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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454240/deterrent-effects-of-demerit-points-and-license-sanctions-on-drivers-traffic-law-violations-using-a-proportional-hazard-model
#1
Jaeyeong Lee, Byung-Jung Park, Chungwon Lee
Current traffic law enforcement places an emphasis on reducing accident risk from human factors such as drunk driving and speeding. Among the various strategies implemented, demerit points and license sanction systems have been widely used as punitive and educational measures. Limitations, however, exist in previous studies in terms of estimating the interaction effects of demerit points and license sanctions. To overcome such limitations, this work focused on identifying the interaction effects of demerit points and license sanctions on driver traffic violation behavior...
February 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454141/a-cluster-randomized-pilot-trial-of-a-tailored-worksite-smoking-cessation-intervention-targeting-hispanic-latino-construction-workers-intervention-development-and-research-design
#2
Taghrid Asfar, Alberto J Caban-Martinez, Laura A McClure, Estefania C Ruano-Herreria, Danielle Sierra, G Gilford Clark, Daniel Samano, Noella A Dietz, Kenneth D Ward, Kristopher L Arheart, David J Lee
Construction workers have the highest smoking rate among all occupations (39%). Hispanic/Latino workers constitute a large and increasing group in the US construction industry (over 2.6 million; 23% of all workers). These minority workers have lower cessation rates compared to other groups due to their limited access to cessation services, and lack of smoking cessation interventions adapted to their culture and work/life circumstances. Formative research was conducted to create an intervention targeting Hispanic/Latino construction workers...
February 14, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453979/toward-a-meaningful-definition-of-recovery-after-hip-fracture-comparing-two-definitions-for-community-dwelling-older-adults
#3
Mohammad Auais, Suzanne N Morin, Lois Finch, Sara Ahmed, Nancy Mayo
OBJECTIVES: To examine the course of recovery and resulting health-related quality of life (HRQL) after low-trauma hip fracture using two different definitions of recovery. DESIGN: Inception cohort with eight assessments over one year. SETTING: Participants were recruited from a tertiary-care hospital and followed in the community. INTERVENTION: Not applicable PARTICIPANTS: 47 (75% of all eligible) community-dwelling hip fracture patients (≥65 years)...
February 14, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453777/intramuscular-allopregnanolone-and-ganaxolone-in-a-mouse-model-of-treatment-resistant-status-epilepticus
#4
Dorota Zolkowska, Chun-Yi Wu, Michael A Rogawski
Allopregnanolone (5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one) and its synthetic 3β-methyl analog, ganaxolone, are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors that exhibit antiseizure activity in diverse animal seizure models, including models of status epilepticus (SE). The 2 neuroactive steroids are being investigated as treatments for SE, including as a treatment for SE induced by chemical threat agents. Intramuscular injection is the preferred route of administration in the prehospital treatment of SE...
February 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453594/time-to-first-event-versus-recurrent-event-analysis-points-to-consider-for-selecting-a-meaningful-analysis-strategy-in-clinical-trials-with-composite-endpoints
#5
Geraldine Rauch, Meinhard Kieser, Harald Binder, Antoni Bayes-Genis, Antje Jahn-Eimermacher
BACKGROUND: Composite endpoints combining several event types of clinical interest often define the primary efficacy outcome in cardiologic trials. They are commonly evaluated as time-to-first-event, thereby following the recommendations of regulatory agencies. However, to assess the patient's full disease burden and to identify preventive factors or interventions, subsequent events following the first one should be considered as well. This is especially important in cohort studies and RCTs with a long follow-up leading to a higher number of observed events per patients...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453361/heterogeneity-and-mutation-in-kras-and-associated-oncogenes-evaluating-the-potential-for-the-evolution-of-resistance-to-targeting-of-kras-g12c
#6
Vincent L Cannataro, Stephen G Gaffney, Carly Stender, Zi-Ming Zhao, Mark Philips, Andrew E Greenstein, Jeffrey P Townsend
Activating mutations in RAS genes are associated with approximately 20% of all human cancers. New targeted therapies show preclinical promise in inhibiting the KRAS G12C variant. However, concerns exist regarding the effectiveness of such therapies in vivo given the possibilities of existing intratumor heterogeneity or de novo mutation leading to treatment resistance. We performed deep sequencing of 27 KRAS G12-positive lung tumors to determine the prevalence of other oncogenic mutations within KRAS or within commonly mutated downstream genes that could confer resistance at the time of treatment...
February 16, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453208/parent-reported-prevalence-and-persistence-of-19-common-child-health-conditions
#7
Tracy Liu, Raghu Lingam, Kate Lycett, Fiona K Mensah, Joshua Muller, Harriet Hiscock, Md Hamidul Huque, Melissa Wake
OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence and persistence of 19 common paediatric conditions from infancy to 14-15 years. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Parallel cohorts assessed biennially from 2004 to 2014 from ages 0-1 and 4-5 years to 10-11 and 14-15 years, respectively, in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 19 health conditions: 17 parent-reported, 2 (overweight/obesity, obesity) directly assessed...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452905/voiding-school-as-a-treatment-for-daytime-incontinence-or-enuresis-assessing-the-effectiveness-of-intervention-by-measuring-changes-in-wetting-episodes
#8
A Saarikoski, R Koppeli, S Taskinen, A Axelin
BACKGROUND: Most urotherapy interventions are planned for children with daytime incontinence or symptoms, and are based on individual education. This study conducted a voiding school (VS) program with groups of 4-6 children with daytime incontinence or enuresis with or without daytime symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this quasi-experimental study with a one-group pretest-posttest design was to assess the effectiveness of the VS intervention for treating children's daytime incontinence or enuresis...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452685/behavioural-outcomes-of-subthalamic-stimulation-and-medical-therapy-versus-medical-therapy-alone-for-parkinson-s-disease-with-early-motor-complications-earlystim-trial-secondary-analysis-of-an-open-label-randomised-trial
#9
Eugénie Lhommée, Lars Wojtecki, Virginie Czernecki, Karsten Witt, Franziska Maier, Lisa Tonder, Lars Timmermann, Thomas D Hälbig, Fanny Pineau, Franck Durif, Tatiana Witjas, Marcus Pinsker, Maximilian Mehdorn, Friederike Sixel-Döring, Andreas Kupsch, Rejko Krüger, Saskia Elben, Stephan Chabardès, Stéphane Thobois, Christine Brefel-Courbon, Fabienne Ory-Magne, Jean-Marie Regis, David Maltête, Anne Sauvaget, Jörn Rau, Alfons Schnitzler, Michael Schüpbach, Carmen Schade-Brittinger, Gunther Deuschl, Jean-Luc Houeto, Paul Krack
BACKGROUND: Although subthalamic stimulation is a recognised treatment for motor complications in Parkinson's disease, reports on behavioural outcomes are controversial, which represents a major challenge when counselling candidates for subthalamic stimulation. We aimed to assess changes in behaviour in patients with Parkinson's disease receiving combined treatment with subthalamic stimulation and medical therapy over a 2-year follow-up period as compared with the behavioural evolution under medical therapy alone...
March 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452283/posterolateral-fusion-plf-vs-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion-tlif-for-spondylolisthesis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Jay M Levin, Joseph E Tanenbaum, Michael P Steinmetz, Thomas E Mroz, Samuel C Overley
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Lumbar fusion is an effective and durable treatment for symptomatic lumbar spondylolisthesis, however the current literature provides insufficient evidence to recommend an optimal surgical fusion strategy. PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes, fusion rates, blood loss, and operative times between open posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) alone and open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion + posterolateral fusion (TLIF) for spondylolisthesis...
February 13, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452210/computer-simulations-for-bioequivalence-trials-selection-of-analyte-in-bcs-class-ii-and-iv-drugs-with-first-pass-metabolism-two-metabolic-pathways-and-intestinal-efflux-transporter
#11
V Mangas-Sanjuan, C Navarro-Fontestad, A García-Arieta, I F Trocóniz, M Bermejo
A semi-physiological two compartment pharmacokinetic model with two active metabolites (primary (PM) and secondary metabolites (SM)) with saturable and non-saturable pre-systemic efflux transporter, intestinal and hepatic metabolism has been developed. The aim of this work is to explore in several scenarios which analyte (parent drug or any of the metabolites) is the most sensitive to changes in drug product performance (i.e. differences in in vivo dissolution) and to make recommendations based on the simulations outcome...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452171/evolution-of-model-specific-relative-growth-rate-its-genesis-and-performance-over-fisher-s-growth-rates
#12
Arijit Pal, Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick, Farhana Yeasmin, Sabyasachi Bhattacharya
Growth curve models play an instrumental role to quantify the growth of biological processes and have immense practical applications across disciplines. In the modelling approach, the absolute growth rate and relative growth rate (RGR) are two most commonly used measures of growth rates. RGR is empirically estimated by Fisher (1921) assuming exponential growth between two consecutive time points and remains invariant under any choice of the underlying growth model. In this article, we propose a new measure of RGR, called modified RGR, which is sensitive to the choice of underlying growth law...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451660/economic-assessment-of-postoperative-pain-control-strategies-for-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-cancer
#13
Rafael Freitas Dos Santos, Fernando Bliacheriene, Flavia Mori Sarti
OBJECTIVE: The authors performed an economic assessment of opioids currently being used for control of postoperative pain relating to the surgical treatment of cancer (fentanyl and sufentanil) within the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS, in the Portuguese acronym). METHOD: The assessment was based on the perspective of the government, in order to collaborate with the promotion of effectiveness in public policies of health, and to optimize the allocation of public resources into health...
November 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451389/molecular-dynamics-study-of-hydrophilic-sphalerite-110-surface-as-modified-by-normal-and-branched-butylthiols
#14
Monir Hosseini Anvari, Qingxia Liu, Zhenghe Xu, Phillip Choi
Molecular dynamics simulation was used to study the wettability of the hydrophilic sphalerite (110) surface chemically modified by butylthiols made up of normal and branched alkyl tails, referred to as n-butylthiol and i-butylthiol hereafter, at different adsorption site coverages. Butylthiol molecules were grafted onto the adsorption sites of the surface in two different distributions - ordered and random. The results showed that for a given butylthiol at a given site coverage, random surface distribution yielded a slightly larger contact angle...
February 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451093/adjustment-for-time-invariant-and-time-varying-confounders-in-unexplained-residuals-models-for-longitudinal-data-within-a-causal-framework-and-associated-challenges
#15
K F Arnold, Gth Ellison, S C Gadd, J Textor, Pwg Tennant, A Heppenstall, M S Gilthorpe
'Unexplained residuals' models have been used within lifecourse epidemiology to model an exposure measured longitudinally at several time points in relation to a distal outcome. It has been claimed that these models have several advantages, including: the ability to estimate multiple total causal effects in a single model, and additional insight into the effect on the outcome of greater-than-expected increases in the exposure compared to traditional regression methods. We evaluate these properties and prove mathematically how adjustment for confounding variables must be made within this modelling framework...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451089/randomization-based-inference-for-bernoulli-trial-experiments-and-implications-for-observational-studies
#16
Zach Branson, Marie-Abèle Bind
We present a randomization-based inferential framework for experiments characterized by a strongly ignorable assignment mechanism where units have independent probabilities of receiving treatment. Previous works on randomization tests often assume these probabilities are equal within blocks of units. We consider the general case where they differ across units and show how to perform randomization tests and obtain point estimates and confidence intervals. Furthermore, we develop rejection-sampling and importance-sampling approaches for conducting randomization-based inference conditional on any statistic of interest, such as the number of treated units or forms of covariate balance...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451088/a-marginalized-two-part-model-with-heterogeneous-variance-for-semicontinuous-data
#17
Valerie A Smith, John S Preisser
Semicontinuous data, characterized by a point mass at zero followed by a positive, continuous distribution, arise frequently in medical research. These data are typically analyzed using two-part mixtures that separately model the probability of incurring a positive outcome and the distribution of positive values among those who incur them. In such a conditional specification, however, standard two-part models do not provide a marginal interpretation of covariate effects on the overall population. We have previously proposed a marginalized two-part model that yields more interpretable effect estimates by parameterizing the model in terms of the marginal mean...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451086/efficient-robust-doubly-adaptive-regularized-regression-with-applications
#18
Rohana J Karunamuni, Linglong Kong, Wei Tu
We consider the problem of estimation and variable selection for general linear regression models. Regularized regression procedures have been widely used for variable selection, but most existing methods perform poorly in the presence of outliers. We construct a new penalized procedure that simultaneously attains full efficiency and maximum robustness. Furthermore, the proposed procedure satisfies the oracle properties. The new procedure is designed to achieve sparse and robust solutions by imposing adaptive weights on both the decision loss and the penalty function...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450856/hysterectomy-and-perceived-physical-function-in-middle-aged-australian-women-a-20-year-population-based-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Louise F Wilson, Nirmala Pandeya, Julie Byles, Gita D Mishra
PURPOSE: Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynaecological procedures worldwide. Changes in endocrine function may impact age-associated decline in physical function and these changes may be accelerated by hysterectomy. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between hysterectomy status and self-reported physical function limitations. METHODS: Our study sample (n = 8624) came from the mid-cohort (born 1945-1950) of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH)...
February 15, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450833/assessing-the-importance-of-treatment-goals-in-patients-with-psoriasis-analytic-hierarchy-process-vs-likert-scales
#20
Mandy Gutknecht, Marion Danner, Marthe-Lisa Schaarschmidt, Christian Gross, Matthias Augustin
BACKGROUND: To define treatment benefit, the Patient Benefit Index contains a weighting of patient-relevant treatment goals using the Patient Needs Questionnaire, which includes a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 0 ("not important at all") to 4 ("very important"). These treatment goals have been assigned to five health dimensions. The importance of each dimension can be derived by averaging the importance ratings on the Likert scales of associated treatment goals...
February 15, 2018: Patient
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