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stand thinning

Vijayaganapathy Vaithilingam, Sumeet Bal, Bernard E Tuch
Transplantation of pancreatic islets encapsulated within immuno-protective microcapsules is a strategy that has the potential to overcome graft rejection without the need for toxic immunosuppressive medication. However, despite promising preclinical studies, clinical trials using encapsulated islets have lacked long-term efficacy, and although generally considered clinically safe, have not been encouraging overall. One of the major factors limiting the long-term function of encapsulated islets is the host's immunological reaction to the transplanted graft which is often manifested as pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO)...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
Cuicui Ling, Tianchao Guo, Wenbo Lu, Ya Xiong, Lei Zhu, Qingzhong Xue
The SnO2/Si heterojunction possesses a large band offset and it is easy to control the transportation of carriers in the SnO2/Si heterojunction to realize high-response broadband detection. Therefore, we investigated the potential of the SnO2 nanoparticle thin film/SiO2/p-Si heterojunction for photodetectors. It is demonstrated that this heterojunction shows a stable, repeatable and broadband photoresponse from 365 nm to 980 nm. Meanwhile, the responsivity of the device approaches a high value in the range of 0...
June 20, 2017: Nanoscale
Christian Udhardt, Felix Otto, Christian Kern, Daniel Lüftner, Tobias Huempfner, Tino Kirchhuebel, Falko Sojka, Matthias Meissner, Bernd Schröter, Roman Forker, Peter Puschnig, Torsten Fritz
Angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (ARUPS) was measured for one-monolayer coronene films deposited on Ag(111). The (kx ,ky )-dependent photoelectron momentum maps (PMMs), which were extracted from the ARUPS data by cuts at fixed binding energies, show finely structured patterns for the highest and the second-highest occupied molecular orbitals. While the substructure of the PMM main features is related to the 4 × 4 commensurate film structure, various features with three-fold symmetry imply an additional influence of the substrate...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Aditya Aggarwal, Hardeep Singh, Sanjay Mahendru, Vimalendu Brajesh, Sukhdeep Singh, Nitin Ghag, Rakesh Kumar Khazanchi
Phalloplasty is indicated in various conditions of penile loss or absence. There are numerous techniques for phalloplasty including the pedicle and free flaps with the ultimate goal of micturition in standing position, attaining adequate size, aesthesis and sensations for sexual intercourse. Radial forearm phalloplasty is the gold standard flap to achieve above results but gives a very bad scar on the forearm. We present a technique of using prefabricated thigh flap to reduce the morbidity of donor area. The descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral pedicle was placed in a subcutaneous plane over tissue expander...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
Sinwook Park, Daniel Capelin, Gadi Piriatinskiy, Tamar Lotan, Gilad Yossifon
Jellyfish stinging capsules known as nematocysts are explosive, natural-injection systems with high potential as a natural drug-delivery system. These organelles consist of a capsule containing a highly folded thin needle-like tubule and a matrix highly concentrated with charged constituents that enable the tubule to fire and penetrate a target. For the purpose of using these nematocysts as drug delivery system it is first required to purify sub-populations from heterogeneous population of capsules and to investigate each subpopulation's distinct function and characteristics...
June 14, 2017: Electrophoresis
Christopher A Walter, Mary Beth Adams, Frank S Gilliam, William T Peterjohn
Nitrogen (N) additions have decreased species richness (S) in hardwood forest herbaceous layers, yet the functional mechanisms for these decreases have not been explicitly evaluated. We tested two hypothesized mechanisms - random species loss (RSL) and non-random species loss (NRSL) - in the hardwood forest herbaceous layer of a long-term, plot-scale fertilization experiment in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA. Using a random thinning algorithm, we simulated changes in species densities under RSL and compared the simulated densities to the observed densities among N-fertilized (+N), N-fertilized and limed (+N+L), and reference (REF) plots in regenerating forest stands...
June 13, 2017: Ecology
Sergio Santos-Alarcón, Omar Francisco López-López, Miguel Ángel Flores-Terry, Dante Villamil-Cerda, Luis Jesús Allemant-Ortiz, Juan José Ríos-Martín, Victoria Alegría, Luis Requena
BACKGROUND: Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body and the main structural component of the skin. OBJECTIVE: To provide a review of the histopathology of collagen alterations and to propose a classification with the most important types of collagen anomalies in dermatopathology. The authors describe some of the main morphological clues of collagen anomalies for specific diagnosis of some cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. METHODS: The authors review histopathologic collagen anomalies, concerning both morphology and disposition in some inflammatory and neoplastic cutaneous conditions, and they review previous terminology and proposed a classification of the most important types of collagen anomalies that can be seen in dermatopathological practice...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
B Amatya, N Shrestha
INTRODUCTION: Under-nutrition is a condition in which there is inadequate consumption, poor absorption or excessive loss of nutrients. Nepal still faces high chronic as well as acute under-nutrition in children. The following study was conducted a Sanskrit school in rural Baglung to find the prevalence of malnutrition among the children which could reflect the nutritional status of the community. METHODS: Out of 60 students admitted to the school, only 43 were present at the time when we collected our data...
January 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Jinlin Zhang, Mingxiao Ye, Shiva Bhandari, Aeshah Muqri, Fei Long, Sajjad Bigham, Yoke Khin Yap, Jae Yong Suh
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS<sub>2</sub>), as one of the atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides has novel layer-dependent optical and electronic properties, which make it competitive for potential applications in optoelectronics. Here, we report chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of vertically-standing and planar spiral MoS<sub>2</sub> nanosheets. These vertical spiral MoS<sub>2</sub> nanosheets are formed by the compression between planar spiral MoS2 in a close proximity...
June 8, 2017: Nanotechnology
Fangzhou Wang, Ruslan Salikhov, Marina Spasova, Ulf Wiedwald, Sara Liébana-Viñas, Cristina Bran, Yu-Shen Chen, Manuel Vazquez, Michael Farle
We present an approach to prepare free-standing tips of micrometer-long nanowires electrodeposited in Anodic Aluminum Oxide nanopores. Such open tips can be further processed, e.g. for vertical interconnects of functional layers or for tailoring the magnetization reversal of ferromagnetic nanowires. The magnetic switching of nanowires is usually initiated by vortex or domain formation at the nanowire tips. We show that coating the tips of Fe30Co70 nanowires (diameter 40 nm, length 16 µm) with thin antiferromagnetic Fe50Mn50 capping layers (thickness ≈10 nm) leads to magnetic hardening with a more than doubled energy product at ambient temperature...
June 7, 2017: Nanotechnology
Alexey V Lyulin, Nikolay K Balabaev, Arlette R C Baljon, Gerardo Mendoza, Curtis W Frank, Do Y Yoon
United-atom molecular-dynamics computer simulations of atactic polystyrene (PS) were performed for the bulk and free-standing films of 2 nm-20 nm thickness, for both linear and cyclic polymers comprised of 80 monomers. Simulated volumetric glass-transition temperatures (Tg) show a strong dependence on the film thickness below 10 nm. The glass-transition temperature of linear PS is 13% lower than that of the bulk for 2.5 nm-thick films, as compared to less than 1% lower for 20 nm films. Our studies reveal that the fraction of the chain-end groups is larger in the interfacial layer with its outermost region approximately 1 nm below the surface than it is in the bulk...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Craig S Stevenson, John G Curro, John D McCoy
Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on free-standing liquid films of different thicknesses h using a bead-spring model of 10 beads per chain. The glass transition temperatures, Tg, of the various films were determined from plots of the internal energy versus temperature. We used these simulations to test the validity of our earlier conjecture that the glass transition of a confined liquid could be approximated by pre-averaging over the non-uniform density profile of the film. Using the density profiles from our simulations, we computed the average density of the free-standing films as a function of temperature...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Stephen Mirigian, Kenneth S Schweizer
We employ the Elastically Collective Nonlinear Langevin Equation (ECNLE) theory of activated relaxation to study several questions in free standing thin films of glass-forming molecular and polymer liquids. The influence of non-universal chemical aspects on dynamical confinement effects is found to be relatively weak, but with the caveat that for the systems examined, the bulk ECNLE polymer theory does not predict widely varying fragilities. Allowing the film model to have a realistic vapor interfacial width significantly enhances the reduction of the film-averaged glass transition temperature, Tg, in a manner that depends on whether a dynamic or pseudo-thermodynamic averaging of the spatial mobility gradient is adopted...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Daniel Bouša, Karel Friess, Krystof Pilnacek, Ondrej Vopicka, Marek Lanc, Kristian Fonood, Martin Pumera, David Sedmidubsky, Jan Luxa, Zdenek Sofer
We report on the preparation and gas separation performance of self-standing high flux graphene oxide (GO) membranes. Defect-free, 15-20 micrometer thin, mechanically stable, non-supported GO membranes exhibited outstanding gas separation performance towards H2/CO2 gas pair that far exceed the corresponding 2008 Robeson upper bound. Remarkable separation efficiency of GO membranes also for H2 and bulky C3 or C4 hydrocarbons was achieved by high-flux and good selectivity at the same time. Contrarily, N2 and CH4 molecules with larger kinetic diameter and simultaneously lower molecular weight compared to CO2 stayed far from corresponding H2/N2 or H2/CH4 upper bounds...
May 31, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Shusaku Shoji, Akira Yamaguchi, Etsuo Sakai, Masahiro Miyauchi
Thin film of SrTiO3 nanorods loaded with reduction and oxidation cocatalysts drove the selective reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into carbon monoxide (CO), as well as caused the production of equivalent oxygen molecules through water oxidation under UV irradiation. The described film functioned as a free-standing plate without any bias potential application, similar to a natural leaf. The film was facilely fabricated by a simple hydrothermal and annealing treatment of a titanium substrate to produce the SrTiO3 nanorod film (STO film) followed by two steps of loading the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts onto the surface of the STO...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bo Da, Jiangwei Liu, Mahito Yamamoto, Yoshihiro Ueda, Kazuyuki Watanabe, Nguyen Thanh Cuong, Songlin Li, Kazuhito Tsukagoshi, Hideki Yoshikawa, Hideo Iwai, Shigeo Tanuma, Hongxuan Guo, Zhaoshun Gao, Xia Sun, Zejun Ding
Characterization techniques available for bulk or thin-film solid-state materials have been extended to substrate-supported nanomaterials, but generally non-quantitatively. This is because the nanomaterial signals are inevitably buried in the signals from the underlying substrate in common reflection-configuration techniques. Here, we propose a virtual substrate method, inspired by the four-point probe technique for resistance measurement as well as the chop-nod method in infrared astronomy, to characterize nanomaterials without the influence of underlying substrate signals from four interrelated measurements...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
Elena Paoletti, Alessandra De Marco, Alessandro Anav, Patrizia Gasparini, Enrico Pompei
A unique database of stand volume growth, estimated as periodic annual volume increment (in m(3) ha(-1) per year over the period 2001-2005) from 728 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) sites distributed across Italy, was used to assess the effects of ambient ozone (O3), expressed as annual average (M24), accumulated exposure above a 40 ppb hourly threshold (AOT40), and total stomatal ozone flux (POD0). Growth data were from the National forest inventory of Italy, while climate data and ozone concentrations were computed by the WRF and CHIMERE models, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
William Poulson, Alexey Kamenskiy, Andreas Seas, Paul Deegan, Carol Lomneth, Jason MacTaggart
BACKGROUND: High failure rates of femoropopliteal artery (FPA) interventions are often attributed in part to severe mechanical deformations that occur with limb movement. Axial compression and bending of the FPA likely play significant roles in FPA disease development and reconstruction failure, but these deformations are poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to quantify axial compression and bending of human FPAs that are placed in positions commonly assumed during the normal course of daily activities...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Mairéad McNally, Ion Cretu
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a common cause of intestinal injury. A variety of NSAID-induced injuries may occur including ulcers, erosions, colitis, strictures, and diaphragm disease. Diaphragm disease refers to the development of multiple thin, concentric, stenosing strictures in the intestine. Strictures occur most often in the midintestine and are thought to be pathognomonic of NSAID damage. They can lead to intermittent or complete bowel obstruction. Diagnosis may be elusive as there is nothing specific about NSAID-induced injury at endoscopy and histology is also nonspecific...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
Allison Yau, Wonsuk Cha, Matthew W Kanan, G Brian Stephenson, Andrew Ulvestad
Polycrystalline material properties depend on the distribution and interactions of their crystalline grains. In particular, grain boundaries and defects are crucial in determining their response to external stimuli. A long-standing challenge is thus to observe individual grains, defects, and strain dynamics inside functional materials. Here we report a technique capable of revealing grain heterogeneity, including strain fields and individual dislocations, that can be used under operando conditions in reactive environments: grain Bragg coherent diffractive imaging (gBCDI)...
May 19, 2017: Science
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