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stand thinning

Huaijiang He, Chunyu Zhang, Xiuhai Zhao, Folega Fousseni, Jinsong Wang, Haijun Dai, Song Yang, Qiang Zuo
Understanding forest carbon budget and dynamics for sustainable resource management and ecosystem functions requires quantification of above- and below-ground biomass at individual tree species and stand levels. In this study, a total of 122 trees (9-12 per species) were destructively sampled to determine above- and below-ground biomass of 12 tree species (Acer mandshuricum, Acer mono, Betula platyphylla, Carpinus cordata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, Maackia amurensis, P. koraiensis, Populus ussuriensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis and Ulmus japonica) in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of Northeastern China, an area of the largest natural forest in the country...
2018: PloS One
Kim Pingoud, Tommi Ekholm, Risto Sievänen, Saija Huuskonen, Jari Hynynen
This paper provides a perspective for comparing trade-offs between harvested wood flows and forest carbon stocks with different forest management regimes. A constant management regime applied to a forest area with an even age-class distribution leads to a steady state, in which the annual harvest and carbon stocks remain constant over time. As both are desirable - carbon stocks for mitigating climate change and harvests for the economic use of wood and displacing fossil fuels - an ideal strategy should be chosen from a set of management regimes that are Pareto-optimal in the sense of multi-criteria decision-making...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Angelos Xomalis, Iosif Demirtzioglou, Eric Plum, Yongmin Jung, Venkatram Nalla, Cosimo Lacava, Kevin F MacDonald, Periklis Petropoulos, David J Richardson, Nikolay I Zheludev
Recently, coherent control of the optical response of thin films in standing waves has attracted considerable attention, ranging from applications in excitation-selective spectroscopy and nonlinear optics to all-optical image processing. Here, we show that integration of metamaterial and optical fibre technologies allows the use of coherently controlled absorption in a fully fiberized and packaged switching metadevice. With this metadevice, which controls light with light in a nanoscale plasmonic metamaterial film on an optical fibre tip, we provide proof-of-principle demonstrations of logical functions XOR, NOT and AND that are performed within a coherent fibre network at wavelengths between 1530 and 1565 nm...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Jisoo Moon, Nikesh Koirala, Maryam Salehi, Wenhan Zhang, Weida Wu, Seongshik Oh
Bi2Se3, one of the most widely studied topological insulators (TIs), is naturally electron-doped due to n-type native defects. However, many years of efforts to achieve p-type Bi2Se3 thin films have failed so far. Here, we provide a solution to this long-standing problem, showing that the main culprit has been the high density of interfacial defects. By suppressing these defects through an interfacial engineering scheme, we have successfully implemented p-type Bi2Se3 thin films down to the thinnest topological regime...
January 9, 2018: Nano Letters
Tamer Owais, Mohammad El Garhy, Jürgen Fuchs, Kushtrim Disha, Sameh Elkaffas, Martin Breuer, Bernward Lauer, Thomas Kuntze
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) perforation is one of the rare and most serious complications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The study aim was to determine the pathophysiological factors associated with this serious complication. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of pathophysiological factors shown in echocardiograms and computed tomography angiograms performed preoperatively in patients who developed LV perforation during transfemoral TAVI (study group) with regards to anatomic and functional variables...
July 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
Jing-Kai Huang, Mengliu Li, Yi Wan, Sukumar Dey, Mayur Ostwal, Daliang Zhang, Chih-Wen Yang, Chun-Jen Su, U-Ser Jeng, Jun Ming, Aram Amassian, Zhiping Lai, Yu Han, Sean Li, Lain-Jong Li
Ultra-thin two dimensional (2D) polymeric layers are capable of separating gases and molecules based on the reported size exclusion mechanism. What is equally important but missing today is to explore the 2D layers with the charge functionality which enable applications using charge exclusion principle. This work demonstrates a simple and scalable method of synthesizing a free-standing 2D coordination polymer Zn2(Benzimidazolate)2(OH)2 at the air/water interfaces. The hydroxyl (-OH) groups are stoichiometrically coordinated and implement electrostatic charges in the 2D structures, providing powerful functionality as a charge barrier...
January 4, 2018: ACS Nano
Gaëtan Louarn, Lucas Faverjon
Background and Aims: Individual-based models (IBMs) are promising tools to disentangle plant interactions in multi-species grasslands and foster innovative species mixtures. This study describes an IBM dealing with the morphogenesis, growth and C-N acquisition of forage legumes that integrates plastic responses from functional-structural plant models. Methods: A generic model was developed to account for herbaceous legume species with contrasting above- and below-ground morphogenetic syndromes and to integrate the responses of plants to light, water and N...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
Hong-Sik Kim, Malkeshkumar Patel, Joondong Kim, Mun Seok Jeong
This work describes the wafer-scale standing growth of (002)-plane-oriented layers of WS2 and their suitability for use in self-biased broadband high-speed photodetection. The WS2 layers are grown using large-scale sputtering, and the effects of the processing parameters such as the deposition temperature, time, and sputtering power are studied. The structural, physical, chemical, optical, and electrical properties of the WS2 samples are also investigated. Based on the broadband light absorption and high-speed in-plane carrier transport characteristics of the WS2 layers, a self-biased broadband high-speed photodetector is fabricated by forming a type-II heterojunction...
January 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Carolyn A Eckrich, Elizabeth A Flaherty, Merav Ben-David
For decades, ecologists have debated the importance of biotic interactions (e.g., competition) and abiotic factors in regulating populations. Competition can influence patterns of distribution, abundance, and resource use in many systems but remains difficult to measure. We quantified competition between two sympatric small mammals, Keen's mice (Peromyscus keeni) and dusky shrews (Sorex monticolus), in four habitat types on Prince of Wales Island in Southeast Alaska. We related shrew density to that of mice using standardized regression models while accounting for habitat variables in each year from 2010-2012, during which mice populations peaked (2011) and then crashed (2012)...
2018: PloS One
Lucie Gueneau, Richard J Fish, Hanan E Shamseldin, Norine Voisin, Frédéric Tran Mau-Them, Egle Preiksaitiene, Glen R Monroe, Angeline Lai, Audrey Putoux, Fabienne Allias, Qamariya Ambusaidi, Laima Ambrozaityte, Loreta Cimbalistienė, Julien Delafontaine, Nicolas Guex, Mais Hashem, Wesam Kurdi, Saumya Shekhar Jamuar, Lim J Ying, Carine Bonnard, Tommaso Pippucci, Sylvain Pradervand, Bernd Roechert, Peter M van Hasselt, Michaël Wiederkehr, Caroline F Wright, Ioannis Xenarios, Gijs van Haaften, Charles Shaw-Smith, Erica M Schindewolf, Marguerite Neerman-Arbez, Damien Sanlaville, Gaëtan Lesca, Laurent Guibaud, Bruno Reversade, Jamel Chelly, Vaidutis Kučinskas, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Alexandre Reymond
Whole-exome and targeted sequencing of 13 individuals from 10 unrelated families with overlapping clinical manifestations identified loss-of-function and missense variants in KIAA1109 allowing delineation of an autosomal-recessive multi-system syndrome, which we suggest to name Alkuraya-Kučinskas syndrome (MIM 617822). Shared phenotypic features representing the cardinal characteristics of this syndrome combine brain atrophy with clubfoot and arthrogryposis. Affected individuals present with cerebral parenchymal underdevelopment, ranging from major cerebral parenchymal thinning with lissencephalic aspect to moderate parenchymal rarefaction, severe to mild ventriculomegaly, cerebellar hypoplasia with brainstem dysgenesis, and cardiac and ophthalmologic anomalies, such as microphthalmia and cataract...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
Rui Zhang, Nitin Kumar, Jennifer L Ross, Margaret L Gardel, Juan J de Pablo
Achieving control and tunability of lyotropic materials has been a long-standing goal of liquid crystal research. Here we show that the elasticity of a liquid crystal system consisting of a dense suspension of semiflexible biopolymers can be manipulated over a relatively wide range of elastic moduli. Specifically, thin films of actin filaments are assembled at an oil-water interface. At sufficiently high concentrations, one observes the formation of a nematic phase riddled with [Formula: see text] topological defects, characteristic of a two-dimensional nematic system...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Matti Putkonen, Perttu Sippola, Laura Svärd, Timo Sajavaara, Jari Vartiainen, Iain Buchanan, Ulla Forsström, Pekka Simell, Tekla Tammelin
In this paper, we have optimized a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SiO2 using AP-LTO® 330 and ozone (O3) as precursors, and demonstrated its suitability to surface-modify temperature-sensitive bio-based films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). The lowest temperature for the thermal ALD process was 80°C when the silicon precursor residence time was increased by the stop-flow mode. The SiO2 film deposition rate was dependent on the temperature varying within 1.5-2.2 Å cycle-1 in the temperature range of 80-350°C, respectively...
February 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Si-Yu Liu, Chao-Ying Fan, Yan-Hong Shi, Han-Chi Wang, Xing-Long Wu, Jingping Zhang
Three-layered cathode structure was designed to minimize the shuttle effect of PSs and improve active material utilization. The three-layered configuration was fabricated by direct dropping pure sulfur composite slurry into the multifunctional dual barrier layers consisting of self-standing TiO2/C interlayer and very thin acetylene black layer (0.35 mg cm-2). In consequence, the decent discharge capacity of 963 mAh g-1 was acquired after 100 cycles at 0.1 C. With cycling at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 C, the cells displayed excellent reversible capacities of 1203, 1145, 1035, 934 and 820 mAh g-1, respectively...
December 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shengrui Wang, Zhihao Wu, Jun Luo
The transfer-uptake-bioavailability of phosphorus (P), Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb in rhizosphere of Zizania latifolia (ZL) and Myriophyllum verticiilaturn (MV) cultivated in rhizoboxes in Lake Erhai (China) is investigated by DGT (diffusive gradients in thin films) technique. DGT induced fluxes in sediments (DIFS) model reveals that resupply ability (r), liable pool size in sediment solid (kd), kinetic parameter (k-1) or response time (Tc) control the diffusion-resupply characters of P and Cu (standing for four metals) in rhizosphere interface...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
M Dennis, A Granger, A Ortiz, M Terrell, M Loukos, J Schober
INTRODUCTION: In transgender surgery, the ideal neophallus is one that: (a) is constructed using a reproducible procedure, (b) possesses tactile and erogenous sensation, (c) is large and rigid enough (naturally, or using a prosthesis) to permit penetrative intercourse, (d) leaves acceptable donor site morbidity, (e) results in esthetically satisfactory appearance, and (f) allows for voiding while standing. The musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi (MLD) flap has favorable results in the area of neophalloplasty...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
Joanna S Saade, Bachir Abiad, Jonathan Jan, Dana Saadeh, James P McCulley, Jeremy Bartley
Purpose: To discuss two rare presentations of ocular rosacea in a Hispanic patient and an African American patient with unusual ocular manifestations. Case Report: Case  1: a 43-year-old Hispanic woman presented with right eye corneal perforation. Her prior medical history was significant for rosacea only, diagnosed clinically by a dermatologist. Her eye exam showed signs of bilateral ocular rosacea. An emergent full thickness tectonic corneal patch graft was done...
2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Hui Pan, William Ba-Thein
Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF) Minilab™, a semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-based commercially available test kit, is widely used in drug quality surveillance globally, but its diagnostic accuracy is unclear. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of minilab system for antimicrobials, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as reference standard. Following the Minilab protocols and the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China protocols, Minilab-TLC and HPLC were used to test five common antimicrobials (506 batches) for relative concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredients...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ji Zhang, Wei-Jing Ji, Jie Xu, Xiao-Yu Geng, Jian Zhou, Zheng-Bin Gu, Shu-Hua Yao, Shan-Tao Zhang
Magnetoresistance (MR) is the magnetic field-induced change of electrical resistance. The MR effect not only has wide applications in hard drivers and sensors but also is a long-standing scientific issue for complex interactions. Ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic oxides generally show negative MR due to the magnetic field-induced spin order. We report the unusually giant positive MR up to 17,200% (at 2 K and 7 T) in 12-nm Sr2CrWO6 thin films, which show metallic behavior with high carrier density of up to 2.26 × 10(28) m(-3) and high mobility of 5...
November 2017: Science Advances
Lei Lei, Wenfa Xiao, Lixiong Zeng, Jianhua Zhu, Zhilin Huang, Ruimei Cheng, Shangkun Gao, Mai-He Li
Quantifying soil respiration (Rs) and its components [autotrophic respiration (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh)] in relation to forest management is vital to accurately evaluate forest carbon balance. Thus, Rs, Ra, and Rh were continuously monitored from November 2013 to November 2016 in Pinus massoniana forests subjected to four different management practices in China. We hypothesized that understory removal and thinning decrease Ra and Rh and thus Rs, and these decreases will change with time following UR and thinning...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Daniel B Gopman, Vimal Sampath, Hasnain Ahmad, Supriyo Bandyopadhyay, Jayasimha Atulasimha
We present measurements of the static and dynamic properties of polycrystalline iron-gallium films, ranging from 20 nm to 80 nm and sputtered from an Fe0.8Ga0.2 target. Using a broadband ferromagnetic resonance setup in a wide frequency range, perpendicular standing spin-wave resonances were observed with the external static magnetic field applied in-plane. The field corresponding to the strongest resonance peak at each frequency is used to determine the effective magnetization, the g-factor and the Gilbert damping...
November 2017: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
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