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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919638/direct-measurements-of-3d-structure-chemistry-and-mass-density-during-the-induction-period-of-c3s-hydration
#1
Qinang Hu, Mohammed Aboustait, Taehwan Kim, M Tyler Ley, Jeffrey W Bullard, George Scherer, Jay C Hanan, Volker Rose, Robert Winarski, Jeffrey Gelb
The reasons for the start and end of the induction period of cement hydration remain topic of controversy. One long-standing hypothesis is that a thin metastable hydrate forming on the surface of cement grains significantly reduces the particle dissolution rate; the eventual disappearance of this layer re-establishes higher dissolution rates at the beginning of the acceleration period. However, the importance, or even the existence, of this metastable layer has been questioned because it cannot be directly detected in most experiments...
November 2016: Cem Concr Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915864/physical-fitness-and-anthropometric-characteristics-among-adolescents-living-in-urban-or-rural-areas-of-kosovo
#2
Faton Tishukaj, Ismet Shalaj, Masar Gjaka, Besim Ademi, Rrustem Ahmetxhekaj, Norbert Bachl, Harald Tschan, Barbara Wessner
BACKGROUND: High physical fitness levels in childhood and adolescence are associated with positive health-related outcomes later in life. Albeit many researchers investigated rural-urban differences in physical fitness, the outcomes of these studies are inconsistent and data on Kosovo are widely missing. Thus, this study aims to examine anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in 14 to 15 year old Kosovan adolescents living in rural and urban areas. METHODS: Two schools from Pristina (mostly urban population) and two schools in the surrounding villages of the district of Deçan (mostly rural population) were selected...
September 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884774/high-energy-asymmetric-supercapacitors-based-on-free-standing-hierarchical-co-mo-s-nanosheets-with-enhanced-cycling-stability
#3
Jayaraman Balamurugan, Chao Li, Shaik Gouse Peera, Nam Hoon Kim, Joong Hee Lee
Layered transition metal sulfides (TMS) are emerging as advanced materials for energy storage and conversion applications. In this work, we report a facile and cost-effective anion exchange technique to fabricate a layered, multifaceted, free standing, ultra-thin ternary cobalt molybdenum sulfide nanosheet (Co-Mo-S NS) architecture grown on a 3D porous Ni foam substrate. The unique Co-Mo layered double hydroxides are first synthesized as precursors and consequently transformed into ultra-thin Co-Mo-S NS. When employed as an electrode for supercapacitors, the Co-Mo-S NS delivered an ultra-high specific capacitance of 2343 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 mA cm(-2) with tremendous rate capability and extraordinary cycling performance (96...
September 8, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884383/phosphorus-and-nitrogen-co-limitation-of-forest-ground-vegetation-under-elevated-anthropogenic-nitrogen-deposition
#4
Per-Ola Hedwall, Johan Bergh, Jörg Brunet
Plant growth in northern forest ecosystems is considered to be primarily nitrogen limited. Nitrogen deposition is predicted to change this towards co-limitation/limitation by other nutrients (e.g., phosphorus), although evidence of such stoichiometric effects is scarce. We utilized two forest fertilization experiments in southern Sweden to analyze single and combined effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the productivity, composition, and diversity of the ground vegetation. Our results indicate that the productivity of forest ground vegetation in southern Sweden is co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus...
September 7, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876060/selective-molecular-separation-by-interfacially-crystallized-covalent-organic-framework-thin-films
#5
Kaushik Dey, Manas Pal, Shebeeb Kunjattu H, Kanhu Charan Rouy, Anuja Das, Rabibrata Mukherjee, Ulhas K Kharul, Rahul Banerjee
Exponential interest in the field of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) stems from the direct correlation between their modular design principle and various interesting properties. However, existing synthetic approaches to realize this goal mainly results in insoluble and unprocessable powders, which severely restrict their widespread applicability. Therefore, developing a methodology for easy fabrication of these materials remains an alluring goal and a much desired objective. Herein, we have demonstrated a bottom-up interfacial crystallization strategy to fabricate these microcrystalline powders as large scale thin films under ambient conditions...
September 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873703/oil-in-water-emulsions-stabilized-by-tyrosinase-crosslinked-potato-protein
#6
Jovana Glusac, Sivan Isaschar-Ovdat, Biljana Kukavica, Ayelet Fishman
Potato protein (PP) holds great promise as a non-allergenic food ingredient with high nutritional value. Attempts to modulate its functional properties by crosslinking have not been reported to date. The effect of tyrosinase-mediated crosslinking of PP on the properties of o/w emulsions was studied in the present work. Among the various PPs, protease inhibitors were efficiently crosslinked by the enzyme as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. Concentrated emulsions comprising 40% olive oil and 6.1% PP (w/w) were fabricated by a shear stress homogenizer...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872822/corrugation-in-the-weakly-interacting-hexagonal-bn-cu-111-system-structure-determination-by-combining-noncontact-atomic-force-microscopy-and-x-ray-standing-waves
#7
Martin Schwarz, Alexander Riss, Manuela Garnica, Jacob Ducke, Peter S Deimel, David A Duncan, Pardeep Kumar Thakur, Tien-Lin Lee, Ari Paavo Seitsonen, Johannes V Barth, Francesco Allegretti, Willi Auwärter
Atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layers on metallic supports represent a promising platform for the selective adsorption of atoms, clusters, and molecular nanostructures. Specifically, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies revealed an electronic corrugation of h-BN/Cu(111), guiding the self-assembly of molecules and their energy level alignment. A detailed characterization of the h-BN/Cu(111) interface including the spacing between the h-BN sheet and its support-elusive to STM measurements-is crucial to rationalize the interfacial interactions within these systems...
September 5, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871197/thermal-conductivity-and-air-mediated-losses-in-periodic-porous-silicon-membranes-at-high-temperatures
#8
B Graczykowski, A El Sachat, J S Reparaz, M Sledzinska, M R Wagner, E Chavez-Angel, Y Wu, S Volz, Y Wu, F Alzina, C M Sotomayor Torres
Heat conduction in silicon can be effectively engineered by means of sub-micrometre porous thin free-standing membranes. Tunable thermal properties make these structures good candidates for integrated heat management units such as waste heat recovery, rectification or efficient heat dissipation. However, possible applications require detailed thermal characterisation at high temperatures which, up to now, has been an experimental challenge. In this work we use the contactless two-laser Raman thermometry to study heat dissipation in periodic porous membranes at high temperatures via lattice conduction and air-mediated losses...
September 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862462/growth-behavior-of-pristine-and-potassium-doped-coronene-thin-films-on-substrates-with-tuned-coupling-strength
#9
Chaoqiang Xu, Yande Que, Yuan Zhuang, Zhijun Lin, Xuefeng Wu, Kedong Wang, Xudong Xiao
The growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecular coronene film on various substrates and the subsequent doping of potassium under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions have been systematically investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). The crystalline structures and molecular orientations of coronene thin films are both thickness-dependent and substrate-sensitive due to the competition between molecule-substrate interaction and intermolecular interaction...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860674/assessing-the-resilience-of-norway-spruce-forests-through-a-model-based-reanalysis-of-thinning-trials
#10
Rupert Seidl, Friedrich Vigl, Günter Rössler, Markus Neumann, Werner Rammer
As a result of a rapidly changing climate the resilience of forests is an increasingly important property for ecosystem management. Recent efforts have improved the theoretical understanding of resilience, yet its operational quantification remains challenging. Furthermore, there is growing awareness that resilience is not only a means to addressing the consequences of climate change but is also affected by it, necessitating a better understanding of the climate sensitivity of resilience. Quantifying current and future resilience is thus an important step towards mainstreaming resilience thinking into ecosystem management...
March 15, 2017: Forest Ecology and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855515/artificial-web-of-disclination-lines-in-nematic-liquid-crystals
#11
Mengfei Wang, Yannian Li, Hiroshi Yokoyama
Disclinations are topological singularities of molecular arrangement in liquid crystals, which typically occur when the average orientation of molecules makes a π rotation along a fictitious closed loop taken inside the liquid crystal. Depending on the sense of molecular rotation, the disclination lines are either of 1/2 or -1/2 strength. When two disclination lines with the opposite strength meet, they are annihilated without trace. It is hence generally considered difficult in the nematic phase to stabilize a condensed array of free-standing disclination lines without the aid of topological objects like colloidal inclusions...
August 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852139/giant-thz-surface-plasmon-polariton-induced-by-high-index-dielectric-metasurface
#12
Shuai Lin, Khagendra Bhattarai, Jiangfeng Zhou, Diyar Talbayev
We use computational approaches to explore the role of a high-refractive-index dielectric TiO2 grating with deep subwavelength thickness on InSb as a tunable coupler for THz surface plasmons. We find a series of resonances as the grating couples a normally-incident THz wave to standing surface plasmon waves on both thin and thick InSb layers. In a marked contrast with previously-explored metallic gratings, we observe the emergence of a much stronger additional resonance. The mechanism of this giant plasmonic resonance is well interpreted by the dispersion of surface plasmon excited in the air\TiO2\InSb trilayer system...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840407/clinical-characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-retinal-diabetic-neurodegeneration-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Kiyoung Kim, Eung Suk Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Suk Chon, Jeong-Taek Woo, Seung-Young Yu
AIMS: To identify clinical characteristics and risk factors of retinal neurodegeneration represented by macular ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL) thinning in patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Patients who had T2DM for >15 years were prospectively recruited from September 2014 to July 2015. Clinical data and samples were collected according to the Common Data Element and Standards of Procedure developed by the Korean Diabetes Association research council...
August 24, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811029/use-of-diffusive-gradient-in-thin-films-for-in-situ-measurements-a-review-on-the-progress-in-chemical-fractionation-speciation-and-bioavailability-of-metals-in-waters
#14
REVIEW
Amauri Antonio Menegário, Lauren N Marques Yabuki, Karen S Luko, Paul N Williams, Daniel M Blackburn
Chemical fractionation, speciation analysis and bioavailability of metals and metalloids in waters have received increased attention in recent years. However, this interest is not matched by progress in improving species integrity during standard 'grab' sample collection, processing and storage. Time-averaged, low disturbance sampling, in situ, of trace element species, in particular, is a more reliable approach for environmental chemical surveillance and methods based on the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique stand out as one of the most widely used of the passive sampler classes, and hence will be the primary focus of this review...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799608/understanding-the-graphitization-and-growth-of-free-standing-nanocrystalline-graphene-using-in-situ-transmission-electron-microscopy
#15
C N Shyam Kumar, Venkata Sai Kiran Chakravadhanula, Adnan Riaz, Simone Dehm, Di Wang, Xiaoke Mu, Benjamin Flavel, Ralph Krupke, Christian Kübel
Graphitization of polymers is an effective way to synthesize nanocrystalline graphene on different substrates with tunable shape, thickness and properties. The catalyst free synthesis results in crystallite sizes on the order of a few nanometers, significantly smaller than commonly prepared polycrystalline graphene. Even though this method provides the flexibility of graphitizing polymer films on different substrates, substrate free graphitization of freestanding polymer layers has not been studied yet. We report for the first time the thermally induced graphitization and domain growth of free-standing nanocrystalline graphene thin films using in situ TEM techniques...
September 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798844/su-8-free-standing-microfluidic-probes
#16
A A Kim, K Kustanovich, D Baratian, A Ainla, M Shaali, G D M Jeffries, A Jesorka
We present a process for fabrication of free-standing SU-8 probes, with a dry, mechanical release of the final micro-devices. The process utilizes the thermal release tape, a commonly used cleanroom material, for facile heat-release from the sacrificial layer. For characterization of the SU-8 microfluidic probes, two liquid interfaces were designed: a disposable interface with integrated wells and an interface with external liquid reservoirs. The versatility of the fabrication and the release procedures was illustrated by further developing the process to functionalize the SU-8 probes for impedance sensing, by integrating metal thin-film electrodes...
January 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772912/the-feasibility-of-structural-health-monitoring-using-the-fundamental-shear-horizontal-guided-wave-in-a-thin-aluminum-plate
#17
Jorge Franklin Mansur Rodrigues Filho, Nicolas Tremblay, Gláucio Soares da Fonseca, Pierre Belanger
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is emerging as an essential tool for constant monitoring of safety-critical engineering components. Ultrasonic guided waves stand out because of their ability to propagate over long distances and because they can offer good estimates of location, severity, and type of damage. The unique properties of the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave (SH₀) mode have recently generated great interest among the SHM community. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of omnidirectional SH₀ SHM in a thin aluminum plate using a three-transducer sparse array...
May 19, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766660/the-spatial-arrangement-of-a-single-nanoparticle-in-a-thin-polymer-film-and-its-effect-on-the-nanoparticle-diffusion
#18
Hesang Im, Younghoon Oh, Hyun Woo Cho, Jeongmin Kim, Keewook Paeng, Bong June Sung
The spatial arrangement of nanoparticles (NPs) within thin polymer films may influence their properties such as the glass transition temperature. Questions regarding what may affect the spatial arrangement of NPs, however, still remain unanswered at a molecular level. In this work, we perform molecular dynamics simulations for a free-standing thin polymer film with a single NP. We find from simulations that depending on the NP size and the inter-particle interaction between the NP and polymers, one may control the spatial arrangement of the NP...
September 13, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761154/broadband-and-thin-magnetic-absorber-with-non-foster-metasurface-for-admittance-matching
#19
Jinchao Mou, Zhongxiang Shen
One of the long-standing and challenging problems in microwave engineering is the realization of ultra-wideband absorption using extremely-thin structures. Magnetic material can facilitate thickness reduction for microwave absorbers but also bring inherent narrowband admittance matching conundrum originating from its frequency-dispersive permeability and high permittivity. In this paper, we propose a simple and yet effective solution based on the concept of admittance matching with non-Foster metasurface (NFMS)...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744674/liquid-droplets-on-a-free-standing-glassy-membrane-deformation-through-the-glass-transition
#20
Adam Fortais, Rafael D Schulman, Kari Dalnoki-Veress
In this study, micro-droplets are placed on thin, glassy, free-standing films where the Laplace pressure of the droplet deforms the free-standing film, creating a bulge. The film's tension is modulated by changing temperature continuously from well below the glass transition into the melt state of the film. The contact angle of the liquid droplet with the planar film as well as the angle of the bulge with the film are measured and found to be consistent with the contact angles predicted by a force balance at the contact line...
July 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
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