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Susanne Mohr, Tobias Schmitt, Tibor Döpper, Feifei Xiang, Matthias Schwarz, Andreas Görling, M Alexander Schneider, Jörg Libuda
We investigated the adsorption behavior of 4,4'-biphenhyl dicarboxylic acid (BDA) on well-ordered CoO(111) films grown on Ir(100) as a function of coverage and temperature using time-resolved and temperature-programmed infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (TR-IRAS, TP-IRAS) in combination with density functional theory (DFT) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. To compare the binding behavior of BDA as a function of the oxide film thickness, three different CoO(111) film thicknesses were explored: films of about 20 bilayers (BLs) (approximately 5 nm), 2 BLs, and 1 BL...
April 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Fangwang Gou, Haiwei Chen, Ming-Chun Li, Seok-Lyul Lee, Shin-Tson Wu
We report a vertically-aligned liquid crystal display (LCD) device with submillisecond response time, high transmittance, and low operation voltage. The top substrate has a common electrode, while the bottom substrate consists of hole-patterned fringing-field-switching (FFS) pixel electrodes. A negative dielectric anisotropy LC is employed. In the voltage-on state, the LC directors are reoriented by the fringing fields surrounding the hole area and by the longitudinal and fringe fields outside the hole area...
April 3, 2017: Optics Express
Federico Selvi, Elisa Carrari, Ilaria Colzi, Andrea Coppi, Cristina Gonnelli
Introduction of non-native trees is one of the major threats to ecosystem integrity and biodiversity. Stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) introduced decades ago represent a threat to the specialized plant communities of serpentine outcrops in Italy. This study investigates the effects of such invasions at the community and species level, based on vegetation sampling in three selected sites with comparable environmental conditions. Pine cover caused a decrease of α-diversity by lowering the species evenness of the community, though species richness was not negatively affected...
April 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Niyati Parikh, Dmitri K Klimov
Using an all-atom explicit water model and replica exchange with solute tempering molecular dynamics we have studied the binding of Aβ10-40 peptides to the mixed cationic bilayers composed of DMPC lipids and C14-KAAK lipopeptides (LPs). Using as a control our previous replica exchange simulations probing binding of the same peptide to the zwitterionic DMPC bilayer we assessed the impact of lipopeptides on the Aβ binding mechanism. We found that binding to the mixed DMPC + LP bilayers does not enhance the Aβ helix propensity as much as binding to the pure DMPC bilayers...
April 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zheng Wang, Lu Gan, Haiping He, Zhizhen Ye
Monolayer ZnO represents a class of new two-dimensional (2D) materials that are expected to exhibit unique optoelectronic properties and applications. Here we report a novel strategy to synthesize free-standing atomically thin ZnO layers via the oxidation of hydrothermally grown ultrathin zinc chalcogenide nanosheets. With micrometer-scaled lateral size, the obtained ultrathin ZnO layer has a thickness of ∼2 nm, and the layered structure still maintained well after high temperature oxidation. The thermal treatment strongly improves the crystal quality as well without inducing cracks or pinholes in the ultrathin layers...
April 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S Lagomarsino, S Calusi, M Massi, N Gelli, S Sciortino, F Taccetti, L Giuntini, A Sordini, M Vannoni, F Bosia, D Gatto Monticone, P Olivero, B A Fairchild, P Kashyap, A D C Alves, M A Strack, S Prawer, A D Greentree
Ion irradiation is a widely employed tool to fabricate diamond micro- and nano-structures for applications in integrated photonics and quantum optics. In this context, it is essential to accurately assess the effect of ion-induced damage on the variation of the refractive index of the material, both to control the side effects in the fabrication process and possibly finely tune such variations. Several partially contradictory accounts have been provided on the effect of the ion irradiation on the refractive index of single crystal diamond...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Saejin Oh, Myungjae Yang, Jean Bouffard, Seunghun Hong, So-Jung Park
Here, we demonstrate that the self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) at the air-water interface can lead to free-standing films of densely packed P3HT nanowires. Interfacial self-assembly on various liquid subphases, such as water, diethylene glycol, and glycerol, indicates that the viscosity of the subphase is an important factor for the formation of well-ordered nanostructures. The thin-film morphology is also sensitive to the concentration of P3HT, its molecular weight (MW), and the presence of oxidative defects...
April 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jin A Choi, Hyo Won Kim, Jin-Woo Kwon, Yun-Sub Shim, Dong Hyun Jee, Jae-Seung Yun, Yu-Bae Ahn, Chan Kee Park, Seung-Hyun Ko
BACKGROUND: To investigate changes in the neural retina according to the presence of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in type 2 diabetes, and to determine the association between inner retina thickness and the severity of diabetic complications. METHODS: We studied non-glaucomatous patients with type 2 diabetes and control subjects Circumpapillary RNFL and macula ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
2017: PloS One
Yazhi Liu, Gaoran Li, Jing Fu, Zhongwei Chen, Xinsheng Peng
Rational design of cathode hosts with high electrical conductivity and strong sulfur confinement is a great need for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein, we report a self-standing, hybrid-nanostructured cathode host comprised of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived porous carbon polyhedrons and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the significant improvement of both the electrode cyclability and energy density. The strong coupling of the intertwined CNTs and strung porous carbon polyhedrons as a binder-free thin film significantly enhances the long-range electronic conductivity and provides abundant active interfaces as well as robust electrode integrity for sulfur electrochemistry...
March 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Joshua S Hardin, Deanna A Sutton, Nathan P Wiederhold, James Mele, Sunali Goyal
PURPOSE: We report the first case of human infection and keratitis secondary to Trametes betulina, a rare filamentous fungus. METHODS: Clinical examination including external and slit-lamp examination and corneal scrapings with microbiologic evaluation were performed on a patient with chronic allergic conjunctivitis, entropion and a long-standing corneal ulcer resistant to treatment. RESULTS: The culture from the corneal scraping revealed a basidiomycetous fungus which was submitted for identification...
March 21, 2017: Mycopathologia
María Isabel Díez-García, Roberto Gómez
The development of tandem devices for water photosplitting requires finding photocathodic materials based on earth-abundant elements and showing long-term stability in aqueous electrolytes. Ternary metal oxides seem to be a viable option, among which perovskites stand out. In this context, transparent and compact LaFeO3 thin film electrodes have been prepared by sol-gel, both undoped and doped with metals (M) such as magnesium or zinc. Pristine electrodes support the development of cathodic photocurrents in 0...
March 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
C M Gabbott, Z X Zhou, G X Han, T Sun
At the core of translational challenges in tissue engineering is the mechanistic understanding of the underpinning biological processes and the complex relationships among components at different levels, which is a challenging task due to the limitations of current tissue culture and assessment methodologies. Therefore, we proposed a novel scale-down strategy to deconstruct complex biomatrices into elementary building blocks, which were resembled by thin modular substrate and then evaluated separately in miniaturised bioreactors using various conventional microscopes...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Shuang Xi, Yinlong Zhu, Yutu Yang, Shulan Jiang, Zirong Tang
Free-standing NiO/MnO2 core-shell nanoflake structure was deposited on flexible carbon cloth (CC) used as electrode for high-performance supercapacitor (SC). The NiO core was grown directly on CC by hydrothermal process and the following annealing treatment. MnO2 thin film was then covered on NiO structures via a self-limiting process in aqueous solution of 0.5 M KMnO4 and 0.5 M Na2SO4 with a carbon layer serving as the sacrificial layer. Both the core and shell materials are good pseudocapacitive materials, the compounds of binary metal oxides can provide the synergistic effect of all individual constituents, and thus enhance the performance of SC electrode...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Pantelis Bampoulis, Kai Sotthewes, Martin H Siekman, Harold J W Zandvliet, Bene Poelsema
The distribution of potassium (K(+)) ions on air-cleaved mica is important in many interfacial phenomena such as crystal growth, self-assembly and charge transfer on mica. However, due to experimental limitations to nondestructively probe single ions and ionic domains, their exact lateral organization is yet unknown. We show, by the use of graphene as an ultra-thin protective coating and scanning probe microscopies, that single potassium ions form ordered structures that are covered by an ice layer. The K(+) ions prefer to minimize the number of nearest neighbour K(+) ions by forming row-like structures as well as small domains...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
David Kamensky, Ming-Chen Hsu, Yue Yu, John A Evans, Michael S Sacks, Thomas J R Hughes
This paper uses a divergence-conforming B-spline fluid discretization to address the long-standing issue of poor mass conservation in immersed methods for computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) that represent the influence of the structure as a forcing term in the fluid subproblem. We focus, in particular, on the immersogeometric method developed in our earlier work, analyze its convergence for linear model problems, then apply it to FSI analysis of heart valves, using divergence-conforming B-splines to discretize the fluid subproblem...
February 1, 2017: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
Adam Felton, Johan Sonesson, Urban Nilsson, Tomas Lämås, Tomas Lundmark, Annika Nordin, Thomas Ranius, Jean-Michel Roberge
Because of the limited spatial extent and comprehensiveness of protected areas, an increasing emphasis is being placed on conserving habitats which promote biodiversity within production forest. For this reason, alternative silvicultural programs need to be evaluated with respect to their implications for forest biodiversity, especially if these programs are likely to be adopted. Here we simulated the effect of varied rotation length and associated thinning regimes on habitat availability in Scots pine and Norway spruce production forests, with high and low productivity...
April 2017: Ambio
Linda Hansapinyo, Andy C O Cheng, Noel C Y Chan, Carmen K M Chan
The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the optic disc and macular thickness measurements using two spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) instruments in long-standing blind eyes diagnosed with non-glaucomatous optic neuropathies (NGON). A prospective observational case-series design was used. Twelve eyes from 12 NGON patients with no light perception for at least 6 months underwent optic disc and macular imaging with Cirrus HD-OCT and Spectralis OCT. The correlation between the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (PRNFL) and macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thicknesses, and between the duration of no light perception (NLP) and PRNFL/GCL+IPL thicknesses were determined using Spearman's correlation analysis...
February 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
Mustafa M Fadlelmula, Engin C Sürmeli, Mehdi Ramezani, T Serkan Kasırga
Controlling solid state phase transitions via external stimuli offers rich physics along with possibilities of unparalleled applications in electronics and optics. The well-known metal-insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide (VO2) is one instance of such phase transitions emerging from strong electronic correlations. Inducing the MIT using electric field has been investigated extensively for the applications in electrical and ultrafast optical switching. However, as the Thomas-Fermi screening length is very short, for considerable alteration in the material's properties with electric field induced MIT, crystals below 10 nm are needed...
March 8, 2017: Nano Letters
Feng Wen, Xueliang Huang
The scenario of multiple wireless power transfer (WPT) systems working closely, synchronously or asynchronously with phase difference often occurs in power supply for household appliances and electric vehicles in parking lots. Magnetic field leakage from the WPT systems is also varied due to unpredictable asynchronous working conditions. In this study, the magnetic field leakage from parallel WPT systems working with phase difference is predicted, and the induced electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) in a human body standing in the vicinity are also evaluated...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Izabela Śliwa, A V Zakharov
Calculations of translational self-diffusion coefficient in free-standing smectic films during a series of layer-thinning transitions as the temperature is raised above the bulk smectic-A-isotropic transition have been carried out. A molecular model based upon the random walk theory is applied for calculating the translational diffusion coefficient (TDC) D_{∥} across the smectic film both in the bulk of the film, as well as in the vicinity of the bounding surfaces. Calculations of D_{∥} require the set of the orientational and translational order parameters (OPs) which have been obtained by using the extended McMillan approach with anisotropic forces...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
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