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Youmei Chen, Jing Xu, Li Zhou, Ya Zheng
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia, the reduced capacity to experience pleasure, has long been regarded as a cardinal symptom in depression and schizophrenia. Recent evidence highlights that anhedonia is not a single construct but consists of an anticipatory component and a consummatory component, which is captured by the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS). The current event-related potential study examined the electrophysiological underpinnings of anticipatory and consummatory aspects of anhedonia as assessed by the TEPS in a non-clinical sample...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ekaterina A Proshina, Alexander N Savostyanov, Andrey V Bocharov, Gennady G Knyazev
The S allele of serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been found to increase the risk of depression and other mental health problems, but some evidence suggests that S-allele carriers outperform subjects carrying the long allele in an array of cognitive tasks. Evidence linking this polymorphism with individual variation in electrophysiological properties of resting state brain networks is very limited. This study investigated the effect of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on EEG current source density, connectivity, and topological properties of resting state networks...
June 15, 2018: Brain Research
Fanmao Liu, Ignasi Fina, Guillaume Sauthier, Florencio Sanchez, Andrew M Rappe, Josep Fontcuberta
Ferroelectric perovskites hold promise of enhanced photovoltaic efficiency and photocatalytic activity. Consequently, the photoresponse of oxide ferroelectric thin films is an active field of research. In electrode/ferroelectric/electrode devices, internal charge in the ferroelectric, free charge in the electrodes, and buried adsorbates at interfaces combine to screen the ferroelectric polarization and to stabilize the polar state. Under illumination, photo-induced carriers and photo-dissociated adsorbates may disrupt the screening equilibrium, modifying the switchable polarization and altering its expected benefits...
June 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sara Jahfari, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Anne G E Collins, Tomas Knapen, Lourens J Waldorp, Michael J Frank
Why are we so slow in choosing the lesser of 2 evils? We considered whether such slowing relates to uncertainty about the value of these options, which arises from the tendency to avoid them during learning, and whether such slowing relates to frontosubthalamic inhibitory control mechanisms. In total, 49 participants performed a reinforcement-learning task and a stop-signal task while fMRI was recorded. A reinforcement-learning model was used to quantify learning strategies. Individual differences in lose-lose slowing related to information uncertainty due to sampling, and independently, to less efficient response inhibition in the stop-signal task...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Marissa A Scavuzzo, Jessica Teaw, Diane Yang, Malgorzata Borowiak
The pancreas is a complex organ composed of many different cell types that work together to regulate blood glucose homeostasis and digestion. These cell types include enzyme-secreting acinar cells, an arborized ductal system responsible for the transportation of enzymes to the gut, and hormone-producing endocrine cells. Endocrine beta-cells are the sole cell type in the body that produce insulin to lower blood glucose levels. Diabetes, a disease characterized by a loss or the dysfunction of beta-cells, is reaching epidemic proportions...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Daud Tai Shan Chou, Ibraheim El-Daly, Arun Ranganathan, Alexander Montgomery, Paul Culpan, Peter Bates
INTRODUCTION: Spinopelvic dissociation is a rare injury resulting in discontinuity between the spine and pelvis. We review the English- language literature and discuss critical treatment controversies. We present a series of spinopelvic dissociation cases from a level I trauma center. METHODS: In this retrospective review of 18 consecutive cases treated surgically over a period of 4 years, we collected patient, injury, and surgical demographics and clinical and radiographic outcome measures...
June 14, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Yongbo Song, Ying Lv, Meng Zhou, Tian-Yi Luo, Shuo Zhao, Nathaniel L Rosi, Haizhu Yu, Manzhou Zhu, Rongchao Jin
An Au-Cu bimetallic nanocluster co-capped by selenolate and phosphine is obtained and its X-ray structure shows an icosahedral Au13 kernel surrounded by three CuSe2PPh2Py motifs and one CuSe3 motif, formulated as [Au13Cu4(PPh2Py)3(SePh)9]. Interestingly, a single-ligand exchange process is observed in the growth reaction, in which an [Au13Cu4(PPh2Py)4(SePh)8]+ intermediate is first formed, but a prolonged reaction leads to one PPh2Py ligand being selectively replaced by a PhSe-ligand. DFT simulations reveal that both steric hindrance and bond dissociation energy have great effects on the single-ligand exchange reaction as well as the thermodynamics, which help to understand the mechanism of the ligand exchange...
June 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Jie Yang, Mohammad Afsar Uddin, Yumin Tang, Yulun Wang, Yang Wang, Huimin Su, Rutian Gao, Zhi-Kuan Chen, Junfeng Dai, Han Young Woo, Xugang Guo
We present here a series of wide band gap (Eg: > 1.8 eV) polymer donors by incorporating thiophene-flanked phenylene as electron-donating unit and quinoxaline as electron-accepting co-unit to attain large open-circuit voltages (Vocs) and short-circuit currents (Jscs) in non-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs). Fluorination was utilized to fine-tailor the energetics of polymer frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) by replacing a variable number of H atoms on the phenylene moiety with F. It was found that fluorination can effectively modulate polymer backbone planarity through intramolecular noncovalent S…F and/or H…F interactions...
June 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Arnar Hafliðason, Pavle Glodic, Greta Koumarianou, Peter C Samartzis, Ágúst Kvaran
The multiphoton dynamics of CH3Br were probed by Mass Resolved MultiPhoton Ionization (MR-MPI), Slice Imaging and Photoelectron Imaging in the two-photon excitation region of 66 000 to 80 000 cm-1. Slice images of the CH3+ and Br+ photoproducts of ten two-photon resonant transitions to np and nd Rydberg states of the parent molecule were recorded. CH3+ ions dominate the mass spectra. Kinetic energy release spectra (KERs) were derived from slice and photoelectron images and anisotropy parameters were extracted from the angular distributions of the ions to identify the processes and the dynamics involved...
June 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xiaoping Ying, Jing Luo, Chi-Yue Chiu, Yanhong Wu, Yan Xu, Jin Fan
The insula is thought to be involved in disgust. However, the roles of the posterior insula (PI) and anterior insula (AI) in moral disgust have not been clearly dissociated in previous studies. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, the participants evaluated the degree of disgust using sentences related to mild moral violations with different types of behavioral agents (mother and stranger). The activation of the PI in response to the stranger agent was significantly higher than that in response to the mother agent...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yueyue Liu, Song Chang, Li Li, Wenjuan Liu, Donggui Chen, Jinqiao Zhang, Ruiming Wang
Switch costs are defined as the phenomenon that bilinguals have worse performance in switch trials relative to non-switch trials. Bilinguals' naming language and switch predictability have been found to influence the magnitude of switch costs. However, how these two factors modulate switch costs in different phases (i.e., lemma activation and language selection) during language production remains unclear. Most previous studies using the language switching paradigm did not dissociate lemma activation from language selection, because the language cue was either presented simultaneously with or prior to a stimulus...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mira P Patel, Vincent Siu, Abel Silva-Garcia, Qing Xu, Zhe Li, Donna Oksenberg
Introduction: Hemoglobin (Hb) is a critical molecule necessary for all vertebrates to maintain aerobic metabolism. Hb-oxygen (O2 ) affinity modifiers have been studied to address various diseases including sickle cell disease, hypoxemia, tumor hypoxia, and wound healing. However, drug development of exogenous Hb modifiers has been hindered by the lack of a technique to rapidly screen compounds for their ability to alter Hb-O2 affinity. We have developed a novel screening assay based upon the spectral changes observed during Hb deoxygenation and termed it the oxygen dissociation assay (ODA)...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Chin Theng Ng, Lai Yen Fong, Yoke Keong Yong, Muhammad Nazrul Hakim, Zuraini Ahmad
Endothelial barrier dysfunction leads to increased endothelial permeability and is an early step in the development of vascular inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), a proinflammatory cytokine, is known to cause increased endothelial permeability. However, the mechanisms by which IFN-γ disrupts the endothelial barrier have not been clarified. This study aimed to investigate how IFN-γ impairs the endothelial barrier integrity by specifically examining the roles of caldesmon, adherens junctions (AJs) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in IFN-γ-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction...
June 14, 2018: Cytokine
Benjamin Walter Jack Spencer, Tania Gergel, Matthew Hotopf, Gareth S Owen
BACKGROUND: Consent to research with decision-making capacity for research (DMC-R) is normally a requirement for study participation. Although the symptoms of schizophrenia and related psychoses are known to affect decision-making capacity for treatment (DMC-T), we know little about their effect on DMC-R.AimsWe aimed to determine if DMC-R differs from DMC-T in proportion and associated symptoms in an in-patient sample of people with schizophrenia and related psychoses. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of psychiatric in-patients admitted for assessment and/or treatment of schizophrenia and related psychoses...
June 18, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Zhehui Li, Thomas M Rayder, Lianshun Luo, Jeffery A Byers, Chia-Kuang Tsung
The aperture-opening process resulting from dissociative linker exchange in zirconium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66 was used to encapsulate the ruthenium complex (tBuPNP)Ru(CO)HCl in the framework (tBuPNP = 2,6-bis((di-tert-butyl-phosphino)methyl)pyridine). The resulting encapsulated complex, [Ru]@UiO-66, was a very active catalyst for the hydrogenation of CO2 to formate. Unlike the analogous homogeneous catalyst, [Ru]@UiO-66 could be recycled five times, showed no evidence for bimolecular catalyst decomposition, and was less prone to catalyst poisoning...
June 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Sung Hyun Hong, Bhumi Nath Tripathi, Moon-Soo Chung, Chuloh Cho, Sungbeom Lee, Jin-Hong Kim, Hyoung-Woo Bai, Hyeun-Jong Bae, Jae-Young Cho, Byung Yeoup Chung, Seung Sik Lee
Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a class I haem-containing peroxidase, which catalyses the conversion of H2 O2 to H2 O and O2 using ascorbate as the specific electron donor. APX plays a central role in the elimination of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protects plants from the oxidative damage that can occur as a result of biotic and abiotic stresses. At present, the only known function of APX is as a peroxidase. However, in this study, we demonstrate that Oryza sativa APX2 also operates as a molecular chaperone in rice...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gabrielle A Pollack, Jessica L Bezek, Serena H Lee, Miranda J Scarlata, Leah T Weingast, Hadley C Bergstrom
Fear memory is a highly stable and durable form of memory, even over vast (remote) time frames. Nevertheless, some elements of fear memory can be forgotten, resulting in generalization. The purpose of this study is to determine how cued fear memory generalizes over time and measure underlying patterns of cortico-amygdala synaptic plasticity. We established generalization gradients at recent (1-d) and remote (30-d) retention intervals following auditory cued fear conditioning in adult male C57BL/6 mice. Results revealed a flattening of the generalization gradient (increased generalization) that was dissociated from contextual fear generalization, indicating a specific influence of time on cued fear memory performance...
July 2018: Learning & Memory
Adiba Hassan, Jill S Blumenthal, Michael P Dube, Eric Ellorin, Katya Corado, David J Moore, Sheldon R Morris
OBJECTIVES: Rectal douching/enema (RD) is a common practice among men who have sex with men (MSM) in preparation for sex. RD can break down the rectal mucosal barrier and potentially affect the rectal microbiome. The objective of this study was to understand if RD is associated with acquiring rectal infections (RI) with rectal gonorrhoea (NG) and/or chlamydia (CT). METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, 395 adult HIV-uninfected MSM were enrolled in a randomised controlled study for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence with routine sexual risk survey and testing...
June 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Jeffrey M Arciola, Nicole A Horenstein
Biosynthesis of the azasugar 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) critically involves a transamination in the first committed step. Here we identify the azasugar biosynthetic cluster signature in Paenibacillus polymyxa SC2 ( Ppo ), homologous to that reported in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 ( Bam ) and report the characterization of the aminotransferase GabT1 (named from Bam ). GabT1 from Ppo exhibits a specific activity of 4.9 nmol/min/mg at 30 °C (pH 7.5), a somewhat promiscuous amino donor selectivity, and curvilinear steady-state kinetics that do not reflect the predicted ping pong behavior typical of aminotransferases...
June 15, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Yoko Katsuno, Jian Qin, Juan A Oses-Prieto, Hongjun Wang, Olan Jackson-Weaver, Tingwei Zhang, Samy Lamouille, Jian Wu, A L L Burlingame, Jian Xu, Rik Derynck
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) is crucial for tissue differentiation in development, and drives essential steps in cancer and fibrosis. EMT is accompanied by reprogramming of gene expression, and has been associated with the epithelial stem cell state in normal and carcinoma cells. The cytokine TGF-β drives this program in cooperation with other signaling pathways and through TGF-β-activated Smad3 as major effector. TGF-β-induced Smad3 activation is inhibited by Smad7 and to a lesser extent by Smad6, and Smad6 and Smad7 both inhibit Smad1 and Smad5 activation in response to the TGF-β-related bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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