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stand thinning

Mustafa M Fadlelmula, Engin Can Sürmeli, Mehdi Ramezani, Talip Serkan Kasırga
Controlling solid state phase transitions via external stimuli offers rich physics along with possibilities of unparalleled applications in electronics and optics. The well-known metal-insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide (VO2) is one instance of such phase transitions emerging from strong electronic correlations. Inducing the MIT using electric field has been investigated extensively for the applications in electrical and ultrafast optical switching. However, as the Thomas-Fermi screening length is very short, for considerable alteration in the material's properties with electric field induced MIT, crystals below 10 nm are needed...
February 21, 2017: Nano Letters
Feng Wen, Xueliang Huang
The scenario of multiple wireless power transfer (WPT) systems working closely, synchronously or asynchronously with phase difference often occurs in power supply for household appliances and electric vehicles in parking lots. Magnetic field leakage from the WPT systems is also varied due to unpredictable asynchronous working conditions. In this study, the magnetic field leakage from parallel WPT systems working with phase difference is predicted, and the induced electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) in a human body standing in the vicinity are also evaluated...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Izabela Śliwa, A V Zakharov
Calculations of translational self-diffusion coefficient in free-standing smectic films during a series of layer-thinning transitions as the temperature is raised above the bulk smectic-A-isotropic transition have been carried out. A molecular model based upon the random walk theory is applied for calculating the translational diffusion coefficient (TDC) D_{∥} across the smectic film both in the bulk of the film, as well as in the vicinity of the bounding surfaces. Calculations of D_{∥} require the set of the orientational and translational order parameters (OPs) which have been obtained by using the extended McMillan approach with anisotropic forces...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Renwei Liu, Suna Fan, Dongdong Xiao, Jin Zhang, Mengzhou Liao, Shansheng Yu, Fanling Meng, Baoli Liu, Lin Gu, Sheng Meng, Guangyu Zhang, Weitao Zheng, Shuxin Hu, Ming Li
Organic two-dimensional (2D) crystals are fundamentally important for development of future devices. Despite that more than a half of man-made products contain polymers, 2D crystals consisting of long linear chains have yet to be explored. Here we report on the fabrication of 2D polyaniline (PANI) crystals via rational electrochemical polymerization followed by liquid-phase exfoliation. The 2D PANI is molecularly thin (~0.8 nm) and composed of PANI chains with a number-average molecular weight of ~31000. The chains are parallel to each other with the benzene rings standing almost vertically to the surface, implying a face-to-face arrangement of the neighboring chains held together by abundant pi-pi interactions augmented with hydrogen bonds...
February 15, 2017: Nano Letters
Tatiana Latychevskaia, Wei-Hao Hsu, Wei-Tse Chang, Chun-Yueh Lin, Ing-Shouh Hwang
There are only a handful of scanning techniques that can provide surface topography at nanometre resolution. At the same time, there are no methods that are capable of non-invasive imaging of the three-dimensional surface topography of a thin free-standing crystalline material. Here we propose a new technique-the divergent beam electron diffraction (DBED) and show that it can directly image the inhomogeneity in the atomic positions in a crystal. Such inhomogeneities are directly transformed into the intensity contrast in the first-order diffraction spots of DBED patterns and the intensity contrast linearly depends on the wavelength of the employed probing electrons...
February 14, 2017: Nature Communications
Rosa Garriga, Izabela Jurewicz, Shayan Seyedin, Niki Bardi, Stella Totti, Brigitta Matta-Domjan, Eirini G Velliou, Mohammed A Alkhorayef, Vicente L Cebolla, Joselito M Razal, Alan B Dalton, Edgar Muñoz
Here we present a route for non-covalent functionalization of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide with novel two-dimensional peptide assemblies. We show that self-assembled amino-terminated biantennary and tetraantennary oligoglycine peptides (referred to as tectomers) effectively coat carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and also strongly interact with graphene oxide due to electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding as the driving force, respectively. The resulting hybrids can be made into free-standing conducting composites or applied in the form of thin, pH-switchable bioadhesive coatings onto graphene oxide fibers...
February 10, 2017: Nanoscale
Malcolm S Itter, Andrew O Finley, Anthony W D'Amato, Jane R Foster, John B Bradford
Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics-changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth responses to climate is particularly important given stand structure and composition can be modified through management to increase forest resistance and resilience to climate change...
February 9, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Martin Kroupa, Miroslav Soos, Juraj Kosek
Concentrated suspensions of non-Brownian particles exhibit a decrease in their viscosity with the increasing shear rate, a phenomenon called shear thinning. We present a possible explanation for this long-standing problem based on recent advances in the connection between the slip on the surface of the particles and the suspension viscosity. By expressing the energy dissipation between a pair of particles as a function of the local shear rate, it is possible to directly link the decrease of the viscosity with the shear rate to the slip of solvent molecules on the particle surface...
February 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Robert W Mann, Masahiko Kobayashi, Alan L Schiller
Biparietal thinning resulting in bilateral and symmetrical resorption and loss of thickness of the parietal bones is an uncommon to rare condition in the anthropological and clinical literature. This enigmatic condition of unknown etiology was first reported in the 18th century and has been variously described as a nonmetric trait, anatomical variant, anomaly, and pathology. Biparietal thinning presents grossly and radiographically as oval-shaped depressions in 0.25-0.8% and 0.4-0.5% of individuals and with a higher frequency in females over the age of 60 years...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Vladimir Riabov, Fabián Salazar, Su Su Htwe, Alexandru Gudima, Christina Schmuttermaier, Julien Barthes, Helena Knopf-Marques, Harald Klüter, Amir M Ghaemmaghami, Nihal Engin Vrana, Julia Kzhyshkowska
: The immediate tissue microenvironment of implanted biomedical devices and engineered tissues is highly influential on their long term fate and efficacy. The creation of a long-term anti-inflammatory microenvironment around implants and artificial tissues can facilitate their integration. Macrophages are highly plastic cells that define the tissue reactions on the implanted material. Local control of macrophage phenotype by long-term fixation of their healing activities and suppression of inflammatory reactions are required to improve implant acceptance...
February 1, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Hae Min Yang, Yeong Kwan Kwon, Soo Byoung Lee, Sangwon Kim, Kihyon Hong, Keun Hyung Lee
A new type of physically crosslinked solid polymer electrolyte was demonstrated by using a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymer in a room temperature ionic liquid. The physical origins of gelation, specific capacitance, ionic conductivity, mechanical property, and capacitive charge modulation in organic thin-film electrochemical transistors were investigated systematically. Gelation occurs through bridging phase-separated homopolymer crystals by polymer chains in the composite electrolyte, thereby forming a rubbery network...
February 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Angga Dito Fauzi, Muhammad Aziz Majidi, Andrivo Rusydi
Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> is a half-metallic ferrimagnet with <i>T<sub>C</sub></i> ���860 K exhibiting metal-insulator transition (MIT) at ~120 K. In bulk form, the saturation magnetization is 0.6 Tesla (~471 emu/cm<sup>3</sup>). A recent experimental study has shown that the saturation magnetization of nano-Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> thin films can achieve up to ~760 emu/cm<sup>3</sup>, attributed to spin-flipping of Fe ions at tetrahedral sites assisted by oxygen vacancies (<i>V</i><sub>O</sub>)...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Yilun Huang, Qianming Gong, Qi Zhang, Yang Shao, Junjie Wang, Yanqi Jiang, Ming Zhao, Daming Zhuang, Ji Liang
Thin films with high thermal conductivity are urgently needed as heat dissipation materials for electronic devices. In this study, we developed a readily scalable roller coating method followed by ultra-high temperature annealing to prepare large-sized, free-standing, and flexible reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films with high thermal conductivity. The in-plane thermal conductivity measured by a laser flash method for the sample annealed at 2800 °C was 826.0 W m(-1) K(-1), which was much higher than that of copper foil...
January 31, 2017: Nanoscale
Pascal A Niklaus, M Baruffol, J-S He, K Ma, B Schmid
Most experimental biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research to date has addressed herbaceous plant communities. Comparably little is known about how forest communities will respond to species losses, despite their importance for global biogeochemical cycling. We studied tree species interactions in experimental subtropical tree communities with 33 distinct tree species mixtures and one, two or four species. Plots were either exposed to natural light levels or shaded. Trees grew rapidly and were intensely competing above ground after 1...
January 27, 2017: Ecology
Xiao Yu, Zihua Li, Yong Liu, Wenxia Zhao, Ruimei Xu, Donghai Wang, Hui Shen
A promising new concept is the application of flexible and foldable conductive film or paper for wearable electronics, in which silver nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and graphene are primarily used as conductive materials. However, their insufficient nanostructure contacts lead to poor electrical conductivity and mechanical fracture. Here, we demonstrate a simple and innovative strategy for fabricating a free-standing silver film with inverted pyramids by replicating pyramids on a textured silicon wafer under a hydrothermal reaction...
February 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bingya Hou, Lang Shen, Haotian Shi, Rehan Kapadia, Stephen B Cronin
We report measurements of photocatalytic water splitting using Au films with and without TiO2 coatings. In these structures, a thin (3-10 nm) film of TiO2 is deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of a 100 nm thick Au film. We utilize an AC lock-in technique, which enables us to detect the relatively small photocurrents (∼μA) produced by the short-lived hot electrons that are photoexcited in the metal. Under illumination, the bare Au film produces a small AC photocurrent (<1 μA) for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) due to hot electrons and hot holes, respectively, that are photoexcited in the Au film...
January 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yong Li, Daixin Ye, Bin Shi, Wen Liu, Rui Guo, Haijuan Pei, Jingying Xie
To solve the barriers of poor rate capability and inferior cycling stability for the MnO2 anode in lithium ion batteries, we present a highly flexible membrane anode employing two-dimensional (2D) reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO) and a three-dimensional (3D) MnO2-reduced graphene oxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposite (MGC) by a vacuum filtration and thermal annealing approach. All the components in the 2D/3D thin film anode have a synergistic effect on the improved performance. The initial discharge specific capacity of the electrode with the MnO2 content of 56 wt% was 1656...
January 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jingwen Sun, Bernhard V K J Schmidt, Xin Wang, Menny Shalom
Here we report a facile synthesis of carbon nitride-based hydrogels with adjustable shapes, ranging from cylinder to tube and thin sheet, by photopolymerization process in confined templates. The fabricated hydrogel shows enhanced mechanical properties compared to the reference gel without carbon nitride incorporation, good adsorption capacity, and promising photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen production. Meanwhile, the hydrogel also exhibits selective pollutants adsorption properties that could be attributed to the negative-charged carbon nitride as well as relatively high stability alongside enhanced light harvesting...
January 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shaozhuan Huang, Lin Zhang, Xueyi Lu, Lifeng Liu, Lixiang Liu, Xiaolei Sun, Yin Yin, Steffen Oswald, Zhaoyong Zou, Fei Ding, Oliver G Schmidt
Nanostructured TiO2 of different polymorphs, mostly prepared by hydro/solvothermal methods, have been extensively studied for more than a decade as anode materials in lithium ion batteries. Enormous efforts have been devoted to improving the electrical conductivity and lithium ion diffusivity in chemically synthesized TiO2 nanostructures. In this work we demonstrate that 3D Ti(3+)-self-doped TiO2 (TiO2-δ) nanomembranes, which are prepared by physical vapor deposition combined with strain-released rolled-up technology, have a great potential to address several of the long-standing challenges associated with TiO2 anodes...
December 30, 2016: ACS Nano
Suyong Jung, Nojoon Myoung, Jaesung Park, Tae Young Jeong, Hakseong Kim, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Dong Han Ha, Chanyong Hwang, Hee Chul Park
The chemical and mechanical stability of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) thin films and their compatibility with other free-standing two-dimensional (2D) crystals to form van der Waals heterostructures make the h-BN-2D tunnel junction an intriguing experimental platform not only for the engineering of specific device functionalities but also for the promotion of quantum measurement capabilities. Here, we exploit the h-BN-graphene tunnel junction to directly probe the electronic structures of single-layer and bilayer graphene in the presence and the absence of external magnetic fields with unprecedented high signal-to-noise ratios...
December 27, 2016: Nano Letters
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