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stand thinning

S Kaiser, S V Radl, J Manhart, S Ayalur-Karunakaran, T Griesser, A Moser, C Ganser, C Teichert, W Kern, S Schlögl
The present work aims at the preparation of dry adhesives with switchable bonding properties by using the reversible nature of the [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition of anthracenes. Photo-responsive hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber with photo-responsive pendant anthracene groups is prepared by one-pot synthesis. The formation of 3D networks relies on the photodimerization of the anthracene moieties upon UV exposure (λ > 300 nm). Controlled cleavage of the crosslink sites is achieved by either deep UV exposure (λ = 254 nm) or thermal dissociation at 70 °C...
March 15, 2018: Soft Matter
Malak Khojasteh, Shima Haghighat, Jahan Dawlaty, Vitaly V Kresin
Emulating water oxidation catalyzed by the oxomanganese clusters in the photosynthetic apparatus of plants has been a long-standing scientific challenge. The use of manganese oxide films has been explored, but while they may be catalytically active on the surface, their poor conductivity hinders their overall performance. We have approached this problem by using manganese oxide nanoparticles with sizes of 4, 6 and 8 nm, produced in a sputter-gas-aggregation source and soft-landed onto conducting electrodes...
March 8, 2018: Nanotechnology
Gia Petriashvili, Mauro Daniel Luigi Bruno, Maria Penelope De Santo, Riccardo Barberi
In the last decade, much interest has grown around the possibility to use liquid-crystal droplets as optical microcavities and lasers. In particular, 3D laser emission from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals confined inside microdroplets paves the way for many applications in the field of sensors or tunable photonics. Several techniques can be used to obtain small microresonators as, for example, dispersing a liquid crystal inside an immiscible isotropic fluid to create an emulsion. Recently, the possibility to obtain a thin free-standing film starting from an emulsion having a mixture of water and polyvinyl alcohol as isotropic matrix has been reported...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Nicola Lovecchio, Matteo Zago
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported negative association between fitness level and BMI categories but the lack of body weight correction and and the systematic use of physical endurance test made these differences controversial. Thus, the aim of this study was the assessment of physical fitness level associated to BMI using alternative tests. METHODS: BMI was calculated as body mass/stature2 while fitness level was assessed using field test. In particular, Sit and Reach (SAR), Standing Broad Jump (SBJ), Shuttle Run Test 5mx 10 (SHR), Sit ups (SUP), Bent arm hang (BAH) were assessed in 2545 students...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Tobias S Dörr, Simon Fleischmann, Marco Zeiger, Ingrid Grobelsek, Peter W de Oliveira, Volker Presser
Free-standing, binder-free, and conductive additive-free mesoporous titanium dioxide/carbon hybrid electrodes were prepared from co-assembly of a poly(isoprene)-block-poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer and a titanium alkoxide. By tailoring an optimized morphology, we prepared macroscopic mechanically stable 300 µm thick monoliths that were directly employed as lithium-ion battery electrodes. High areal mass loading of up to 26.4 mg/cm2 and a high bulk density of 0.88 g/cm3 were obtained...
March 6, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yan Shao, Zhong-Liu Liu, Cai Cheng, Xu Wu, Hang Liu, Chen Liu, Jiaou Wang, Shi-Yu Zhu, Yu-Qi Wang, Dong-Xia Shi, Kurash Ibrahim, Jiatao Sun, Yeliang Wang, Hong-Jun Gao
Group-V elemental monolayers were recently predicted to exhibit exotic physical properties like nontrivial topological properties, or quantum anomalous Hall effect, which would make them very suitable for applications in next-generation electronic devices. The free-standing group-V monolayer materials usually have a buckled honeycomb form, in contrast with the flat graphene monolayer. Here, we report epitaxial growth of atomically thin flat honeycomb monolayer of group-V element antimony on a Ag(111) substrate...
February 19, 2018: Nano Letters
Nate McDowell, Craig D Allen, Kristina Anderson-Teixeira, Paulo Brando, Roel Brienen, Jeff Chambers, Brad Christoffersen, Stuart Davies, Chris Doughty, Alvaro Duque, Fernando Espirito-Santo, Rosie Fisher, Clarissa G Fontes, David Galbraith, Devin Goodsman, Charlotte Grossiord, Henrik Hartmann, Jennifer Holm, Daniel J Johnson, Abd Rahman Kassim, Michael Keller, Charlie Koven, Lara Kueppers, Tomo'omi Kumagai, Yadvinder Malhi, Sean M McMahon, Maurizio Mencuccini, Patrick Meir, Paul Moorcroft, Helene C Muller-Landau, Oliver L Phillips, Thomas Powell, Carlos A Sierra, John Sperry, Jeff Warren, Chonggang Xu, Xiangtao Xu
Tree mortality rates appear to be increasing in moist tropical forests (MTFs) with significant carbon cycle consequences. Here, we review the state of knowledge regarding MTF tree mortality, create a conceptual framework with testable hypotheses regarding the drivers, mechanisms and interactions that may underlie increasing MTF mortality rates, and identify the next steps for improved understanding and reduced prediction. Increasing mortality rates are associated with rising temperature and vapor pressure deficit, liana abundance, drought, wind events, fire and, possibly, CO 2 fertilization-induced increases in stand thinning or acceleration of trees reaching larger, more vulnerable heights...
February 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Jiunn-Cheng Lin, Chih-Ming Chiu, Yu-Jen Lin, Wan-Yu Liu
Forests play an important role as carbon sinks by sequestrating carbon through photosynthesis. Thinning treatments have large impacts on carbon storage, in addition to strengthening quality and quantity of plantations. This study analyzed the effects of different thinning treatments on carbon stocks in both individual trees and stands of Taiwania (Taiwania cryptomerioides) plantations. Repeated field measurements and allometric equations were used to calculate total C storage and sequestration rates of live trees...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aino Hämäläinen, Joachim Strengbom, Thomas Ranius
In many managed landscapes, low-productive land comprises most of the remaining relatively untouched areas, and is often over-represented within protected areas. The relationship between the productivity and conservational value of a site is poorly known; however, it has been hypothesized that biodiversity increases with productivity due to higher resource abundance or heterogeneity, and that the species communities of low-productive land are a nested sub-set of communities from more productive land. We tested these hypotheses for dead wood-dependent beetles by comparing their species richness and composition, as well as the amount and diversity of dead wood, between low-productive (potential forest growth < 1 m 3 ha -1 year -1 ) and productive Scots pine-dominated stands in Sweden...
February 15, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
P Casals, A I Rios
Thinning and prescribed burning are two common operations for reducing fuel accumulation and decreasing the intensity and severity of wildfires. However, the resprouting response of understory species may reduce the effectiveness of fuel load treatments and thus negatively affect the cost-benefit ratio of these treatments. This study focuses on Buxus sempervirens, a slow-growing, multi-stemmed tree species, frequently dominant in the understory of temperate European forests, which resprouts strongly after clearing or burning...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Antonio C Ferraz Filho, Blas Mola-Yudego, José R González-Olabarria, José Roberto S Scolforo
This study focuses on the effects of different thinning regimes on clonal Eucalyptus plantations growth. Four different trials, planted in 1999 and located in Bahia and Espírito Santo States, were used. Aside from thinning, initial planting density, and post thinning fertilization application were also evaluated. Before canopy closure, and therefore before excessive competition between trees took place, it was found that stands planted under low densities (667 trees per hectare) presented a lower mortality proportion when compared to stand planted under higher densities (1111 trees per hectare)...
February 5, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
T V Raziman, J A Duenas, W I Milne, O J F Martin, P Dawson
The D- and G-band Raman signals from random arrays of vertically aligned, multi-walled carbon nanotubes are significantly enhanced (up to ∼14×) while the signal from the underlying Si substrate is simultaneously attenuated (up to ∼6×) when the nanotubes are dressed, either capped or coated, with Ag. These Ag-induced counter-changes originate with the difference in geometry of the nanotubes and planar Si substrate and contrast in the Ag depositions on the substrate (essentially thin film) and the nanotube (nano-particulate)...
February 7, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Abhinav Malhotra, Kartik Kothari, Martin Maldovan
A comprehensive rational thermal material design paradigm requires the ability to reduce and enhance the thermal conductivities of nanomaterials. In contrast to the existing ability to reduce the thermal conductivity, methods that allow to enhance heat conduction are currently limited. Enhancing the nanoscale thermal conductivity could bring radical improvements in the performance of electronics, optoelectronics, and photovoltaic systems. Here, we show that enhanced thermal conductivities can be achieved in semiconductor nanostructures by rationally engineering phonon spectral coupling between materials...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Leo Sala, Iwona B Szymańska, Céline Dablemont, Anne Lafosse, Lionel Amiaud
Background: Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) allows for the deposition of free standing material within nanometre sizes. The improvement of the technique needs a combination of new precursors and optimized irradiation strategies to achieve a controlled fragmentation of the precursor for leaving deposited material of desired composition. Here a new class of copper precursors is studied following an approach that probes some surface processes involved in the fragmentation of precursors. We use complexes of copper(II) with amines and perfluorinated carboxylate ligands that are solid and stable under ambient conditions...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Li Zeng, Riccardo Turrisi, Bo Fu, Jonathan D Emery, Amanda Walker, Mark A Ratner, Mark C Hersam, Antonio Facchetti, Tobin J Marks, Michael J Bedzyk
A self-assembled nano-dielectric (SAND) is an ultra-thin film, typically with periodic layer-pairs of high-k oxide and phosphonic acid-based π-electron (PAE) molecular layers. IPAE, having a molecular structure similar to PAE but with an inverted dipole direction, has recently been developed for use in thin-film transistors. Here we report that replacing PAE with IPAE in SAND-based thin-film transistors induces sizeable threshold and turn-on voltage shifts, indicating the flipping of the built-in SAND polarity...
January 29, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mojtaba Amjadipour, Anton Tadich, Josh Lipton-Duffin, John Boeckl, Jennifer MacLeod, Francesca Iacopi, Nunzio Motta
Growing graphene on SiC thin films on Si is a cheaper alternative to the growth on bulk SiC, and for this reason it has been recently intensively investigated. Here we study the effect of hydrogen intercalation on epitaxial graphene obtained by high temperature annealing on 3C-SiC/Si(111) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). By using a combination of core-level photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) we find that hydrogen saturates the Si atoms at the topmost layer of the substrate, leading to free-standing graphene on 3C-SiC/Si(111)...
January 29, 2018: Nanotechnology
Brook Nien-Fang Tsai, Chieh Tsao, Shing-Jong Huang, Chung-Kai Chang, Jerry Chun Chung Chan
Free standing films of calcium phosphates exhibit many favorable properties for tissue engineering. In this work, a thin film of calcium phosphate is prepared in a liposome suspension using the method of ammonia gas diffusion. The thickness of the film is about 10 m and the lateral dimensions are on the length scale of millimeter. The results of powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that the thin films contain the mineral phases of hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate (OCP)...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Stefan Knobelspies, Benedikt Bierer, Alwin Daus, Alain Takabayashi, Giovanni Antonio Salvatore, Giuseppe Cantarella, Alvaro Ortiz Perez, Jürgen Wöllenstein, Stefan Palzer, Gerhard Tröster
We present a gas sensitive thin-film transistor (TFT) based on an amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) semiconductor as the sensing layer, which is fabricated on a free-standing flexible polyimide foil. The photo-induced sensor response to NO₂ gas at room temperature and the cross-sensitivity to humidity are investigated. We combine the advantages of a transistor based sensor with flexible electronics technology to demonstrate the first flexible a-IGZO based gas sensitive TFT. Since flexible plastic substrates prohibit the use of high operating temperatures, the charge generation is promoted with the help of UV-light absorption, which ultimately triggers the reversible chemical reaction with the trace gas...
January 26, 2018: Sensors
Huaijiang He, Chunyu Zhang, Xiuhai Zhao, Folega Fousseni, Jinsong Wang, Haijun Dai, Song Yang, Qiang Zuo
Understanding forest carbon budget and dynamics for sustainable resource management and ecosystem functions requires quantification of above- and below-ground biomass at individual tree species and stand levels. In this study, a total of 122 trees (9-12 per species) were destructively sampled to determine above- and below-ground biomass of 12 tree species (Acer mandshuricum, Acer mono, Betula platyphylla, Carpinus cordata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, Maackia amurensis, P. koraiensis, Populus ussuriensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis and Ulmus japonica) in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of Northeastern China, an area of the largest natural forest in the country...
2018: PloS One
Kim Pingoud, Tommi Ekholm, Risto Sievänen, Saija Huuskonen, Jari Hynynen
This paper provides a perspective for comparing trade-offs between harvested wood flows and forest carbon stocks with different forest management regimes. A constant management regime applied to a forest area with an even age-class distribution leads to a steady state, in which the annual harvest and carbon stocks remain constant over time. As both are desirable - carbon stocks for mitigating climate change and harvests for the economic use of wood and displacing fossil fuels - an ideal strategy should be chosen from a set of management regimes that are Pareto-optimal in the sense of multi-criteria decision-making...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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