on a 25year old 'projector synaesthete', EA, who displays some novel and instructive features. In addition to her grapheme-color synaesthesia, she has a circular 'calendar line', laid out vividly in front of her in the horizontal plane with December 31st passing through the middle of her chest and other months arranged in clockwise sequence ending with December on her right (July was 3 feet in front of her)...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490947/mirror-touch-synaesthesia-is-not-associated-with-heightened-empathy-and-can-occur-with-autism
#8
Simon Baron-Cohen, Emma Robson, Meng-Chuan Lai, Carrie Allison
Research has linked Mirror-Touch (MT) synaesthesia with enhanced empathy. We test the largest sample of MT synaesthetes to date to examine two claims that have been previously made: that MT synaesthetes (1) have superior empathy; and (2) only ever experience their MT synaesthesia in response to viewing a person being touched. Given that autism has been suggested to involve deficits in cognitive empathy, we also test two predictions: that MT synaesthetes should (3) be less likely than general population individuals without MT synaesthesia to have an autism spectrum condition (ASC), if MT is characterized by superior empathy; and (4) have fewer autistic traits...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392215/the-emergence-of-synaesthesia-in-a-neuronal-network-model-via-changes-in-perceptual-sensitivity-and-plasticity
#9
Oren Shriki, Yaniv Sadeh, Jamie Ward
Synaesthesia is an unusual perceptual experience in which an inducer stimulus triggers a percept in a different domain in addition to its own. To explore the conditions under which synaesthesia evolves, we studied a neuronal network model that represents two recurrently connected neural systems. The interactions in the network evolve according to learning rules that optimize sensory sensitivity. We demonstrate several scenarios, such as sensory deprivation or heightened plasticity, under which synaesthesia can evolve even though the inputs to the two systems are statistically independent and the initial cross-talk interactions are zero...
July 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27369097/the-structure-of-inter-individual-differences-in-visual-ability-evidence-from-the-general-population-and-synaesthesia
#10
Jamie Ward, Nicolas Rothen, Acer Chang, Ryota Kanai
This study considers how inter-individual differences in visual ability are structured. Visual ability could be a single entity (along the lines of general intelligence, or 'g'), or could be structured according to major anatomical or physiological pathways (dorsal v. ventral streams; magno- v. parvo-cellular systems); or may be a finer-grained mosaic of abilities. To test this, we employed seven visual psychophysical tests (generating 16 measures) on a large (100+) sample of neurotypical participants. A Varimax-rotated PCA (Principal Component Analysis) revealed a two-factor solution that broadly corresponds to a high and low spatial frequency division (consistent with a magno/parvo distinction)...
June 29, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344506/bridging-the-gap-synaesthesia-and-multisensory-processes
#11
EDITORIAL
Tessa M van Leeuwen, Sina A Trautmann-Lengsfeld, Mark T Wallace, Andreas K Engel, Micah M Murray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303282/toward-a-unified-social-motor-cognition-theory-of-understanding-mirror-touch-synaesthesia
#12
Shenbing Kuang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102544/automaticity-and-localisation-of-concurrents-predicts-colour-area-activity-in-grapheme-colour-synaesthesia
#13
Cassandra D Gould van Praag, Sarah Garfinkel, Jamie Ward, Daniel Bor, Anil K Seth
In grapheme-colour synaesthesia (GCS), the presentation of letters or numbers induces an additional 'concurrent' experience of colour. Early functional MRI (fMRI) investigations of GCS reported activation in colour-selective area V4 during the concurrent experience. However, others have failed to replicate this key finding. We reasoned that individual differences in synaesthetic phenomenology might explain this inconsistency in the literature. To test this hypothesis, we examined fMRI BOLD responses in a group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes (n=20) and matched controls (n=20) while characterising the individual phenomenology of the synaesthetes along dimensions of 'automaticity' and 'localisation'...
July 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059209/a-placebo-controlled-investigation-of-synaesthesia-like-experiences-under-lsd
#14
Devin B Terhune, David P Luke, Mendel Kaelen, Mark Bolstridge, Amanda Feilding, David Nutt, Robin Carhart-Harris, Jamie Ward
The induction of synaesthesia in non-synaesthetes has the potential to illuminate the mechanisms that contribute to the development of this condition and the shaping of its phenomenology. Previous research suggests that lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) reliably induces synaesthesia-like experiences in non-synaesthetes. However, these studies suffer from a number of methodological limitations including lack of a placebo control and the absence of rigorous measures used to test established criteria for genuine synaesthesia...
July 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973548/examining-the-relationship-between-schizotypy-and-self-reported-visual-imagery-vividness-in-grapheme-color-synaesthesia
#15
Agnieszka B Janik McErlean, Michael J Banissy
Synaesthesia is a condition in which one property of a stimulus triggers a secondary experience not typically associated with the first (e.g., seeing achromatic graphemes can evoke the perception of color). Recent work has explored a variety of cognitive and perceptual traits associated with synaesthesia. One example is in the domain of personality, where higher rates of positive schizotypy and openness to experience and lower agreeableness have been reported in synaesthetes who experience color as their evoked sensation relative to typical adult controls...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26848730/processing-compound-words-evidence-from-synaesthesia
#16
Jennifer L Mankin, Christopher Thompson, Holly P Branigan, Julia Simner
This study used grapheme-colour synaesthesia, a neurological condition where letters evoke a strong and consistent impression of colour, as a tool to investigate normal language processing. For two sets of compound words varying by lexical frequency (e.g., football vs lifevest) or semantic transparency (e.g., flagpole vs magpie), we asked 19 grapheme-colour synaesthetes to choose their dominant synaesthetic colour using an online colour palette. Synaesthetes could then select a second synaesthetic colour for each word if they experienced one...
May 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26644597/self-other-control-processes-in-social-cognition-from-imitation-to-empathy
#17
Marie de Guzman, Geoffrey Bird, Michael J Banissy, Caroline Catmur
We review the evidence that an ability to achieve a precise balance between representing the self and representing other people is crucial in social interaction. This ability is required for imitation, perspective-taking, theory of mind and empathy; and disruption to this ability may contribute to the symptoms of clinical and sub-clinical conditions, including autism spectrum disorder and mirror-touch synaesthesia. Moving beyond correlational approaches, a recent intervention study demonstrated that training participants to control representations of the self and others improves their ability to control imitative behaviour, and to take another's visual perspective...
January 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26562892/rogowska-a-m-synaesthesia-and-individual-differences
#18
Jennifer Mankin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26550800/-am-i-moving-an-illusion-of-agency-and-ownership-in-mirror-touch-synaesthesia
#19
Maria Cristina Cioffi, Michael J Banissy, James W Moore
Mirror-touch synaesthesia (MTS) is a condition that leads people to experience tactile sensations on their own body when watching at someone else being touched. Recent accounts postulate that MTS is linked with atypical self-other representations. It has been suggested that this may be associated with disturbances in two main components of self-awareness: sense of agency and sense of ownership. This study investigates changes in sense of agency and sense of ownership in MTS. Using a paradigm that deliberately blurs the boundaries between the self and the other, we not only found that MTS affects sense of agency and sense of ownership, but that these aspects of self-awareness are affected differently...
January 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26290957/lessons-of-synaesthesia-for-consciousness-learning-from-the-exception-rather-than-the-general
#20
Ophelia Deroy, Charles Spence
The question of whether the mechanisms underlying synaesthesia are similar to those ones underlying widespread cases of multisensory interactions tends to overshadow the question of whether their manifestations can be thought of as being continuous with one another. Here we focus on the conscious manifestations of synaesthesia and crossmodal correspondences and consider the dimensions along which these could be organised on a continuum. While synaesthesia and crossmodal correspondences may differ regarding the degree of vividness, frequency, specificity of the conscious manifestation, and control over its content, we demonstrate that these dimensions fail to lead to the expected continuous distribution...
July 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
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