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stand thinning

Joanna S Saade, Bachir Abiad, Jonathan Jan, Dana Saadeh, James P McCulley, Jeremy Bartley
Purpose: To discuss two rare presentations of ocular rosacea in a Hispanic patient and an African American patient with unusual ocular manifestations. Case Report: Case  1: a 43-year-old Hispanic woman presented with right eye corneal perforation. Her prior medical history was significant for rosacea only, diagnosed clinically by a dermatologist. Her eye exam showed signs of bilateral ocular rosacea. An emergent full thickness tectonic corneal patch graft was done...
2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Hui Pan, William Ba-Thein
Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF) Minilab™, a semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-based commercially available test kit, is widely used in drug quality surveillance globally, but its diagnostic accuracy is unclear. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of minilab system for antimicrobials, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as reference standard. Following the Minilab protocols and the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China protocols, Minilab-TLC and HPLC were used to test five common antimicrobials (506 batches) for relative concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredients...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ji Zhang, Wei-Jing Ji, Jie Xu, Xiao-Yu Geng, Jian Zhou, Zheng-Bin Gu, Shu-Hua Yao, Shan-Tao Zhang
Magnetoresistance (MR) is the magnetic field-induced change of electrical resistance. The MR effect not only has wide applications in hard drivers and sensors but also is a long-standing scientific issue for complex interactions. Ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic oxides generally show negative MR due to the magnetic field-induced spin order. We report the unusually giant positive MR up to 17,200% (at 2 K and 7 T) in 12-nm Sr2CrWO6 thin films, which show metallic behavior with high carrier density of up to 2.26 × 10(28) m(-3) and high mobility of 5...
November 2017: Science Advances
Lei Lei, Wenfa Xiao, Lixiong Zeng, Jianhua Zhu, Zhilin Huang, Ruimei Cheng, Shangkun Gao, Mai-He Li
Quantifying soil respiration (Rs) and its components [autotrophic respiration (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh)] in relation to forest management is vital to accurately evaluate forest carbon balance. Thus, Rs, Ra, and Rh were continuously monitored from November 2013 to November 2016 in Pinus massoniana forests subjected to four different management practices in China. We hypothesized that understory removal and thinning decrease Ra and Rh and thus Rs, and these decreases will change with time following UR and thinning...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Daniel B Gopman, Vimal Sampath, Hasnain Ahmad, Supriyo Bandyopadhyay, Jayasimha Atulasimha
We present measurements of the static and dynamic properties of polycrystalline iron-gallium films, ranging from 20 nm to 80 nm and sputtered from an Fe0.8Ga0.2 target. Using a broadband ferromagnetic resonance setup in a wide frequency range, perpendicular standing spin-wave resonances were observed with the external static magnetic field applied in-plane. The field corresponding to the strongest resonance peak at each frequency is used to determine the effective magnetization, the g-factor and the Gilbert damping...
November 2017: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Ju-Yi Lee, You-Xin Wang, Zhi-Ying Lin, Chang-Rong Lin, Chia-Hua Chan
An optical standing-wave interferometer based on the detection of scattered light is proposed in this study. By inserting an ultra-thin scattering plate into the optical standing-wave field and detecting the scattered light, the intensity of the optical standing-wave field can be observed. The phase quadrature detection technique using two scattering plates is developed for measuring the displacement. The experimental results demonstrate that the measurement resolution and range can reach nanometer and micrometer levels, respectively...
October 30, 2017: Optics Express
Jin-Ping Si, Yuan Zhang, Yi-Bo Luo, Jing-Jing Liu, Zhong-Jian Liu
Dendrobium species on the ancient Chinese herbal texts were investigated in this paper, including their dscriptions of original species, producing areas and quality. Our results indicated that the major producing areas were Lu'an, Anhui province and Wenzhou, Taizhou, Zhejiang province. In addition, the sweet flavor, short, thin and solid stems were standing for good quality. Based on the stable producing areas and quality descriptions, D. catenatum (D. officinale) ("Tiepi Shihu") and D. houshanense were high quality medicinal Dendrobium species ("Shihu" ) in ancient China...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Kajsa Markstedt, Alfredo Escalante, Guillermo Toriz, Paul Gatenholm
This paper presents a sustainable all-wood-based ink which can be used for 3D printing of constructs for a large variety of applications such as clothes, furniture, electronics, and health care products with a customized design and versatile gel properties. The 3D printing technologies where the material is dispensed in the form of liquids, so called inks, have proven suitable for 3D printing dispersions of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) because of their unique shear thinning properties. In this study, novel inks were developed with a biomimetic approach where the structural properties of cellulose and the cross-linking function of hemicelluloses that are found in the plant cell wall were utilized...
November 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanling Ma, Wenpei Gao, Hao Shan, Wenlong Chen, Wen Shang, Peng Tao, Chengyi Song, Chris Addiego, Tao Deng, Xiaoqing Pan, Jianbo Wu
Facile fabrication of advanced catalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction with improving activity and stability is significant for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. Based on a generic solid-state reaction, this study reports a modified hydrogen-assisted, gas-phase synthesis for facile, scalable production of surfactant-free, thin, platinum-based nanowire-network electrocatalysts. The free-standing platinum and platinum-nickel alloy nanowires show improvements of up to 5.1 times and 10.9 times for mass activity with a minimum 2...
October 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jieun Lee, Jong Gil Kim, Ji Young Chang
A flexible and free standing conjugated microporous polymer (CMP) membrane was prepared using a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) electrospun membrane as a template. The PVP nanofibers of the template membrane were coated with a thin layer of the CMP through the in situ Sonogashira-Hagihara coupling reaction of 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene and 1,4-diiodobenzene. The PVP nanofibers were removed by the solvent extraction to produce the CMP membrane, which retained the entangled fibrous structure of the template membrane...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Thomas G Mayerhöfer, Jürgen Popp
We show that an electric field standing wave effect is responsible for the oscillations and the non-linear dependence of the absorbance on the layer thickness in thin layers on a reflective surface. This effect is connected to the occurrence of interference inside these layers. Consequently, the absorptance undergoes a maximum electric field intensity enhancement at spectral positions close to those where corresponding non-absorbing layers on a metal show minima in the reflectance. The effect leads to changes of peak maxima ratios with layer thickness and shows the same periodicity as oscillations in the peak positions...
October 11, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Zhidong Du, Chen Chen, Feng Cheng, Yongmin Liu, Liang Pan
All-optical switching (AOS) of magnetization induced by ultrafast laser pulses is fundamentally interesting and promises unprecedented speed for magnetic data storage that is three orders of magnitudes faster than the current techniques. For ferrimagnetic material, the AOS is attributed to magnetic circular dichroism and angular momentum transfer between sublattices. Recently, ferromagnetic material is demonstrated in AOS under multiple pulses. Since the magnetic field needed to flip the ferromagnetic magnetization within femtosecond timescale is unphysically high, some theories hypothesized that there exists a prolonged magnetic field beyond the pulse duration in the switching process...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Christian Vorholt, Ulrich Wittrock
We present a novel pump concept that should lead to single-frequency operation of thin-disk lasers without the need for etalons or other spectral filters. The single-frequency operation is due to matching the standing wave pattern of partially coherent pump light to the standing wave pattern of the laser light inside the disk. The output power and the optical efficiency of our novel pump concept are compared with conventional pumping. The feasibility of our pump concept was shown in previous experiments.
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
Sung E Song, Gwan H Choi, Gi-Ra Yi, Pil J Yoo
Polymeric thin films coated on non-wettable substrates undergo film-instabilities, which are usually manifested as surface deformation in the form of dewetting or wrinkling. The former takes place in fluidic films, whereas the latter occurs in solid films. Therefore, there have rarely been reports of systems involving simultaneous deformations of dewetting and wrinkling. In this study, we propose polymeric thin films of liquid crystalline (LC) mesogens prepared on a non-wettable Si substrate and apply a treatment of plasma irradiation to form a thin polymerized layer at the surface...
October 11, 2017: Soft Matter
Yang Wang, Jing Fu, Yining Zhang, Matthew Li, Fathy Mohamed Hassan, Guang Li, Zhongwei Chen
Exploring highly efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts toward the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions is essential for the realization of high-performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Herein, a novel nanofibrous bifunctional electrocatalyst film, consisting of metallic manganese sulfide and cobalt encapsulated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (CMS/NCNF), is prepared through a continuous electrospinning method followed by carbonization treatment. The CMS/NCNF bifunctional catalyst shows both comparable ORR and OER performances to those of commercial precious metal-based catalysts...
October 26, 2017: Nanoscale
April M Melvin, Gerardo Celis, Jill F Johnstone, A David McGuire, Helene Genet, Edward A G Schuur, T Scott Rupp, Michelle C Mack
Increasing wildfire activity in Alaska's boreal forests has led to greater fuel-reduction management. Management has been implemented to reduce wildfire spread, but the ecological impacts of these practices are poorly known. We quantified the effects of hand-thinning and shearblading on above- and belowground stand characteristics, plant species composition, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools, and soil thaw across 19 black spruce (Picea mariana) dominated sites in interior Alaska treated 2-12 years prior to sampling...
October 7, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Audrey Lemay, Cornelia Krause, Sergio Rossi, Alexis Achim, Annikki Mäkelä
The reduction of competition through thinning increases radial growth in the stem and roots of many conifer species. However, not much is known about the effect of thinning on the dynamics of wood formation and intra-annual development of the growth ring, especially in the roots, which are an essential part of the tree for stability and resource acquisition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an experimental thinning on the dynamics and phenology of xylogenesis in the stem and roots of black spruce and balsam fir...
June 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
Chang Woo Hong, Seung Wook Shin, Mahesh P Suryawanshi, Myeng Gil Gang, Jaeyeong Heo, Jin Hyeok Kim
Earth-abundant, copper-zinc-tin-sulfide (CZTS), kesterite, is an attractive absorber material for thin-film solar cells (TFSCs). However, the open-circuit voltage deficit (Voc-deficit) resulting from a high recombination rate at the buffer/absorber interface is one of the major challenges that must be overcome to improve the performance of kesterite-based TFSCs. In this paper, we demonstrate the relationship between device parameters and performances for chemically deposited CdS buffer/CZTS-based heterojunction TFSCs as a function of buffer layer thickness, which could change the CdS/CZTS interface conditions such as conduction band or valence band offsets, to gain deeper insight and understanding about the Voc-deficit behavior from a high recombination rate at the CdS buffer/kesterite interface...
October 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sebastian Z Oener, Parisa Khoram, Sarah Brittman, Sander A Mann, Qianpeng Zhang, Zhiyong Fan, Shannon W Boettcher, Erik C Garnett
The defect tolerance of halide perovskite materials has led to efficient optoelectronic devices based on thin-film geometries with unprecedented speed. Moreover, it has motivated research on perovskite nanowires because surface recombination continues to be a major obstacle in realizing efficient nanowire devices. Recently, ordered vertical arrays of perovskite nanowires have been realized, which can benefit from nanophotonic design strategies allowing precise control over light propagation, absorption, and emission...
November 8, 2017: Nano Letters
Andrea Hevia, Alejandra Crabiffosse, Juan Gabriel Álvarez-González, Ana Daria Ruiz-González, Juan Majada
Management of fuel to minimize crown fire hazard is a key challenge in Atlantic forests, particularly for pine species. However, a better understanding of effectiveness of silvicultural treatments, especially forest pruning, for hazard reduction is required. Here we evaluate pruning and thinning as two essential silvicultural treatments for timber pine forests. Data came from a network of permanent plots of young maritime pine stands in northwestern Spain. Vertical profiles of canopy bulk density were estimated for field data and simulated scenarios of pruning and thinning using individual tree biomass equations...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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