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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821859/reduction-of-the-off-pathway-iron-sulphur-cluster-n1a-of-escherichia-coli-respiratory-complex-i-restrains-nad-dissociation
#1
Emmanuel Gnandt, Johannes Schimpf, Caroline Harter, Jo Hoeser, Thorsten Friedrich
Respiratory complex I couples the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of protons across the membrane. The reaction starts with NADH oxidation by a flavin cofactor followed by transferring the electrons through a chain of seven iron-sulphur clusters to quinone. An eighth cluster called N1a is located proximally to flavin, but on the opposite side of the chain of clusters. N1a is strictly conserved although not involved in the direct electron transfer to quinone. Here, we show that the NADH:ferricyanide oxidoreductase activity of E...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821829/neuromodulatory-circuit-effects-on-drosophila-feeding-behaviour-and-metabolism
#2
Anders Eriksson, Marlena Raczkowska, Rapeechai Navawongse, Deepak Choudhury, James C Stewart, Yi Ling Tang, Zhiping Wang, Adam Claridge-Chang
Animals have evolved to maintain homeostasis in a changing external environment by adapting their internal metabolism and feeding behaviour. Metabolism and behaviour are coordinated by neuromodulation; a number of the implicated neuromodulatory systems are homologous between mammals and the vinegar fly, an important neurogenetic model. We investigated whether silencing fly neuromodulatory networks would elicit coordinated changes in feeding, behavioural activity and metabolism. We employed transgenic lines that allowed us to inhibit broad cellular sets of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, octopaminergic, tyraminergic and neuropeptide F systems...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821793/molecular-mechanisms-of-atlastin-mediated-er-membrane-fusion-revealed-by-a-fret-based-single-vesicle-fusion-assay
#3
Kyung Tae Kim, Yeojin Moon, Yunsu Jang, Kang Taek Lee, Changwook Lee, Youngsoo Jun, Sanghwa Lee
Homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum membranes is driven by atlastin GTPases; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, using a FRET-based single-vesicle fusion assay with liposomes bearing the yeast atlastin Sey1p, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of atlastin-mediated membrane tethering and fusion. Although Sey1p-bearing proteoliposomes frequently underwent membrane tethering in a GTP hydrolysis-dependent manner as reported in studies using bulk assays, only a small fraction of the tethered liposomes proceeded to fusion...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821763/activation-of-an-anti-bacterial-toxin-by-the-biosynthetic-enzyme-cysk-mechanism-of-binding-interaction-specificity-and-competition-with-cysteine-synthase
#4
Roberto Benoni, Christina M Beck, Fernando Garza-Sánchez, Stefano Bettati, Andrea Mozzarelli, Christopher S Hayes, Barbara Campanini
Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a wide-spread mechanism of inter-bacterial competition. CDI(+) bacteria deliver CdiA-CT toxins into neighboring bacteria and produce specific immunity proteins that protect against self-intoxication. The CdiA-CT toxin from uropathogenic Escherichia coli 536 is a latent tRNase that is only active when bound to the cysteine biosynthetic enzyme CysK. Remarkably, the CysK:CdiA-CT binding interaction mimics the 'cysteine synthase' complex of CysK:CysE. The C-terminal tails of CysE and CdiA-CT each insert into the CysK active-site cleft to anchor the respective complexes...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821674/how-auditory-experience-differentially-influences-the-function-of-left-and-right-superior-temporal-cortices
#5
Tae Twomey, Dafydd Waters, Cathy J Price, Samuel Evans, Mairéad MacSweeney
To investigate how hearing status, sign language experience and task demands influence functional responses in the human superior temporal cortices (STC) we collected fMRI data from deaf and hearing participants (male and female), who either acquired sign language early or late in life. Our stimuli in all tasks were pictures of objects. We varied the linguistic and visuospatial processing demands in three different tasks that involved decisions about (1) the sublexical (phonological) structure of the British Sign Language (BSL) signs for the objects; (2) the semantic category of the objects; and (3) the physical features of the objects...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821656/dissociable-effects-on-birdsong-of-androgen-signaling-in-cortex-like-brain-regions-of-canaries
#6
Beau A Alward, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
The neural basis of how learned vocalizations change during development and in adulthood represents a major challenge facing cognitive neuroscience. This plasticity in the degree to which learned vocalizations can change in both humans and songbirds is linked to the actions of sex steroid hormones during ontogeny but also in adulthood in the context of seasonal changes in birdsong. We investigated the role of steroid hormone signaling in the brain on distinct features of birdsong using adult male canaries (Serinus canaria), which show extensive seasonal vocal plasticity as adults...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821653/human-occipital-and-parietal-gaba-selectively-influence-visual-perception-of-orientation-and-size
#7
Chen Song, Kristian Sandberg, Lau Møller Andersen, Jakob Udby Blicher, Geraint Rees
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. GABA level varies substantially across individuals and this variability is associated with inter-individual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition, or whether GABA level of different cortical regions selectively influences perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how GABA level in parietal and occipital cortices related to inter-individual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception, in a group of healthy young male participants...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821633/cell-autonomous-cytotoxicity-of-type-i-interferon-response-via-induction-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#8
Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Athanasios G Papavassiliou, Hippokratis Kiaris
The interaction of IFN with specific membrane receptors that transduce death-inducing signals is considered to be the principle mechanism of IFN-induced cytotoxicity. In this study, the classic non-cell-autonomous cytotoxicity of IFN was augmented by cell-autonomous mechanisms that operated independently of the interaction of IFN with its receptors. Cells primed to produce IFN by 5-azacytidine (5-aza) underwent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The chemical chaperones tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) and 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), as well as the iron chelator ciclopirox (CPX), which reduces ER stress, alleviated the cytotoxicity of 5-aza...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821617/janus-kinase-3-regulates-adherens-junction-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-beta-catenin
#9
Jayshree Mishra, Jugal Kishore Das, Narendra Kumar
Compromise in adherens junction (AJ) is associated with several chronic inflammatory diseases. Previously we reported that Janus kinase-3, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase plays a crucial role in AJ formation through its interaction with beta-catenin. In this report, we characterize the structural determinants responsible for Jak3 interactions with beta-catenin and determine the functional implications of previously unknown tyrosine residues on beta-catenin phosphorylated by Jak3. We demonstrate that Jak3 auto-phosphorylation was the rate- limiting step during Jak3 trans-phosphorylation of beta-catenin where Jak3 directly phosphorylated three tyrosine residues viz...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821604/development-of-a-multiplexed-assay-for-oral-cancer-candidate-biomarkers-using-peptide-immunoaffinity-enrichment-and-targeted-mass-spectrometry
#10
Yung-Chin Hsiao, Lang-Ming Chi, Kun-Yi Chien, Wei-Fan Chiang, Szu-Fan Chen, Yao-Ning Chuang, Shih-Yu Lin, Chia-Chun Wu, Ya-Ting Chang, Lichieh Julie Chu, Yi-Ting Chen, Shu-Li Chia, Chih-Yen Chien, Kai-Ping Chang, Yu-Sun Chang, Jau-Song Yu
Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and there are currently no biomarkers approved for aiding its management. Although many potential oral cancer biomarkers have been discovered, very few have been verified in body fluid specimens in parallel to evaluate their clinical utility. The lack of appropriate multiplexed assays for chosen targets represents one of the bottlenecks to achieving this goal. In the present study, we develop a peptide immunoaffinity enrichment-coupled multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SISCAPA-MRM) assay for verifying multiple reported oral cancer biomarkers in saliva...
August 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821464/multi-elemental-nanoparticle-exposure-after-tantalum-component-failure-in-hip-arthroplasty-in-depth-analysis-of-a-single-case
#11
Janosch Schoon, Sven Geißler, Juliane Traeger, Andreas Luch, Jutta Tentschert, Giorgio Perino, Frank Schulze, Georg N Duda, Carsten Perka, Anastasia Rakow
Porous tantalum components are widely used for complex acetabular reconstructions in revision hip arthroplasty. Multiple other metal alloys such as titanium-aluminum-vanadium or cobalt-chromium-molybdenum are principally used in artificial joint setups. We report a case of tantalum component failure being both cause and effect of a multiple metal exposure. Our aims were to assess and to characterize associated particle exposure and biological consequences. Metal level quantification revealed substantial in vivo exposure to particulate and dissociated tantalum, zirconium, chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, titanium, aluminum and vanadium in periprosthetic compartments...
August 16, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820586/dissociation-chemistry-of-3-oxetanone-in-the-gas-phase
#12
Sumitra Godara, Pooja Verma, Manikandan Paranjothy
3-Oxetanone is a strained cyclic molecule which plays an important role in synthetic chemistry. A few studies exist in the literature about the equilibrium properties of this molecule and the dissociation patterns of substituted 3-oxetanones. For the unsubstituted 3-oxetanone, formation of ketene (CH2CO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) was considered to be the major dissociation pathway. In a recent work, pyrolysis products of 3-oxetanone molecule in the gas phase were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and photoionization mass spectrometry...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820203/excess-charge-driven-dissociative-hydrogen-adsorption-on-ti2o4
#13
Xiaowei Song, Matias R Fagiani, Sreekanta Debnath, Min Gao, Satoshi Maeda, Tetsuya Taketsugu, Sandy Gewinner, Wieland Schöllkopf, Knut R Asmis, Andrey Lyalin
The mechanism of dissociative D2 adsorption on Ti2O4(-), which serves as a model for an oxygen vacancy on a titania surface, is studied using infrared photodissociation spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations and a recently developed single-component artificial force induced reaction method. Ti2O4(-) readily reacts with D2 under multiple collision conditions in a gas-filled ion trap held at 16 K forming a global minimum-energy structure (DO-Ti-(O)2-Ti(D)-O)(-). The highly exergonic reaction proceeds quasi barrier-free via several intermediate species, involving heterolytic D2-bond cleavage followed by D-atom migration...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820193/a-modeling-study-of-methane-hydrate-decomposition-in-contact-with-the-external-surface-of-zeolites
#14
Konstantin S Smirnov
The behavior of methane hydrate (MH) enclosed between the (010) surfaces of the silicalite-1 zeolite was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations at temperatures of 150 and 250 K. Calculations reveal that the interaction with the hydrophilic surface OH groups destabilizes the clathrate structure of hydrate. While MH mostly conserves the structure in the simulation at the low temperature, thermal motion at the high temperature breaks the fragilized cages of H-bonded water molecules, thus leading to the release of methane...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819656/simulating-the-reactions-of-substituted-pyridinio-n-phosphonates-with-pyridine-as-a-model-for-biological-phosphoryl-transfer
#15
Anna Pabis, Nicholas H Williams, Shina C L Kamerlin
Phosphoryl transfer reactions can proceed through several plausible mechanisms, and the potential for both solvent and substrate-assisted pathways (involving proton transfer to the phosphoryl oxygens) complicates both experimental and computational interpretations. To avoid this problem, we have used electronic structure calculations to probe the mechanisms of the reactions of pyridinio-N-phosphonates with pyridine. These compounds avoid the additional complexity introduced by proton transfer between the nucleophile and the leaving group, while also serving as a valuable model for biological P-N cleavage...
August 18, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819550/effects-of-storage-temperature-on-airway-exosome-integrity-for-diagnostic-and-functional-analyses
#16
Rosario Maroto, Yingxin Zhao, Mohammad Jamaluddin, Vsevolod L Popov, Hongwang Wang, Madumali Kalubowilage, Yueqing Zhang, Jonathan Luisi, Hong Sun, Christopher T Culbertson, Stefan H Bossmann, Massoud Motamedi, Allan R Brasier
Background: Extracellular vesicles contain biological molecules specified by cell-type of origin and modified by microenvironmental changes. To conduct reproducible studies on exosome content and function, storage conditions need to have minimal impact on airway exosome integrity. Aim: We compared surface properties and protein content of airway exosomes that had been freshly isolated vs. those that had been treated with cold storage or freezing. Methods: Mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) exosomes purified by differential ultracentrifugation were analysed immediately or stored at +4°C or -80°C...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819249/carbon-nanotube-co3o4-nanocomposites-selectively-coated-by-polyaniline-for-high-performance-air-electrodes
#17
Jin Young Kim, Yong Joon Park
We herein report the preparation of carbon nanotube (CNT)/Co3O4 nanocomposites selectively coated with polyaniline (PANI) via an electropolymerization method, for use as an effective electrode material for Li-air (Li-O2) batteries. The Co3O4 catalyst attached to the CNTs facilitated the dissociation of reaction products and reduced the overpotential of the cells. As the carbon surface activates the side reactions, the PANI coating on the carbon surface of the electrode suppressed the side reaction at the electrode/Li2O2 and electrode/electrolyte interfaces, thus enhancing the cycle performance of the electrode...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819198/regulation-of-ccr7-dependent-cell-migration-through%C3%A2-ccr7-homodimer-formation
#18
Daichi Kobayashi, Masataka Endo, Hirotaka Ochi, Hironobu Hojo, Masayuki Miyasaka, Haruko Hayasaka
The chemokine receptor CCR7 contributes to various physiological and pathological processes including T cell maturation, T cell migration from the blood into secondary lymphoid tissues, and tumor cell metastasis to lymph nodes. Although a previous study suggested that the efficacy of CCR7 ligand-dependent T cell migration correlates with CCR7 homo- and heterodimer formation, the exact extent of contribution of the CCR7 dimerization remains unclear. Here, by inducing or disrupting CCR7 dimers, we demonstrated a direct contribution of CCR7 homodimerization to CCR7-dependent cell migration and signaling...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819159/identification-of-boric-acid-as-a-novel-chemoattractant-and-elucidation-of-its-chemoreceptor-in-ralstonia-pseudosolanacearum-ps29
#19
Akiko Hida, Shota Oku, Yutaka Nakashimada, Takahisa Tajima, Junichi Kato
Chemotaxis enables bacteria to move toward more favorable environmental conditions. We observed chemotaxis toward boric acid by Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum Ps29. At higher concentrations, the chemotactic response of R. pseudosolanacearum toward boric acid was comparable to or higher than that toward L-malate, indicating that boric acid is a strong attractant for R. pseudosolanacearum. Chemotaxis assays under different pH conditions suggested that R. pseudosolanacearum recognizes B(OH)3 (or B(OH3) + B(OH)4(-)) but not B(OH)4(-) alone...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818797/h2o2-induced-cost-effective-microwave-disintegration-of-dairy-waste-activated-sludge-in-acidic-environment-for-efficient-biomethane-generation
#20
A Parvathy Eswari, S Kavitha, J Rajesh Banu, O Parthiba Karthikeyan, Ick-Tae Yeom
This study aimed to improve the biomethane potential of dairy waste activated sludge (WAS) by H2O2-acidic pH induced microwave disintegration (HAMW-D) pretreatment approach. The results of HAMW-D compared with the microwave disintegration (MW-D) alone for energy and economic factors. In the two phase disintegration process, the H2O2 concentration of about 0.5mg/g SS under acid pH of 5 was found to be optimum for effective dissociation of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) matrix. A higher liquefaction of about 46...
August 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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