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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790863/fabrication-of-ion-bombardment-induced-rippled-tio-sub-2-sub-surfaces-to-influence-subsequent-organic-thin-film-growth
#1
Markus Kratzer, Konrad Szajna, Domink Wrana, Wojciech Belza, Franciszek Krok, Christian Teichert
Control over organic thin film growth is a central issue in the development of organic electronics. The anisotropy and extended size of the molecular building blocks introduce a high degree of complexity within the formation of thin films. This complexity can be even increased for substrates with induced, sophisticated morphology and anisotropy. Thus, targeted structuring like ion beam mediated modification of substrates in order to create ripples, pyramids, or pit structures provides a further degree of freedom in manipulating the growth morphology of organic thin films...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790320/ultrasonic-standing-wave-preparation-of-a-liquid-cell-for-glucose-measurements-in-urine-by-midinfrared-spectroscopy-and-potential-application-to-smart-toilets
#2
Naoyuki Yamamoto, Natsumi Kawashima, Tomoya Kitazaki, Keita Mori, Hanyue Kang, Akira Nishiyama, Kenji Wada, Ichiro Ishimaru
Smart toilets could be used to monitor different components of urine in daily life for early detection of lifestyle-related diseases and prompt provision of treatment. For analysis of biological samples such as urine by midinfrared spectroscopy, thin-film samples like liquid cells are needed because of the strong absorption of midinfrared light by water. Conventional liquid cells or fixed cells are prepared based on the liquid membrane method and solution technique, but these are not quantitative and are difficult to set up and clean...
May 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749111/probing-the-viscoelastic-property-of-pseudo-free-standing-conjugated-polymeric-thin-films
#3
Song Zhang, Michael U Ocheje, Shaochuan Luo, Dakota Ehlenberg, Benjamin Appleby, Daniel Weller, Dongshan Zhou, Simon Rondeau-Gagné, Xiaodan Gu
The understanding of the structure-mechanical property relationship for semiconducting polymers is essential for the application of flexible organic electronics. Herein pseudo free-standing tensile testing, a technique that measures the mechanical property of thin films floating on the surface of water, is used to obtain the stress-strain behaviors of two semiconducting polymers, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(2,5-bis(2-decyltetradecyl)-3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)diketopyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-alt-thienovinylthiophene (DPP-TVT) donor-acceptor (D-A) polymer...
May 11, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738742/body-mass-index-and-physical-fitness-in-brazilian-adolescents
#4
Vitor P Lopes, Robert M Malina, Rossana Gomez-Campos, Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Miguel de Arruda, Edilson Hobold
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between body mass index and physical fitness in a cross-sectional sample of Brazilian youth. METHODS: Participants were 3849 adolescents (2027 girls) aged 10-17 years. Weight and height were measured; body mass index was calculated. Physical fitness was evaluated with a multistage 20m shuttle run (cardiovascular endurance), standing long jump (power), and push-ups (upper body strength). Participants were grouped by sex into four age groups: 10-11, 12-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years...
May 5, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737830/self-healing-wide-and-thin-li-metal-anodes-prepared-using-calendared-li-metal-powder-for-improving-cycle-life-and-rate-capability
#5
Dahee Jin, Jeonghun Oh, Alex Friesen, Kyuman Kim, Taejin Jo, Yong Min Lee, Myung-Hyun Ryou
The commercialization of Li metal electrodes is a long-standing objective in the battery community. To accomplish this goal, the formation of Li dendrites and mossy Li deposition, which cause poor cycle performance and safety issues, must be resolved. In addition, it is necessary to develop wide and thin Li metal anodes to increase not only the energy density, but also the design freedom of large-scale Li-metal-based batteries. We solved both issues by developing a novel approach involving the application of calendared stabilized Li metal powder (LiMP) electrodes as anodes...
May 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733499/unravelling-correlation-between-charge-mobility-and-cocrystallization-in-rod-rod-block-copolymer-for-high-performance-field-effect-transistors
#6
Mingjing Zhu, Shuang Pan, Yue Wang, Ping Tang, Feng Qiu, Zhiqun Lin, Juan Peng
The ability to capitalize on the cocrystallization strategy involving two or more components aggregating into cocrystals renders the creation of materials and devices with markedly improved charge mobility. This, however, has yet to be largely explored in all-conjugated block copolymers (BCPs). Herein, we report on the first investigation into the correlation between cocrystals and charge mobility in a series of new all-conjugated BCPs, namely, poly(3-butylthiophene)-b-poly(3-hexylselenophene) (P3BT-b-P3HS) with varied P3BT/P3HS block ratios for high-performance field-effect transistors...
May 7, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727566/direct-visualization-of-planar-assembly-of-plasmonic-nanoparticles-adjacent-to-electrodes-in-oscillatory-electric-fields
#7
Adam Ferrick, Mei Wang, Taylor J Woehl
Electric field directed assembly of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) has been widely adopted for fabricating functional thin films and nanostructured surfaces. While first order electrokinetic effects on NPs are well-understood in terms of classical models, effects of second order electrokinetics that involve induced surface charge are still poorly understood. Induced charge electroosmotic phenomena, such as electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow, have long been implicated in electric field directed NP assembly with little experimental basis...
May 4, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717120/flexible-and-ultra-lightweight-polymer-membrane-lasers
#8
Markus Karl, James M E Glackin, Marcel Schubert, Nils M Kronenberg, Graham A Turnbull, Ifor D W Samuel, Malte C Gather
Organic semiconductors enable the fabrication of a range of lightweight and mechanically flexible optoelectronic devices. Most organic semiconductor lasers, however, have remained rigid until now, predominantly due to the need for a support substrate. Here, we use a simple fabrication process to make membrane-based, substrate-less and extremely thin (<500 nm) organic distributed feedback lasers that offer ultralow-weight (m/A<0.5 gm-2 ) and excellent mechanical flexibility. We show operation of the lasers as free-standing membranes and transfer them onto other substrates, e...
May 1, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713769/optic-radiations-are-thinner-and-show-signs-of-iron-deposition-in-patients-with-long-standing-remitting-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis-an-enhanced-t-2-weighted-angiography-imaging-study
#9
Chun Zeng, Silin Du, Yongliang Han, Jialiang Fu, Qi Luo, Yayun Xiang, Xiaoya Chen, Tianyou Luo, Yongmei Li, Yineng Zheng
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate iron deposition and thickness and signal changes in optic radiation (OR) by enhanced T2 * -weighted angiography imaging (ESWAN) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) with unilateral and bilateral lesions or no lesions. METHODS: Fifty-one RRMS patients (42 patients with a disease duration [DD] ≥ 2 years [group Mor], nine patients with a DD < 2 years [group Les]) and 51 healthy controls (group Con) underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ESWAN at 3...
April 30, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702380/direct-growth-of-metal-organic-frameworks-thin-film-arrays-on-glassy-carbon-electrode-based-on-rapid-conversion-step-mediated-by-copper-clusters-and-hydroxide-nanotubes-for-fabrication-of-a-high-performance-non-enzymatic-glucose-sensing-platform
#10
Saeed Shahrokhian, Elnaz Khaki Sanati, Hadi Hosseini
The direct growth of self-supported metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) thin film can be considered as an effective strategy for fabrication of the advanced modified electrodes in sensors and biosensor applications. However, most of the fabricated MOFs-based sensors suffer from some drawbacks such as time consuming for synthesis of MOF and electrode making, need of a binder or an additive layer, need of expensive equipment and use of hazardous solvents. Here, a novel free-standing MOFs-based modified electrode was fabricated by the rapid direct growth of MOFs on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE)...
April 19, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694068/spin-torque-excitation-of-perpendicular-standing-spin-waves-in-coupled-yig-co-heterostructures
#11
Stefan Klingler, Vivek Amin, Stephan Geprägs, Kathrin Ganzhorn, Hannes Maier-Flaig, Matthias Althammer, Hans Huebl, Rudolf Gross, Robert D McMichael, Mark D Stiles, Sebastian T B Goennenwein, Mathias Weiler
We investigate yttrium iron garnet (YIG)/cobalt (Co) heterostructures using broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). We observe an efficient excitation of perpendicular standing spin waves (PSSWs) in the YIG layer when the resonance frequencies of the YIG PSSWs and the Co FMR line coincide. Avoided crossings of YIG PSSWs and the Co FMR line are found and modeled using mutual spin pumping and exchange torques. The excitation of PSSWs is suppressed by a thin aluminum oxide interlayer but persists with a copper interlayer, in agreement with the proposed model...
March 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688218/109-years-of-forest-growth-measurements-from-individual-norway-spruce-trees
#12
Georg E Kindermann, Ferdinand Kristöfel, Markus Neumann, Günter Rössler, Thomas Ledermann, Silvio Schueler
In 1892 a forest spacing experiment with four different spacing patterns was established with Norway spruce (Picea abies). From 1923 until 1997, when the stand was harvested, diameter, height and height to crown base of in total 4507 trees were measured up to 23 times. The original aim of the experiment during establishment was to analyse short term effects of different spacing patterns. The thinning regime followed state of the art forestry practises. During the observation time of more than 100 years, the individual observers and the measurement technology changed several times...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668484/flexible-gas-sensor-based-on-graphene-ethyl-cellulose-nanocomposite-with-ultra-low-strain-response-for-volatile-organic-compounds-rapid-detection
#13
Qiankun Zhang, Chunhua An, Shuangqing Fan, Sigang Shi, Rongjie Zhang, Jing Zhang, Quanning Li, Daihua Zhang, Xiaodong Hu, Jing Liu
Minimizing the strain induced undesirable effects is one of the major efforts to be made for flexible electronics. This work reports a highly sensitive flexible gas sensor with ultra-low strain response, which is potentially suitable for wearable electronics applications. The gas sensing material is a free-standing and flexible thin film made of graphene/ethyl cellulose (EC) nanocomposite, which is then integrated with flexible substrate of polyethylene terephthalate. The sensor exhibits relative resistance change within 0...
April 18, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660227/the-limited-contribution-of-large-trees-to-annual-biomass-production-in-an-old-growth-tropical-forest
#14
Gauthier Ligot, Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury, Dakis-Yaoba Ouédraogo, Xavier Morin, Sébastien Bauwens, Fidele Baya, Yves Brostaux, Jean-Louis Doucet, Adeline Fayolle
Although the importance of large trees regarding biodiversity and carbon stock in old-growth forests is undeniable, their annual contribution to biomass production and carbon uptake remains poorly studied at the stand level. To clarify the role of large trees in biomass production, we used data of tree growth, mortality and recruitment monitored during 20 years in 10×4-ha plots in a species rich tropical forest (Central African Republic). Using a random block design, three different silvicultural treatments, control, logged, and logged + thinned, were applied in the 10 plots...
April 16, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655321/-trampoline-ejection-of-organic-molecules-from-graphene-and-graphite-via-kev-cluster-ions-impacts
#15
Stanislav V Verkhoturov, Mikołaj Gołuński, Dmitriy S Verkhoturov, Sheng Geng, Zbigniew Postawa, Emile A Schweikert
We present the data on ejection of molecules and emission of molecular ions caused by single impacts of 50 keV C60 2+ on a molecular layer of deuterated phenylalanine (D8Phe) deposited on free standing, 2-layer graphene. The projectile impacts on the graphene side stimulate the abundant ejection of intact molecules and the emission of molecular ions in the transmission direction. To gain insight into the mechanism of ejection, Molecular Dynamic simulations were performed. It was found that the projectile penetrates the thin layer of graphene, partially depositing the projectile's kinetic energy, and molecules are ejected from the hot area around the hole that is made by the projectile...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653052/resolving-the-chemically-discrete-structure-of-synthetic-borophene-polymorphs
#16
Gavin P Campbell, Andrew Jacob Mannix, Jonathan D Emery, Tien-Lin Lee, Nathan P Guisinger, Mark C Hersam, Michael J Bedzyk
Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit superlative properties dictated by their intralayer atomic structure, which is typically derived from a limited number of thermodynamically stable bulk layered crystals (e.g., graphene from graphite). The growth of entirely synthetic 2D crystals - those with no corresponding bulk allotrope - would circumvent this dependence upon bulk thermodynamics and substantially expand the phase space available for structure-property engineering of 2D materials. However, it remains unclear if synthetic 2D materials can exist as structurally and chemically distinct layers anchored by van der Waals (vdW) forces, as opposed to strongly bound adlayers...
April 13, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626870/effect-of-tacticity-on-the-structure-and-glass-transition-temperature-of-polystyrene-adsorbed-onto-solid-surfaces
#17
Solomon Negash, Yergou B Tatek, Mesfin Tsige
We have carried out atomistic (all-atom) molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effect of tacticity on the structure and glass transition temperature (Tg ) of polystyrene (PS) thin films adsorbed on two distinct types of solid substrates. The systems consist of thin films made of atactic, isotactic, and syndiotactic PS chains supported by graphite or hydroxylated α-quartz substrates, which are known to be atomically flat but chemically and structurally different. We have observed a marked dependence of the film structure on substrate type as well as on tacticity...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620857/synthesis-of-sub-10-nm-two-dimensional-covalent-organic-thin-film-with-sharp-molecular-sieving-nanofiltration
#18
Ikhlas Gadwal, Guan Sheng, Roshni Lilly Thankamony, Yang Liu, Huifang Li, Zhiping Lai
We demonstrated here a novel and facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic thin film with pore size around 1.5 nm using a planar, amphiphilic and substituted heptacyclic truxene based triamine and a simple dialdehyde as building blocks by dynamic imine bond formation at the air/water interface using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. Optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), all unanimously showed the formation of large, molecularly thin and free-standing membrane that can be easily transferred on different substrate surfaces...
April 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602188/laser-rewritable-dichroics-through-reconfigurable-organic-charge-transfer-liquid-crystals
#19
Madeline Van Winkle, David A Scrymgeour, Bryan Kaehr, Joseph J Reczek
Charge-transfer materials based on the self-assembly of aromatic donor-acceptor complexes enable a modular organic-synthetic approach to develop and fine-tune electronic and optical properties, and thus these material systems stand to impact a wide range of technologies. Through laser-induction of temperature gradients, in this study, user-defined patterning of strongly dichroic and piezoelectric organic thin films composed of donor-acceptor columnar liquid crystals is shown. Fine, reversible control over isotropic versus anisotropic regions in thin films is demonstrated, enabling noncontact writing/rewriting of micropolarizers, bar codes, and charge-transfer based devices...
March 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559737/top-down-approaches-towards-single-crystal-perovskite-solar-cells
#20
Johannes Schlipf, Abdelrahman M Askar, Florian Pantle, Benjamin D Wiltshire, Anton Sura, Peter Schneider, Linus Huber, Karthik Shankar, Peter Müller-Buschbaum
Solar cells employing hybrid perovskites have proven to be a serious contender versus established thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Typically, current photovoltaic devices are built up layer by layer from a transparent substrate (bottom-up approach), while the deposition of the perovskite layer itself comes with many challenges including the control of crystal size, nucleation density and growth rate. On the other hand, single crystals have been used with great success for studying the fundamental properties of this new class of optoelectronic materials...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
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