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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771934/multilevel-analysis-of-dendroclimatic-series-with-the-r-package-biodry
#1
Wilson Lara, Stella Bogino, Felipe Bravo
The R-package BIOdry allows to model and compare fluctuations of Tree-ring Width (TRW) and climate, or dendroclimatic fluctuations, while accounting for source variability. The package eases multilevel modeling and multivariate comparison in dendroclimatic analysis using the nlme and ecodist packages, respectively. For implementing such libraries, the in-package algorithms transform the dendroclimatic fluctuations into Multilevel Dendroclimatic Data Series and maintain categorical variables and time units in the outputs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761906/the-pharmacokinetics-of-cytarabine-administered-subcutaneously-combined-with-prednisone-in-dogs-with-meningoencephalomyelitis-of-unknown-etiology
#2
B Pastina, P J Early, R L Bergman, J Nettifee, A Maller, K Y Bray, R J Waldron, A M Castel, K R Munana, M G Papich, K M Messenger
The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cytarabine (CA) after subcutaneous (SC) administration to dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology (MUE). Twelve dogs received a single SC dose of CA at 50 mg/m2 as part of treatment of MUE. A sparse sampling technique was used to collect four blood samples from each dog from 0 to 360 min after administration. All dogs were concurrently receiving prednisone (0.5-2 mg kg-1 day-1 ). Plasma CA concentrations were measured by HPLC, and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NLME)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691287/systematic-modelling-and-design-evaluation-of-unperturbed-tumour-dynamics-in-xenografts
#3
Zinnia P Patricia Parra Guillen, Victor Mangas Sanjuan, Maria Garcia-Cremades, Inaki F Troconiz, Gary Mo, Celine Pitou, Philip W Iversen, Johan E Wallin
Xenograft mice are largely used to evaluate the efficacy of oncological drugs during preclinical phases of drug discovery and development. Mathematical models provide a useful tool to quantitatively characterise tumour growth dynamics and also optimise upcoming experiments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report where unperturbed growth of a large set of tumour cell lines (n=28) has been systematically analysed using the model proposed by Simeoni in the context of non-linear mixed effect (NLME)...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679474/population-pharmacokinetics-of-gliclazide-in-normal-and-diabetic-rabbits
#4
Mastan Shaik, Shabana Shaik, Eswar Kumar Kilari
Gliclazide is a second-generation sulphonylurea drug widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no single report to describe the population pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in animal models. This study was aimed to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of gliclazide in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. A total of 90 New Zealand white rabbits were administered with three doses (4.13, 8.27 and 16.53 mg/kg b.wt) of gliclazide by an oral route...
May 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665289/a-whole-body-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-colistin-and-colistin-methanesulfonate-in-rat
#5
Salim Bouchene, Sandrine Marchand, William Couet, Lena E Friberg, Patrice Gobin, Isabelle Lamarche, Nicolas Grégoire, Sven Björkman, Mats O Karlsson
Colistin is a polymyxin antibiotic used to treat patients infected with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB). The objective of this work was to develop a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) model to predict tissue distribution of colistin in rat. The distribution of a drug in a tissue is commonly characterized by its tissue-to-plasma partition coefficient, Kp . Colistin and its prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) Kp priors, were measured experimentally from rat tissue homogenates or predicted in silico...
April 17, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607533/population-pharmacokinetics-of-voriconazole-and-cyp2c19-polymorphisms-for-optimizing-dosing-regimens-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#6
Xiao-Bin Lin, Zi-Wei Li, Miao Yan, Bi-Kui Zhang, Wu Liang, Feng Wang, Ping Xu, Da-Xiong Xiang, Xu-Biao Xie, Shao-Jie Yu, Gong-Bin Lan, Feng-Hua Peng
AIMS: The aims of the present study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in renal transplant recipients and to identify factors significantly affecting pharmacokinetic parameters. We also aimed to explore the optimal dosing regimens for patients who developed invasive fungal infections. METHODS: A total of 105 patients (342 concentrations) were included prospectively in a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Nonlinear mixed-effects models were developed using Phoenix NLME software...
April 1, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517112/population-pharmacokinetics-of-ceftazidime-after-a-single-intramuscular-injection-in-wild-turtles
#7
A J Cerreta, G A Lewbart, D R Dise, M G Papich
Ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin, is important for treating opportunistic bacterial infections in turtles. Antibacterial dosage regimens are not well established for wild turtles and are often extrapolated from other reptiles or mammals. This investigation used a population pharmacokinetic approach to study ceftazidime in wild turtles presented for rehabilitation. Ceftazidime was administered to 24 wild turtles presented to the Turtle Rescue Team at North Carolina State University. A sparse blood sampling protocol was used to collect samples from 0 to 120 hr with three samples per individual after injection...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435161/nonlinear-mixed-effects-dose-response-modeling-in-high-throughput-drug-screens-application-to-melanoma-cell-line-analysis
#8
Kuan-Fu Ding, Emanuel F Petricoin, Darren Finlay, Hongwei Yin, William P D Hendricks, Chris Sereduk, Jeffrey Kiefer, Aleksandar Sekulic, Patricia M LoRusso, Kristiina Vuori, Jeffrey M Trent, Nicholas J Schork
Cancer cell lines are often used in high throughput drug screens (HTS) to explore the relationship between cell line characteristics and responsiveness to different therapies. Many current analysis methods infer relationships by focusing on one aspect of cell line drug-specific dose-response curves (DRCs), the concentration causing 50% inhibition of a phenotypic endpoint (IC50 ). Such methods may overlook DRC features and do not simultaneously leverage information about drug response patterns across cell lines, potentially increasing false positive and negative rates in drug response associations...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368268/a-distributed-delay-approach-for-modeling-delayed-outcomes-in-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-studies
#9
Shuhua Hu, Michael Dunlavey, Serge Guzy, Nathan Teuscher
A distributed delay approach was proposed in this paper to model delayed outcomes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies. This approach was shown to be general enough to incorporate a wide array of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models as special cases including transit compartment models, effect compartment models, typical absorption models (either zero-order or first-order absorption), and a number of atypical (or irregular) absorption models (e.g., parallel first-order, mixed first-order and zero-order, inverse Gaussian, and Weibull absorption models)...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285245/a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-for-individualised-dosage-regimens-of-vancomycin-in-chinese-neonates-and-young-infants
#10
Lin Song, Cui-Yao He, Nan-Ge Yin, Fang Liu, Yun-Tao Jia, Yao Liu
Population pharmacokinetic (PPK) modelling is an easy and impartment method for estimating drug concentration for use inindividualized therapy, especially for young patients and to help protect drug-induced diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop a PPK model for effective dosing of vancomycin in Chinese neonates and young infants. The PPK modelling tool Phoenix® NLME™ was use to assess demographic and routine clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data retrospectively collected for patients admitted to Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between 2011 and 2016...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226975/mathematical-modeling-and-simulation-in-animal-health-part-iii-using-nonlinear-mixed-effects-to-characterize-and-quantify-variability-in-drug-pharmacokinetics
#11
REVIEW
C Bon, P L Toutain, D Concordet, R Gehring, T Martin-Jimenez, J Smith, L Pelligand, M Martinez, T Whittem, J E Riviere, J P Mochel
A common feature of human and veterinary pharmacokinetics is the importance of identifying and quantifying the key determinants of between-patient variability in drug disposition and effects. Some of these attributes are already well known to the field of human pharmacology such as bodyweight, age, or sex, while others are more specific to veterinary medicine, such as species, breed, and social behavior. Identification of these attributes has the potential to allow a better and more tailored use of therapeutic drugs both in companion and food-producing animals...
April 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119381/comparison-of-tenofovir-plasma-and-tissue-exposure-using-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-and-bootstrap-a-simulation-study-from-observed-data
#12
Jon W Collins, J Heyward Hull, Julie B Dumond
Sparse tissue sampling with intensive plasma sampling creates a unique data analysis problem in determining drug exposure in clinically relevant tissues. Tissue exposure may govern drug efficacy, as many drugs exert their actions in tissues. We compared tissue area-under-the-curve (AUC) generated from bootstrapped noncompartmental analysis (NCA) methods and compartmental nonlinear mixed effect (NLME) modeling. A model of observed data after single-dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was used to simulate plasma and tissue concentrations for two destructive tissue sampling schemes...
December 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112289/pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-lithium-chloride-and-assessment-of-agreement-between-two-methods-of-lithium-concentration-measurement-in-the-horse
#13
L M Martin, A D Bukoski, D D Whelchel, T J Evans, C E Wiedmeyer, S J Black, P J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetics of lithium chloride (LiCl) administered as a bolus, once i.v. have not been determined in horses. There is no point-of-care test to measure lithium (Li+ ) concentrations in horses in order to monitor therapeutic levels and avoid toxicity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the pharmacokinetics of LiCl in healthy adult horses and to compare agreement between two methods of plasma Li+ concentration measurement: spectrophotometric enzymatic assay (SEA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
November 7, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080062/joint-model-based-clustering-of-nonlinear-longitudinal-trajectories-and-associated-time-to-event-data-analysis-linked-by-latent-class-membership-with-application-to-aids-clinical-studies
#14
Yangxin Huang, Xiaosun Lu, Jiaqing Chen, Juan Liang, Miriam Zangmeister
Longitudinal and time-to-event data are often observed together. Finite mixture models are currently used to analyze nonlinear heterogeneous longitudinal data, which, by releasing the homogeneity restriction of nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) models, can cluster individuals into one of the pre-specified classes with class membership probabilities. This clustering may have clinical significance, and be associated with clinically important time-to-event data. This article develops a joint modeling approach to a finite mixture of NLME models for longitudinal data and proportional hazard Cox model for time-to-event data, linked by individual latent class indicators, under a Bayesian framework...
October 27, 2017: Lifetime Data Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947805/comparative-population-pharmacokinetics-and-absolute-oral-bioavailability-of-cox-2-selective-inhibitors-celecoxib-mavacoxib-and-meloxicam-in-cockatiels-nymphicus-hollandicus
#15
Laura Dhondt, Mathias Devreese, Siska Croubels, Siegrid De Baere, Roel Haesendonck, Tess Goessens, Ronette Gehring, Patrick De Backer, Gunther Antonissen
Selective COX-2 inhibitors are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which directly target cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme mainly responsible for induction of inflammation, pyresis and pain. Although commonly used in avian medicine, limited pharmacokinetic (PK) data in domestic and companion birds are available. In this study, PK parameters and absolute oral bioavailability expressed as percentage (F%) of celecoxib (10 mg/kg BW), mavacoxib (4 mg/kg BW) and meloxicam (1 mg/kg BW) were determined following single oral (PO) and intravenous (IV) administration to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus)...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937535/validation-of-a-commercial-assay-and-decision-support-tool-for-routine-paclitaxel-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-tdm
#16
Markus Joerger, Stefanie Kraff, Ulrich Jaehde, Ralf A Hilger, Jodi B Courtney, Daniel J Cline, Sonali Jog, Irina Baburina, M Craig Miller, Salvatore J Salamone
BACKGROUND: The value of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for paclitaxel (PTX) was recently demonstrated in the largest TDM trial ever conducted in oncology. The trial demonstrated significant reduction in neuropathy when using TDM. Dose adjustment for PTX was based on time above a threshold concentration (Tc>0.05). Tc>0.05 must be calculated with a pharmacokinetic model and complex nonlinear mixed-effects software. The use of the software and chromatographic methods to measure PTX requires specialized expertise...
December 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676080/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-oral-mitiglinide-on-glucose-lowering-in-healthy-chinese-volunteers
#17
Shijia Liu, Peidong Chen, Yang Zhao, Guoliang Dai, Bingting Sun, Yao Wang, Anwei Ding, Wenzheng Ju
BACKGROUND: Mitiglinide is a widely used agent for diabetic treatment. We established a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model to illustrate the relationship between mitiglinide plasma concentration and its glucose lowering effects in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The volunteers participated in the test after the administration of a single dose of 10 mg mitiglinide. The drug concentration in Plasma and the values of glucose levels were determined by LC-MS/MS assay and hexokinase method...
July 4, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341596/application-of-an-nlme-stochastic-deconvolution-approach-to-level-a-ivivc-modeling
#18
Maziar Kakhi, Sandra Suarez-Sharp, Terry Shepard, Jason Chittenden
Stochastic deconvolution is a parameter estimation method that calculates drug absorption using a nonlinear mixed-effects model in which the random effects associated with absorption represent a Wiener process. The present work compares (1) stochastic deconvolution and (2) numerical deconvolution, using clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data generated for an in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) study of extended release (ER) formulations of a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class III drug substance. The preliminary analysis found that numerical and stochastic deconvolution yielded superimposable fraction absorbed (Fabs ) versus time profiles when supplied with exactly the same externally determined unit impulse response parameters...
July 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340405/population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-furosemide-in-patients-with-hypertension-and-fluid-overload-conditions
#19
Devender Kodati, Narsimhareddy Yellu
BACKGROUND: Furosemide is a loop diuretic drug frequently indicated in hypertension and fluid overload conditions such as congestive heart failure and hepatic cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to establish a population pharmacokinetic model for furosemide in Indian hypertensive and fluid overload patients, and to evaluate effects of covariates on the volume of distribution (V/F) and oral clearance (CL/F) of furosemide. METHODS: A total of 188 furosemide plasma sample concentrations from 63 patients with hypertension or fluid overload conditions were collected in this study...
June 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283988/nicotine-population-pharmacokinetics-in-healthy-adult-smokers-a-retrospective-analysis
#20
Mathilde Marchand, Patrick Brossard, Henri Merdjan, Nicola Lama, Rolf Weitkunat, Frank Lüdicke
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Characterizing nicotine pharmacokinetics is challenging in the presence of background exposure. We performed a combined retrospective population pharmacokinetic analysis of 8 trials, including exposure to Tobacco Heating System and cigarettes (both inhaled), nicotine nasal spray and oral nicotine gum. METHOD: Data from 4 single product use trials were used to develop a population pharmacokinetic model with Phoenix(®) NLME™ and to derive exposure parameters...
December 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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