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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777962/field-evaluation-of-anticoccidial-efficacy-a-novel-approach-demonstrates-reduced-efficacy-of-toltrazuril-against-ovine-eimeria-spp-in-norway
#1
Ane Odden, Matthew J Denwood, Snorre Stuen, Lucy J Robertson, Antonio Ruiz, Inger Sofie Hamnes, Lisbeth Hektoen, Heidi L Enemark
Ovine Eimeria spp. infections cause reduced welfare, increased mortality, and substantial economic losses, and anticoccidials are crucial for their control. Recent reports of toltrazuril resistance in pigs, and anecdotal reports of reduced anticoccidial efficacy in lambs, necessitate evaluation of anticoccidial efficacy. Due to the substantial lifecycle differences between nematodes and coccidia, current WAAVP methods for assessing anthelmintic efficacy are not suitable for such evaluations. Faecal samples were collected from 8 pairs of twin lambs from 36 Norwegian sheep farms 6-8 days after turnout...
May 16, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777828/mutual-connectivity-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-mri-data-with-local-models
#2
Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Udaysankar Chockanathan, Giovanni Schifitto, Axel Wismüller
Functional connectivity analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) can represent brain networks and reveal insights into interactions amongst different brain regions. However, most connectivity analysis approaches adopted in practice are linear and non-directional. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantage of a data-driven, directed connectivity analysis approach called Mutual Connectivity Analysis using Local Models (MCA-LM) that approximates connectivity by modeling nonlinear dependencies of signal interaction, over more conventionally used approaches, such as Pearson's and partial correlation, Patel's conditional dependence measures, etcetera...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777820/accuracy-and-precision-of-quantitative-dce-mri-parameters-how-should-one-estimate-contrast-concentration
#3
Nicole Wake, Hersh Chandarana, Henry Rusinek, Koji Fujimoto, Linda Moy, Daniel K Sodickson, Sungheon Gene Kim
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data are sensitive to acquisition and post-processing techniques, which makes it difficult to compare results obtained using different methods. In particular, one of the most important factors affecting estimation of model parameters is how to convert MRI signal intensities to contrast agent concentration. The purpose of our study was to quantitatively compare a linear signal-to-concentration conversion (LC) as an approximation and a non-linear conversion (NLC) based on the MRI signal equation, in terms of the accuracy and precision of the pharmacokinetic parameters in T1 -weighted DCE-MRI...
May 16, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777812/exploring-the-intermolecular-interactions-and-contrasting-binding-of-flufenamic-acid-with-hemoglobin-and-lysozyme-a-biophysical-and-docking-insight
#4
Sameer Shakeel Ansari, Imtiyaz Yousuf, Farukh Arjmand, Mohammad Khursheed Siddiqi, Saeeda Naqvi
The intermolecular interaction of flufenamic acid (Hfluf) with two model proteins i.e., hemoglobin and lysozyme was explored using fluorescence, UV-vis, circular dichroism, DLS, and molecular docking techniques. The corroborative spectroscopic techniques suggested efficient binding of Hfluf to both the proteins. The S-V plot in Hb-Hfluf system showed positive deviation highlighting the presence of both static and dynamic quenching. Hence, ground state complex model and sphere of action quenching model were used for the study...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777745/serum-adiponectin-ferritin-ratio-in-relation-to-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-and-insulin-sensitivity
#5
Alex Aregbesola, Vanessa D F de Mello, Jaana Lindström, Sari Voutilainen, Jyrki K Virtanen, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Uusitupa Matti
AIMS: Body iron inhibits the metabolism of adiponectin, an insulin sensitizing adipokine. We investigated the relationships of baseline and average of 4-year change in values of serum adiponectin (sA), serum ferritin (sF) and sA/sF ratio on type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk and insulin sensitivity (Matsuda ISI) and secretion (disposition index; DI30 ). METHODS: Prospective analyses were conducted in participants with impaired glucose tolerance of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (n=516) recruited in 1993-1998...
May 16, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777663/a-multicenter-randomized-clinical-trial-of-etonogestrel-and-levonorgestrel-contraceptive-implants-with-nonrandomized-copper-iud-controls-effect-on-weight-variations-up-to-three-years-after-placement
#6
Luis Bahamondes, Vivian Brache, Moazzam Ali, Ndema Habib
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate weight changes in women randomized to either the etonogestrel (ENG)- or the levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing contraceptive implants and to compare with users of the TCu380A intrauterine device (IUD). STUDY DESIGN: A multi-center randomized trial with 1:1 allocation ratio of the ENG- and the LNG- implants with non-randomized, age-matched control group of women choosing TCu380A IUD. The primary objective was to assess contraceptive efficacy and method continuation rates, and secondarily the incidence of common complaints and side effects (including weight changes) associated with use of the three contraceptives...
May 16, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777650/modeling-dengue-vector-population-using-remotely-sensed-data-and-machine-learning
#7
Juan M Scavuzzo, Francisco Trucco, Manuel Espinosa, Carolina B Tauro, Marcelo Abril, Carlos M Scavuzzo, Alejandro C Frery
Mosquitoes are vectors of many human diseases. In particular, Aedes ægypti (Linnaeus) is the main vector for Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika viruses in Latin America and it represents a global threat. Public health policies that aim at combating this vector require dependable and timely information, which is usually expensive to obtain with field campaigns. For this reason, several efforts have been done to use remote sensing due to its reduced cost. The present work includes the temporal modeling of the oviposition activity (measured weekly on 50 ovitraps in a north Argentinean city) of Aedes ægypti (Linnaeus), based on time series of data extracted from operational earth observation satellite images...
May 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777585/potential-vascular-mechanisms-in-an-ex-vivo-functional-pig-bladder-model
#8
Uzoma A Anele, Paul H Ratz, Andrew F Colhoun, Sydney Roberts, Ryan Musselman, Randy A Vince, John E Speich, Adam P Klausner
AIMS: Chronic ischemia is a recognized factor in the pathophysiology of underactive bladder (UAB). Although relative ischemia (ie, low blood flow) is known to occur during filling, little is known regarding the pathophysiology that leads to UAB. Therefore, we developed an ex vivo functional porcine model to investigate the role of transient ischemia and whether autoregulation, a mechanism that maintains tissue oxygenation in certain vital organs, also exists in the bladder. METHODS: Using bladders from slaughtered pigs, we prepared an isolated perfused model where we studied the effects of bladder perfusion flow rate on perfusion pressure and tissue oxygenation during the filling phase...
May 19, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777555/impact-of-nicu-oral-feeding-on-neuropsychomotor-outcomes-at-9-months-of-corrected-age-in-chinese-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants-a-retrospective-study
#9
Wenwen Ding, Lijin Zhao, Nan Sheng, Jiali Ma, Ying Zhang
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine the changes in neuropsychomotor development and investigate the effect of feeding progression in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) on neuropsychomotor outcomes in low-birth-weight preterm infants within 9 months of corrected age. BACKGROUND: Low-birth-weight (LBW) preterm infants (<37 weeks of gestation and birth weight < 2500 g) are at a high risk for neuropsychomotor development delay. Therefore, exploring NICU practices related to neuropsychomotor development is important...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777535/the-relationship-between-costs-and-quality-in-veterans-health-administration-community-living-centers-an-analysis-using-longitudinal-data
#10
James F Burgess, Michael Shwartz, Kelly Stolzmann, Jennifer L Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between cost and quality in Veterans Health Administration (VA) nursing homes (called Community Living Centers, CLCs) using longitudinal data. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: One hundred and thirty CLCs over 13 quarters (from FY2009 to FY2012) were studied. Costs, resident days, and resident severity (RUGs score) were obtained from the VA Managerial Cost Accounting System. Clinical quality measures were obtained from the Minimum Data Set, and resident-centered care (RCC) was measured using the Artifacts of Culture Change Tool...
May 18, 2018: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777491/-effects-of-an-integrated-neighborhood-approach-on-older-people-s-health-related-quality-of-life-and-well-being
#11
Hanna M van Dijk, Jane M Cramm, Erwin Birnie, Anna P Nieboer
Integrated neighborhood approaches (INAs) are increasingly advocated to support community-dwelling older people; their effectiveness however remains unknown. We evaluated INA effects on older people's (health-related) quality of life (HRQoL) and well-being in Rotterdam. We used a matched quasi-experimental design comparing INA with "usual" care and support. Community-dwelling people (aged ≥70) and control subjects (n = 186 each) were followed over a one-year period (measurements at baseline, 6 and 12 months)...
May 18, 2018: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777407/modelling-the-delay-between-pharmacokinetics-and-eeg-effects-of-morphine-in-rats-binding-kinetic-versus-effect-compartment-models
#12
Wilhelmus E A de Witte, Vivi Rottschäfer, Meindert Danhof, Piet H van der Graaf, Lambertus A Peletier, Elizabeth C M de Lange
Drug-target binding kinetics (as determined by association and dissociation rate constants, k on and k off ) can be an important determinant of the kinetics of drug action. However, the effect compartment model is used most frequently instead of a target binding model to describe hysteresis. Here we investigate when the drug-target binding model should be used in lieu of the effect compartment model. The utility of the effect compartment (EC), the target binding kinetics (TB) and the combined effect compartment-target binding kinetics (EC-TB) model were tested on either plasma (ECPL , TBPL and EC-TBPL ) or brain extracellular fluid (ECF) (ECECF , TBECF and EC-TBECF ) morphine concentrations and EEG amplitude in rats...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777392/determining-representative-ranges-of-point-sensors-in-distributed-networks
#13
John K Horne, Dale A Jacques
Distributed networks of stationary instruments provide high temporal scope (i.e., range/resolution) observations but are spatially limited as a set of point measurements. Measurement similarity between points typically decays with distance, which is used to set interpolation distances. The importance of analyzing spatiotemporal data at equivalent spatial and temporal scales has been identified but no standard procedure is used to interpolate space using temporally-indexed observations. Using concurrent mobile and stationary active acoustic, fish density data from a tidal energy site in Puget Sound, WA, USA, six methods are compared to estimate the range at which stationary measurements can be spatially interpolated...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777321/how-changes-in-interconnectivity-affect-the-bulk-properties-of-articular-cartilage-a-fibre-network-study
#14
M A Bilton, A Thambyah, R J Clarke
The remarkable compressive strength of articular cartilage arises from the mechanical interactions between the tension-resisting collagen fibrils and swelling proteoglycan proteins within the tissue. These interactions are facilitated by a significant level of interconnectivity between neighbouring collagen fibrils within the extracellular matrix. A reduction in interconnectivity is suspected to occur during the early stages of osteoarthritic degeneration. However, the relative contribution of these interconnections towards the bulk mechanical properties of articular cartilage has remained an open question...
May 18, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777305/the-distribution-of-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-and-associations-with-age-refraction-and-axial-length-the-gutenberg-health-study
#15
Esther M Hoffmann, Irene Schmidtmann, Angeliki Siouli, Alexander K Schuster, Manfred E Beutel, Norbert Pfeiffer, Julia Lamparter
PURPOSE: To evaluate the distribution of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography and its associations with ocular parameters in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the population-based Gutenberg Health Study, 1974 subjects from the Mainz-Bingen region were scheduled for ophthalmologic examinations, including visual acuity, refraction, tonometry, biometry, and measurements of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (pRNFL) by optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, Spectralis®, Heidelberg Engineering, Germany)...
May 18, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777238/impact-of-body-mass-index-and-body-weight-variabilities-on-mortality-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#16
Ga Eun Nam, Kyung Hwan Cho, Kyungdo Han, Byoungduck Han, Sung Jung Cho, Yong Kyun Roh, Seon Mee Kim, Youn Seon Choi, Do Hoon Kim, Yang Hyun Kim, Yong Gyu Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is limited information regarding the impact of body mass index (BMI) and body weight (BWt) variabilities on mortality. This study aimed to investigate the association between BMI, BWt variabilities and subsequent mortality in the Korean population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study used a representative sample cohort enrolled in the national health examination program conducted by the Korean National Health Insurance Service, and 125,391 individuals were included and followed up until 2013 (mean follow-up period = 84 months)...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777236/does-cardiorespiratory-fitness-moderate-the-prospective-association-between-physical-activity-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-children
#17
Turid Skrede, Eivind Aadland, Lars Bo Andersen, Mette Stavnsbo, Sigmund Alfred Anderssen, Geir Kåre Resaland, Ulf Ekelund
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are independently associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk in children, and may affect risk through different pathways. This study aims to examine if CRF moderate the prospective association between PA, sedentary time, and cardiometabolic outcomes in 10-year-old children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In total, 718 children of 1129 (drop out n = 7) had valid measures of PA (accelerometry), CRF (the Andersen running test), and a cardiometabolic risk profile measured at baseline and follow-up 7 months later...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777234/prevotella-to-bacteroides-ratio-predicts-body-weight-and-fat-loss-success-on-24-week-diets-varying-in-macronutrient-composition-and-dietary-fiber-results-from-a-post-hoc-analysis
#18
Mads F Hjorth, Trine Blædel, Line Q Bendtsen, Janne K Lorenzen, Jacob B Holm, Pia Kiilerich, Henrik M Roager, Karsten Kristiansen, Lesli H Larsen, Arne Astrup
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (≈1500 mg calcium/day) or low ( ≤ 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777231/dietary-protein-intake-in-school-age-children-and-detailed-measures-of-body-composition-the-generation-r-study
#19
Vincent Jen, Leonidas G Karagounis, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Trudy Voortman
BACKGROUND: A high-protein diet in infancy increases the risk of obesity, but the effects of dietary protein intake in mid-childhood on body composition are unclear. Therefore, we studied associations of protein intake (total, animal and plant-sourced) at 8 years of age with anthropometric measures and body composition up to age 10 years. METHODS: We included 3991 children of the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary protein intake was assessed at 8 years of age using a food-frequency questionnaire and is expressed in energy percentage (E%)...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777170/systematic-biology-analysis-on-photosynthetic-carbon-metabolism-of-maize-leaf-following-sudden-heat-shock-under-elevated-co-2
#20
Mingnan Qu, Genyun Chen, James A Bunce, Xiaocen Zhu, Richard C Sicher
Plants would experience more complex environments, such as sudden heat shock (SHS) stress combined with elevated CO2 in the future, and might adapt to this stressful condition by optimizing photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM). It is interesting to understand whether this acclimation process would be altered in different genotypes of maize under elevated CO2 , and which metabolites represent key indicators reflecting the photosynthetic rates (PN ) following SHS. Although B76 had greater reduction in PN during SHS treatment, our results indicated that PN in genotype B76, displayed faster recovery after SHS treatment under elevated CO2 than in genotype B106...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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