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Qingye Lu, Jun Huang, Omar Maan, Yang Liu, Hongbo Zeng
Surface fouling is the dominant fouling mechanism of thin-film composite (TFC) membranes used in reverse osmosis (RO) technology. Understanding the complex interactions between foulant-membrane which drive the attachment and growth of foulants on membrane surface is of both fundamental and practical importance. This work aims to understand the molecular interaction mechanisms of organic fouling on RO-TFC membranes. A surface forces apparatus (SFA) was employed to directly measure the interaction forces and time-dependent adsorption behaviors between model organic foulants: humic acid (HA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and a polyamide (PA) thin film...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Miaomiao Li, Xuan Chen, Shuang Hu, Runqin Wang, Xiaoli Peng, Xiaohong Bai
Oil-in-salt hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed for determination of the blood concentrations of the main active compounds, hesperidin, honokiol, shikonin, magnolol, emodin and β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin, after oral administration of Zi-Cao-Cheng-Qi decoction (ZCCQD) and their total plasma protein binding rates. In the procedure, a hollow fiber segment was immersed in organic solvent to fill the solvent in the fiber lumen and wall pore, and then the fiber was immersed into sodium chloride solution to cover a thin salt membrane on the fiber wall pore filling organic solvent...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
M Horger, J Fritz, W M Thaiss, H Ditt, K Weisel, M Haap, Christopher Kloth
PURPOSE: To compare qualitative and quantitative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters for longitudinal disease monitoring of multiple myeloma (MM) of the axial skeleton. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 31 consecutive patients (17 m; mean age 59.20 ± 8.08 years) with MM, who underwent all baseline (n = 31) and at least one or more (n = 47) follow-up examinations consisting of multi-parametric non-enhanced whole-body MRI (WBMRI) and non-enhanced whole-body reduced-dose thin-section MDCT (NEWBMDCT) between 06/2013 and 09/2016...
December 8, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
Kosuke Minaga, Masayuki Kitano, Masahiro Itonaga, Hajime Imai, Takeshi Miyata, Kentaro Yamao, Takashi Tamura, Junya Nuta, Kenji Warigaya, Masatoshi Kudo
PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a newly designed self-expandable metal stent for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) when it was delivered via three different stent delivery systems: a 7.5Fr delivery catheter with a bullet-shaped tip (7.5Fr-bullet), a 7Fr catheter with a bullet-shaped tip (7Fr-bullet), or a 7Fr catheter with a tee-shaped tip (7Fr-tee). METHODS: This experimental study utilized a porcine model of biliary dilatation involving ten pigs...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Supriyo Chowdhury, Arpita Basu, Surekha Kundu
Infection stages of charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in sesame revealed for the first time a transition from biotrophy via BNS (biotrophy-to-necrotrophy switch) to necrotrophy as confirmed by transcriptional studies. Microscopy using normal and GFP-expressing pathogen showed typical constricted thick intercellular bitrophic hyphae which gave rise to thin intracellular necrotrophic hyphae during BNS and this stage was delayed in a resistant host. Results also show that as the pathogen switched its strategy of infection, the host tailored its defense strategy to meet the changing situation...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Karthika Arumugam, Seenivasagan Renganathan, Babalola Olubukola Oluranti, Vasanthy Muthunarayanan
Disposable Paper cups are a threat to the environment and are composed of 90% high strength paper with 5% thin coating of polyethylene. This polyethylene prevents the paper cup from undergoing degradation in the soil. Hence, in the present study two different approaches towards the management of paper cup waste through vermicomposting technology has been presented. The experimental setup includes 2 plastic reactors namely Vermicompost (VC) (Cow dung + Paper cup waste + Earthworm (Eudrillus eugeinea)) and Vermicompost with bacterial consortium (VCB) (Cow dung + Paper cup waste + Eudrillus eugeinea + Microbial consortia such as Bacillus anthracis, B...
December 5, 2017: Waste Management
Dongming Wang, Yun Zhou, Yanjun Guo, Runbo Zhang, Wenzhen Li, Meian He, Xiaomin Zhang, Huan Guo, Jing Yuan, Tangchun Wu, Weihong Chen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the independent and combined associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population. METHODS: We included 21,912 individuals aged 62.2 years at baseline from September 2008 to June 2010, and they were followed until October 2013. Sleep duration was self-reported and sleep quality was evaluated with questions designed according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg, or self-reported physician diagnosis of hypertension, or self-reported current use of antihypertensive medication...
December 2017: Sleep Medicine
P Vanya, J Sharman, J A Elliott
The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yu Okubo, Yuji Matsumoto, Toshiyuki Nakai, Takaaki Tsuchida, Keisuke Asakura, Noriko Motoi, Shun-Ichi Watanabe
Endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a well-established procedure with high diagnostic yield and safety. However, the standard 22 gauge needles sometimes cause major bleeding particularly in hypervascular tumors like metastatic lung tumors from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The 25 gauge needles are already introduced to endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), and are considered as one of the standard devices due to their comparable diagnostic outcome, lower complication risk, and the better manipulability...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Tiange Luo, Jie Han, Xu Meng
Background: We aimed to assess the pathological characteristics of rheumatic mitral valve disease in Chinese patients and formulate a pathological grading system to identify cases suitable for rheumatic mitral valve repair (rMVP). Methods: Nearly 5 years of follow-up data on patients who underwent rMVP were analysed. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve for freedom from reoperation and valve failure was constructed. A pathological grading system of rheumatic mitral valve lesions (PGSRMVL) was developed based on the pathological characteristics of rheumatic mitral valve disease and tested by receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) curve analysis...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Xiaoxiao Sun, Xinqiang Wang, Ping Wang, Tao Wang, Bowen Sheng, Xiantong Zheng, Mo Li, Jian Zhang, Xuelin Yang, Fujun Xu, Weikun Ge, Bo Shen
Intense emission from an InGaN quantum disc (QDisc) embedded in a GaN nanowire p-n junction is directly resolved by performing cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. The luminescence observed from the p-type GaN region is exclusively dominated by the emission at 380 nm, which has been usually reported as the emission from Mg induced impurity bands. Here, we confirm that the robust emission from 380 nm is actually not due to the Mg induced impurity bands, but rather due to being the recombination between electrons in the QDisc and holes in the p-type GaN...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Ziheng Zhou, Ke Chen, Junming Zhao, Ping Chen, Tian Jiang, Bo Zhu, Yijun Feng, Yue Li
The metasurfaces have recently been demonstrated to provide full control of the phase responses of electromagnetic (EM) wave scattering over subwavelength scales, enabling a wide range of practical applications. Here, we propose a comprehensive scheme for the efficient and flexible design of metasurface Salisbury screen (MSS) capable of absorbing the impinging EM wave in an ultra-wide frequency band. We show that properly designed reflective metasurface can be used to substitute the metallic ground of conventional Salisbury screen for generating diverse resonances in a desirable way, thus providing large controllability over the absorption bandwidth...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Yi Zhang, Junqiang Sun, Jianfeng Gao
We propose and analyze theoretically an asymmetric Ge/SiGe coupled quantum well (CQW) for silicon based optical phase modulator. An 8-band k⋅p model is used to calculate the eigenstates and absorption spectra of the CQWs. The simulation results exhibit unique physical characteristics owing to the coupling between the two wave functions through the thin barriers. We can achieve an electro-refractive index variation as high as 9 × 10-3 at the wavelength of about 1461 nm under the electric field of 30 kV/cm...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Mitsuru Takenaka, Shinichi Takagi
We have numerically investigated the properties of an InP-on-SiC wafer as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform. By bonding a thin InP-based semiconductor on a SiC wafer, SiC can be used as waveguide cladding, a heat sink, and a support substrate simultaneously. Since the refractive index of SiC is sufficiently low, PICs can be fabricated using InP-based strip and rib waveguides with a minimum bend radius of approximately 7 μm. High-thermal-conductivity SiC underneath an InP-based waveguide core markedly improves heat dissipation, resulting in superior thermal properties of active devices such as laser diodes...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Junyi Gong, Yue Wang, Sheng Liu, Pan Zeng, Xilu Yang, Rongqing Liang, Qiongrong Ou, Xiang Wu, Shuyu Zhang
Halide perovskite materials have rapidly emerged as outstanding optoelectronic materials for solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and lasers. Compared to hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, all-inorganic perovskites have shown unique merits that may contribute to the ultimate goal of developing electrically-pumped lasers. In this paper, we demonstrate a distributed feedback (DFB) resonator using an all-inorganic perovskite thin film as the gain medium. The film has a gain coefficient of 161.1 cm-1 and a loss coefficient of 30...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Ming Jing, Ruijin Hong, Wen Shao, Hui Lin, Dawei Zhang, Songlin Zhuang, Daohua Zhang
In this paper, the photocatalytic activity enhancement of TiO2 thin films was realized by laser irradiation. The H2 yield of the as-irradiated film is 79 μmol/(h*m2), which is 33% more than that of the as-deposited TiO2 film. Spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction and Raman system were employed to characterize the samples. The results showed that both the scanning rate and line spacing of the laser modification have effects on photocatalytic activity. It suggests that a phase junction is formed between the amorphous and rutile phases...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Guillaume Fischer, Etienne Drahi, Martin Foldyna, Thomas A Germer, Erik V Johnson
Using a plasma to generate a surface texture with feature sizes on the order of tens to hundreds of nanometers ("nanotexturing") is a promising technique being considered to improve efficiency in thin, high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells. This study investigates the evolution of the optical properties of silicon samples with various initial surface finishes (from mirror polish to various states of micron-scale roughness) during a plasma nanotexturing process. It is shown that during said process, the appearance and growth of nanocone-like structures are essentially independent of the initial surface finish, as quantified by the auto-correlation function of the surface morphology...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Jin Hou, Wei Hong, Xiaohang Li, Chunyong Yang, Shaoping Chen
In the original manuscript, the maximum short-circuit current in Fig. 2 and the description of angular stability for polarization in Fig. 6 are found incorrect owing to negligence. The incorrect maximum integrated absorption also led to errors appeared in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4(d), in which the mistake value was used to plot. In this erratum, all of those mistakes have been corrected. Moreover, both higher Fourier expansion order and the resolution of frequency are adopted in the recalculation to make sure the updated results to be reliable...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Lei Tang, Mathieu Francoeur
A novel photonic thermal diode concept operating in the near field and capitalizing on the temperature-dependence of coupled surface polariton modes in nanostructures is proposed. The diode concept utilizes terminals made of the same material supporting surface polariton modes in the infrared, but with dissimilar structures. The specific diode design analyzed in this work involves a thin film and a bulk, both made of 3C silicon carbide, separated by a subwavelength vacuum gap. High rectification efficiency is obtained by tuning the antisymmetric resonant modes of the thin film, resulting from surface phonon-polariton coupling, on- and off-resonance with the resonant mode of the bulk as a function of the temperature bias direction...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Łukasz Popiołek, Anna Biernasiuk, Anna Berecka, Anna Gumieniczek, Anna Malm, Monika Wujec
This paper describes the synthesis, lipophilicity and in vitro antimicrobial assays of 15 new hydrazide-hydrazones of isonicotinic acid. New derivatives were obtained on the basis of the condensation reaction of isonicotinic acid hydrazide with different aromatic aldehydes. The chemical structure of synthesized compounds was confirmed by spectral methods. Experimental lipophilicity of new isonicotinic acid derivatives was determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. All synthesized compounds were subjected to in vitro antimicrobial assays against reference strains of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi belonging to Candida spp...
December 8, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
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