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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786535/evaluating-the-importance-of-sham-controlled-trials-in-the-investigation-of-medical-devices-in-interventional-cardiology
#1
Robert A Byrne, Davide Capodanno, Felix Mahfoud, Jean Fajadet, Stephan Windecker, Peter Jüni, Andreas Baumbach, William Wijns, Michael Haude
Cardiovascular medicine is one of the specialties that has relied most heavily on evidence from randomized clinical trials in determining best practice for the management of common disease conditions. When comparing treatment approaches, trials incorporating random allocation are the most appropriate method for protecting against treatment allocation bias. In order to protect against performance and ascertainment bias, trial designs including placebo control are preferable where feasible. In contrast to testing of medicines, treatments based on procedures or use of medical devices are more challenging to assess, as sham procedures are necessary to facilitate blinding of participants...
May 22, 2018: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784539/revisiting-antithrombin-in-health-and-disease-congenital-deficiencies-and-genetic-variants-and-laboratory-studies-on-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-forms
#2
REVIEW
Jean Amiral, Jerard Seghatchian
Antithrombin [AT] is the main inhibitor for activated plasma coagulation serine esterases, inhibiting thrombin, Factors Xa and IXa, but also Factors XIIa, XIa, VIIa, kallicrein, and plasmin. Its activity is highly enhanced by heparin, through binding to the pentasaccharide sequences, for inhibition of all coagulation proteases, except thrombin, which inhibition requires its additional binding to the heparin polysaccharide chain. However, AT is the major inhibitor of thrombin in the blood circulation. Congenital or acquired deficiencies of AT expose affected patients to an increased risk of developing unprovoked and recurrent thrombo-embolic diseases...
April 19, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784051/contributions-of-a-survey-and-retrospective-cohort-study-to-the-planning-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-corticosteroids-in-the-treatment-of-paediatric-septic-shock
#3
Anna Liu, Kusum Menon
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are challenging to conduct in a paediatric critical-care environment. Background work, including surveys and observational studies, is often used to determine disease estimates, sample sizes and design protocols when planning such RCTs. Our objective was to determine the necessity of performing a survey or a retrospective chart review or both when planning an RCT on corticosteroids in the treatment of paediatric septic shock. METHODS: We compared information on corticosteroid use for moderate to severe paediatric septic shock obtained from a survey of physician beliefs and stated practices with that obtained from a retrospective cohort study...
May 21, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783031/a-unique-all-payer-rate-setting-system-controls-the-cost-but-not-the-racial-disparity-in-lower-extremity-revascularization-procedures
#4
Besma Nejim, Robert J Beaulieu, Husain Alshaikh, Mohammed Hamouda, Joseph Canner, Mahmoud B Malas
BACKGROUND: Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) often have high comorbidity burden that may complicate post-interventional course and drive increased healthcare expenditures. Racial disparity had been observed in lower extremity revascularization (LER) patterns and outcomes. In 2014, Maryland adopted an all-payer rate setting system to limit the rising hospitalization costs. This resulted in an aggregate payment system in which hospital compensation takes place as an overall per capita expenditure for hospital services...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782199/bacteriolysis-a-mere-laboratory-curiosity
#5
Isaac Ginsburg, Erez Koren
The role of bacteriolysis in the pathophysiology of microbial infections dates back to 1893 when Buchner and Pfeiffer reported for the first time the lysis of bacteria by immune serum and related this phenomenon to the immune response. Later on, basic anti-microbial peptides and certain beta-lactam antibiotics have been shown not only to kill microorganisms but also to induce bacteriolysis and the release of cell-wall components. In 2009, a novel paradigm was offered suggesting that the main cause of death in sepsis is due to the exclusive release from activated human phagocytic neutrophils (PMNs) traps adhering upon endothelial cells of highly toxic nuclear histone...
May 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781248/the-role-of-3d-printing-in-treating-craniomaxillofacial-congenital-anomalies
#6
REVIEW
Christopher D Lopez, Lukasz Witek, Andrea Torroni, Roberto L Flores, David B Demissie, Simon Young, Bruce N Cronstein, Paulo G Coelho
Craniomaxillofacial congenital anomalies comprise approximately one third of all congenital birth defects and include deformities such as alveolar clefts, craniosynostosis, and microtia. Current surgical treatments commonly require the use of autogenous graft material which are difficult to shape, limited in supply, associated with donor site morbidity and cannot grow with a maturing skeleton. Our group has demonstrated that 3D printed bio-ceramic scaffolds can generate vascularized bone within large, critical-sized defects (defects too large to heal spontaneously) of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton...
May 20, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779828/followership-a-review-of-the-literature-in-healthcare-and-beyond
#7
REVIEW
Caleb Leung, Amanda Lucas, Peter Brindley, Shellie Anderson, Jason Park, Ashley Vergis, Lawrence M Gillman
INTRODUCTION: Research in healthcare leadership has focused on leaders. In contrast, organizational success may be more influenced by followers. Kelley described five followership styles based on two characteristics: active engagement and independent critical thinking. We examined the literature on the association between followership style and workplace outcomes. METHODS: Articles from MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE were searched. Given the paucity of studies, we expanded our search to non-healthcare databases...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779827/zika-virus-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#8
Gisele Sampaio Silva, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Jorge Hidalgo, Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Pravin Amin
Zika fever is an acute infectious disease caused by the Zika virus (ZIKV), an RNA virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus. ZIKV can be transmitted by bites from Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus species, sexual activity, blood transfusion and from mother to fetus during pregnancy and delivery. A total of 50 territories and countries in the Americas had reported ZIKV infections. For those with symptoms, the presentation is similar to dengue fever with body aches, joint pain, fatigue, malaise, fever and conjunctivitis lasting up to seven days...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778137/deciphering-natural-control-of-hiv-1-a-valuable-strategy-to-achieve-antiretroviral-therapy-termination
#9
REVIEW
Hamza Loucif, Steven Gouard, Xavier Dagenais-Lussier, Armstrong Murira, Simona Stäger, Cécile Tremblay, Julien Van Grevenynghe
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-1-associated morbidity and mortality, and has transformed HIV-1 infection into a manageable chronic condition by suppressing viral replication. However, despite recent patient care improvements, ART still fails to cure HIV-1 infection due to the inability to counteract immune defects and metabolic disturbances that are associated with residual inflammation alongside viral persistence. Life-long drug administration also results in multiple side-effects in patients including lipodystrophy and insulin resistance...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776804/hemicraniectomy-for-malignant-middle-cerebral-artery-syndrome-a-review-of-functional-outcomes-in-two-high-volume-stroke-centers
#10
Abhi Pandhi, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Nitin Goyal, Muhammad F Ishfaq, Shailesh Male, Efstathios Boviatsis, Jason J Chang, Ramin Zand, Konstantinos Voumvourakis, Lucas Elijovich, Anne W Alexandrov, Marc D Malkoff, Daniel Hoit, Adam S Arthur, Andrei V Alexandrov
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite recent landmark randomized controlled trials showing significant benefits for hemicraniectomy (HCT) compared with medical therapy (MT) in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI), HCT rates have not substantially increased in the United States. We sought to evaluate early outcomes in patients with MMCAI who were treated with HCT (cases) in comparison to patients treated with MT due to the perception of procedural futility by families (controls)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775501/educational-interventions-for-improving-primary-caregiver-complementary-feeding-practices-for-children-aged-24-months-and-under
#11
REVIEW
Dachi Arikpo, Ededet Sewanu Edet, Moriam T Chibuzor, Friday Odey, Deborah M Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Although complementary feeding is a universal practice, the methods and manner in which it is practiced vary between cultures, individuals and socioeconomic classes. The period of complementary feeding is a critical time of transition in the life of an infant, and inappropriate complementary feeding practices, with their associated adverse health consequences, remain a significant global public health problem. Educational interventions are widely acknowledged as effective in promoting public health strategy, and those aimed at improving complementary feeding practices provide information about proper complementary feeding practices to caregivers of infants/children...
May 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774817/bladder-reconstruction-with-bowel-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-ileocystoplasty-with-mitrofanoff-appendicovesicostomy-in-pediatric-patients
#12
Nimrod S Barashi, Maria Veronica Rodriguez, Vignesh T Packiam, Mohan S Gundeti
Neurogenic bladder occur as a consequence of several conditions, most commonly posterior urethral valves syndrome, spina bifida, tethered cord, sacral agenesis, and Arnold-Chiari malformation. It is characterized by diminished bladder capacity and/or reduced compliance, associated with high-pressure voiding that can lead to deterioration of renal function if left untreated. When medical management fails, bladder reconstruction with bowel (aumentation ileocystoplasty) becomes the treatment of choice for these patients...
May 2018: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773575/measuring-physical-activity-with-implanted-cardiac-devices-a-systematic-review
#13
Lindsey Rosman, Rachel Lampert, Samuel F Sears, Matthew M Burg
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is predictive of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices, yet it is not regularly assessed in routine care. Current-generation cardiovascular implantable electronic devices, however, continuously monitor patient activity through a built-in accelerometer, which provides new opportunities to remotely assess patient activity, detect changes in clinical status, and incorporate these data in risk stratification models...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772538/targeting-fibroblast-activation-protein-in-cancer-prospects-and-caveats
#14
Petr Busek, Rosana Mateu, Michal Zubal, Lenka Kotackova, Aleksi Sedo
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP, seprase) is a serine protease with post-proline dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase enzymatic activity. FAP is upregulated in several tumor types, while its expression in healthy adult tissues is scarce. FAP molecule itself and FAP+ stromal cells play an important although probably context-dependent and tumor type-specific pathogenetic role in tumor progression. We provide an overview of FAP expression under both physiological and pathological conditions with focus on human malignancies...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771763/recognizing-diagnosing-and-preventing-child-maltreatment-an-update-for-pediatric-clinicians
#15
Fiona Danaher, Andrea Vandeven, Aine Blanchard, Alice W Newton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite an increasing understanding of the impact of emotional trauma and physical abuse on children, clinicians and hospitals still sometimes miss the diagnosis of abuse. The literature in 2017 focused on creating standardized approaches to recognition and diagnosis of physical abuse and occult injury, including using the electronic medical record to provide triggers for consultation of the hospital Child Protection Program. The American College of Radiology updated their standardized approach to the evaluation of physical abuse in the child, and other authors gave us screening tools for commercial exploitation, as well as guidance about how to recognize risks for emotional abuse in families...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771722/detection-of-deteriorating-patients-on-surgical-wards-outside-the-icu-by-an-automated-mews-based-early-warning-system-with-paging-functionality
#16
Axel R Heller, Sören T Mees, Benjamin Lauterwald, Christian Reeps, Thea Koch, Jürgen Weitz
BACKGROUND: The establishment of early warning systems in hospitals was strongly recommended in recent guidelines to detect deteriorating patients early and direct them to adequate care. Upon reaching predefined trigger criteria, Medical Emergency Teams (MET) should be notified and directed to these patients. The present study analyses the effect of introducing an automated multiparameter early warning score (MEWS)-based early warning system with paging functionality on 2 wards hosting patients recovering from highly complex surgical interventions...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770813/nanomaterial-based-devices-for-point-of-care-diagnostic-applications
#17
Daniel Quesada-González, Arben Merkoçi
In this review, we have discussed the capabilities of nanomaterials for point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics and explained how these materials can help to strengthen, miniaturize and improve the quality of diagnostic devices. Since the optical, electrochemical and other physical properties of nanomaterials are dictated by their composition, size and shape, these factors are critical in the design and function of nanomaterial-based PoC diagnostics.
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770293/current-monitoring-and-innovative-predictive-modeling-to-improve-care-in-the-pediatric-cardiac-intensive-care-unit
#18
REVIEW
Mary K Olive, Gabe E Owens
The objectives of this review are (I) to describe the challenges associated with monitoring patients in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) and (II) to discuss the use of innovative statistical and artificial intelligence (AI) software programs to attempt to predict significant clinical events. Patients cared for in the PCICU are clinically fragile and at risk for fatal decompensation. Current monitoring modalities are often ineffective, sometimes inaccurate, and fail to detect a deteriorating clinical status in a timely manner...
April 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769074/delay-in-reviewing-test-results-prolongs-hospital-length-of-stay-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Mei-Sing Ong, Farah Magrabi, Enrico Coiera
BACKGROUND: Failure in the timely follow-up of test results has been widely documented, contributing to delayed medical care. Yet, the impact of delay in reviewing test results on hospital length of stay (LOS) has not been studied. We examine the relationship between laboratory tests review time and hospital LOS. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of inpatients admitted to a metropolitan teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia, between 2011 and 2012 (n = 5804)...
May 16, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768975/arresting-dentine-caries-with-silver-diamine-fluoride-what-s-behind-it
#20
M L Mei, E C M Lo, C H Chu
Unlike other fluoride-based caries preventive agents, silver diamine fluoride (SDF) can simultaneously prevent and arrest coronal and root dentine caries. The profound clinical success of SDF has drawn many clinicians and researchers to study the mechanism of SDF in arresting dentine caries. This critical review discusses how silver and fluoride contribute to caries arrest, in terms of their effects on bacteria as well as on the mineral and organic content of dentine. Silver interacts with bacterial cell membrane and bacterial enzymes, which can inhibit bacterial growth...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
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