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stand thinning

C N Shyam Kumar, Venkata Sai Kiran Chakravadhanula, Adnan Riaz, Simone Dehm, Di Wang, Xiaoke Mu, Benjamin Flavel, Ralph Krupke, Christian Kübel
Graphitization of polymers is an effective way to synthesize nanocrystalline graphene on different substrates with tunable shape, thickness and properties. The catalyst free synthesis results in crystallite sizes on the order of a few nanometers, significantly smaller than commonly prepared polycrystalline graphene. Even though this method provides the flexibility of graphitizing polymer films on different substrates, substrate free graphitization of freestanding polymer layers has not been studied yet. We report for the first time the thermally induced graphitization and domain growth of free-standing nanocrystalline graphene thin films using in situ TEM techniques...
August 11, 2017: Nanoscale
A A Kim, K Kustanovich, D Baratian, A Ainla, M Shaali, G D M Jeffries, A Jesorka
We present a process for fabrication of free-standing SU-8 probes, with a dry, mechanical release of the final micro-devices. The process utilizes the thermal release tape, a commonly used cleanroom material, for facile heat-release from the sacrificial layer. For characterization of the SU-8 microfluidic probes, two liquid interfaces were designed: a disposable interface with integrated wells and an interface with external liquid reservoirs. The versatility of the fabrication and the release procedures was illustrated by further developing the process to functionalize the SU-8 probes for impedance sensing, by integrating metal thin-film electrodes...
January 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Jorge Franklin Mansur Rodrigues Filho, Nicolas Tremblay, Gláucio Soares da Fonseca, Pierre Belanger
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is emerging as an essential tool for constant monitoring of safety-critical engineering components. Ultrasonic guided waves stand out because of their ability to propagate over long distances and because they can offer good estimates of location, severity, and type of damage. The unique properties of the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave (SH₀) mode have recently generated great interest among the SHM community. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of omnidirectional SH₀ SHM in a thin aluminum plate using a three-transducer sparse array...
May 19, 2017: Materials
Hesang Im, Younghoon Oh, Hyun Woo Cho, Jeongmin Kim, Keewook Paeng, Bong June Sung
The spatial arrangement of nanoparticles (NPs) within thin polymer films may influence their properties such as the glass transition temperature. Questions regarding what may affect the spatial arrangement of NPs, however, still remain unanswered at a molecular level. In this work, we perform molecular dynamics simulations for a free-standing thin polymer film with a single NP. We find from simulations that depending on the NP size and the inter-particle interaction between the NP and polymers, one may control the spatial arrangement of the NP...
August 2, 2017: Soft Matter
Jinchao Mou, Zhongxiang Shen
One of the long-standing and challenging problems in microwave engineering is the realization of ultra-wideband absorption using extremely-thin structures. Magnetic material can facilitate thickness reduction for microwave absorbers but also bring inherent narrowband admittance matching conundrum originating from its frequency-dispersive permeability and high permittivity. In this paper, we propose a simple and yet effective solution based on the concept of admittance matching with non-Foster metasurface (NFMS)...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Adam Fortais, Rafael D Schulman, Kari Dalnoki-Veress
In this study, micro-droplets are placed on thin, glassy, free-standing films where the Laplace pressure of the droplet deforms the free-standing film, creating a bulge. The film's tension is modulated by changing temperature continuously from well below the glass transition into the melt state of the film. The contact angle of the liquid droplet with the planar film as well as the angle of the bulge with the film are measured and found to be consistent with the contact angles predicted by a force balance at the contact line...
July 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Assylay Kurmanbayeva, Galina Brychkova, Aizat Bekturova, Inna Khozin, Dominic Standing, Dmitry Yarmolinsky, Moshe Sagi
In response to oxidative stress the biosynthesis of the ROS scavenger, glutathione is induced. This requires the induction of the sulfate reduction pathway for an adequate supply of cysteine, the precursor for glutathione. Cysteine also acts as the sulfur donor for the sulfuration of the molybdenum cofactor, crucial for the last step of ABA biosynthesis. Sulfate and sulfite are, respectively, the precursor and intermediate for cysteine biosynthesis and there is evidence for stress-induced sulfate uptake and further downstream, enhanced sulfite generation by 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (APR, EC 1...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Guido Mula, Tony Printemps, Christophe Licitra, Elisa Sogne, Francesco D'Acapito, Narciso Gambacorti, Nicola Sestu, Michele Saba, Elisa Pinna, Daniele Chiriu, Pier Carlo Ricci, Alberto Casu, Francesco Quochi, Andrea Mura, Giovanni Bongiovanni, Andrea Falqui
Er clustering plays a major role in hindering sufficient optical gain in Er-doped Si materials. For porous Si, the long-standing failure to govern the clustering has been attributed to insufficient knowledge of the several, concomitant and complex processes occurring during the electrochemical Er-doping. We propose here an alternative road to solve the issue: instead of looking for an equilibrium between Er content and light emission using 1-2% Er, we propose to significantly increase the electrochemical doping level to reach the filling the porous silicon pores with luminescent Er-rich material...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bernard R Matis, Brian H Houston, Jeffrey W Baldwin
Free standing, atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides are a new class of ultralightweight nanoelectromechanical systems with potentially game-changing electro- and opto-mechanical properties, however, the energy dissipation pathways that fundamentally limit the performance of these systems is still poorly understood. Here, we identify the dominant energy dissipation pathways in few-layer MoS2 nanoelectromechanical systems. The low temperature quality factors and resonant frequencies are shown to significantly decrease upon heating to 293 K, and we find the temperature dependence of the energy dissipation can be explained when accounting for both intrinsic and extrinsic damping sources...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yupu Liu, Dengke Shen, Gang Chen, Ahmed A Elzatahry, Manas Pal, Hongwei Zhu, Longlong Wu, Jianjian Lin, Daifallah Al-Dahyan, Wei Li, Dongyuan Zhao
Membrane separation technologies are of great interest in industrial processes such as water purification, gas separation, and materials synthesis. However, commercial filtration membranes have broad pore size distributions, leading to poor size cutoff properties. In this work, mesoporous silica thin membranes with uniform and large vertical mesochannels are synthesized via a simple biphase stratification growth method, which possess an intact structure over centimeter size, ultrathin thickness (≤50 nm), high surface areas (up to 1420 m(2) g(-1) ), and tunable pore sizes from ≈2...
July 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jason R Dwyer, Maher Harb
We present a review of the use of selected nanofabricated thin films to deliver a host of capabilities and insights spanning bioanalytical and biophysical chemistry, materials science, and fundamental molecular-level research. We discuss approaches where thin films have been vital, enabling experimental studies using a variety of optical spectroscopies across the visible and infrared spectral range, electron microscopies, and related techniques such as electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and single molecule sensing...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Pablo Cencillo-Abad, Jun-Yu Ou, Eric Plum, Nikolay I Zheludev
We demonstrate a reflective light modulator, a dynamic Salisbury screen where modulation of light is achieved by moving a thin metamaterial absorber to control its interaction with the standing wave formed by the incident wave and its reflection on a mirror. Electrostatic actuation of the plasmonic metamaterial absorber's position leads to a dynamic change of the Salisbury screen's spectral response and 50% modulation of the reflected light intensity in the near infrared part of the spectrum. The proposed approach can also be used with other metasurfaces to control the changes they impose on the polarization, intensity, phase, spectrum and directional distribution of reflected light...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sheng-Shiuan Yeh, Wen-Yao Chang, Juhn-Jong Lin
Dynamical structural defects exist naturally in a wide variety of solids. They fluctuate temporally and hence can deteriorate the performance of many electronic devices. Thus far, the entities of these dynamic objects have been identified to be individual atoms. On the other hand, it is a long-standing question whether a nanocrystalline grain constituted of a large number of atoms can switch, as a whole, reversibly like a dynamical atomic defect (that is, a two-level system). This is an emergent issue considering the current development of nanodevices with ultralow electrical noise, qubits with long quantum coherence time, and nanoelectromechanical system sensors with ultrahigh resolution...
June 2017: Science Advances
Dae-Sik Lee, Seokhan Park, Yong Duk Han, Jae Eun Lee, Hu Young Jeong, Hyun C Yoon, Moon Yeon Jung, Sang Ouk Kim, Sung-Yool Choi
The nanoporous free-standing graphene membrane is of great interest in high performance separation technology. In particular, the separation of biological molecules with similar sizes is one of the key challenges in the purification of biomaterials. Here, we report a reliable, cost-effective, and facile method for the fabrication of a graphene-based nanosieve and its application in the separation of similar-size proteins. A suspended reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosieve with ultra-thin, large-area, well-ordered, and dense 15 nm-sized pores was fabricated using block copolymer (BCP) lithography...
July 6, 2017: Nanoscale
Yuzhang Liang, Si Zhang, Xun Cao, Yanqing Lu, Ting Xu
Plasmonic spectrum filtering devices based on metallic nanostructures have attracted wide attention due to their good reliability, ease of fabrication, and wideband tunability. However, the presence of thick substrate significantly limits the structure's longitudinal size for further optoelectronic integration and reduces the devices' performance. Here we propose and demonstrate an ultra-thin plasmonic bandpass filter based on free-standing periodic metal-dielectric-metal stack geometry working in the near-infrared wavelength range...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Abhijeet Kumar, Jochen Kleinen, Joachim Venzmer, Tatiana Gambaryan-Roisman
An analytical approach is presented to describe pressure-driven streaming current (Istr) and streaming potential (Ustr) generation in geometrically complex samples, for which the classical Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (H-S) equation is known to be inaccurate. The new approach is valid under the same prerequisite conditions that are used for the development of the H-S equation, that is, the electrical double layers (EDLs) are sufficiently thin and surface conductivity and electroviscous effects are negligible. The analytical methodology is developed using linear velocity profiles to describe liquid flow inside of EDLs and using simplifying approximations to describe macroscopic flow...
July 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Vijayaganapathy Vaithilingam, Sumeet Bal, Bernard E Tuch
Transplantation of pancreatic islets encapsulated within immuno-protective microcapsules is a strategy that has the potential to overcome graft rejection without the need for toxic immunosuppressive medication. However, despite promising preclinical studies, clinical trials using encapsulated islets have lacked long-term efficacy, and although generally considered clinically safe, have not been encouraging overall. One of the major factors limiting the long-term function of encapsulated islets is the host's immunological reaction to the transplanted graft which is often manifested as pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO)...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
Cuicui Ling, Tianchao Guo, Wenbo Lu, Ya Xiong, Lei Zhu, Qingzhong Xue
The SnO2/Si heterojunction possesses a large band offset and it is easy to control the transportation of carriers in the SnO2/Si heterojunction to realize high-response broadband detection. Therefore, we investigated the potential of the SnO2 nanoparticle thin film/SiO2/p-Si heterojunction for photodetectors. It is demonstrated that this heterojunction shows a stable, repeatable and broadband photoresponse from 365 nm to 980 nm. Meanwhile, the responsivity of the device approaches a high value in the range of 0...
June 29, 2017: Nanoscale
Christian Udhardt, Felix Otto, Christian Kern, Daniel Lüftner, Tobias Huempfner, Tino Kirchhuebel, Falko Sojka, Matthias Meissner, Bernd Schröter, Roman Forker, Peter Puschnig, Torsten Fritz
Angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (ARUPS) was measured for one-monolayer coronene films deposited on Ag(111). The (kx ,ky )-dependent photoelectron momentum maps (PMMs), which were extracted from the ARUPS data by cuts at fixed binding energies, show finely structured patterns for the highest and the second-highest occupied molecular orbitals. While the substructure of the PMM main features is related to the 4 × 4 commensurate film structure, various features with three-fold symmetry imply an additional influence of the substrate...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Aditya Aggarwal, Hardeep Singh, Sanjay Mahendru, Vimalendu Brajesh, Sukhdeep Singh, Nitin Ghag, Rakesh Kumar Khazanchi
Phalloplasty is indicated in various conditions of penile loss or absence. There are numerous techniques for phalloplasty including the pedicle and free flaps with the ultimate goal of micturition in standing position, attaining adequate size, aesthesis and sensations for sexual intercourse. Radial forearm phalloplasty is the gold standard flap to achieve above results but gives a very bad scar on the forearm. We present a technique of using prefabricated thigh flap to reduce the morbidity of donor area. The descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral pedicle was placed in a subcutaneous plane over tissue expander...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
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