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Martin Gibala

Martin J MacInnis, Chris McGlory, Martin J Gibala, Stuart M Phillips
Direct sampling of human skeletal muscle using the needle biopsy technique can facilitate insight into the biochemical and histological responses resulting from changes in exercise or feeding. However, the muscle biopsy procedure is invasive, and analyses are often expensive, which places pragmatic restraints on sample sizes. The unilateral exercise model can serve to increase statistical power and reduce the time and cost of a study. With this approach, 2 limbs of a participant are randomized to 1 of 2 treatments that can be applied almost concurrently or sequentially depending on the nature of the intervention...
January 24, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Lauren E Skelly, Jenna B Gillen, Martin J MacInnis, Brian J Martin, Adeel Safdar, Mahmood Akhtar, Maureen J MacDonald, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Martin J Gibala
What is the central question of this study? Are there sex-based differences in the acute skeletal muscle response to sprint interval training (SIT)? What is the main finding and its importance? In response to a SIT protocol that involved three 20 s bouts of 'all-out' cycling, the expression of multiple genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolic control and structural remodelling was largely similar between men and women matched for fitness. Our findings cannot explain previous reports of sex-based differences in the adaptive response to SIT and suggest that the mechanistic basis for these differences remains to be elucidated...
January 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Mary K Allison, Jessica H Baglole, Brian J Martin, Martin J Macinnis, Brendon J Gurd, Martin J Gibala
PURPOSE: Sprint interval training (SIT) is a time-efficient strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF); however, most protocols have been studied in laboratory settings and require specialized equipment. We investigated the efficacy of brief intense stair climbing as a practical model of SIT to improve CRF. METHODS: Two separate studies, each consisting of an acute and chronic phase, were conducted in a total of 31 sedentary women (age = 24 ± 10 yr, body mass index = 23 ± 4 kg·m)...
February 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Martin J Gibala
Bengt Saltin believed that exercise was the unsurpassed tool to study human integrative physiology. He demonstrated this over the course of his career by employing physical training as a model to advance our understanding of skeletal muscle metabolic control and the impact of physical activity on performance and health. Bengt was also a pioneer in advocating the concept of exercise is medicine. His scientific curiosity was perhaps exceeded only by his generosity.
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Brian J Martin, Chris McGlory, Martin J MacInnis, Mary K Allison, Stuart M Phillips, Martin J Gibala
We reported that supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) lowered the glycemic response to an oral glucose load following exercise, but via an unknown mechanism (Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Gillen JB, Skelly LE, Gibala MJ. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 41: 1057-1063, 2016. Here we examined the effect of supplementation with GTE on plasma glucose kinetics on ingestion of a glucose beverage during exercise recovery. Eleven healthy, sedentary men (21 ± 2 yr old; body mass index = 23 ± 4 kg/m(2), peak O2 uptake = 38 ± 7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); means ± SD) ingested GTE (350 mg) or placebo (PLA) thrice daily for 7 days in a double-blind, crossover design...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Martin J MacInnis, Martin J Gibala
Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ) and mitochondrial content...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Jenna B Gillen, Jorn Trommelen, Floris C Wardenaar, Naomi Y J Brinkmans, Joline J Versteegen, Kristin L Jonvik, Christoph Kapp, Jeanne de Vries, Joost J G C van den Borne, Martin J Gibala, Luc J C van Loon
Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various proteincontaining food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes...
April 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Brian J Martin, Martin J MacInnis, Jenna B Gillen, Lauren E Skelly, Martin J Gibala
Green tea extract (GTE) ingestion improves glucose homeostasis in healthy and diabetic humans, but the interactive effect of GTE and exercise is unknown. The present study examined the effect of short-term GTE supplementation on the glycemic response to an oral glucose load at rest and following an acute bout of exercise, as well as substrate oxidation during exercise. Eleven sedentary, overweight men with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥5.6 mmol·L(-1) (age, 34 ± 13 years; body mass index = 32 ± 5 kg·m(-2); FPG = 6...
June 15, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Martin J MacInnis, Evelyn Zacharewicz, Brian J Martin, Maria E Haikalis, Lauren E Skelly, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Robyn M Murphy, Martin J Gibala
KEY POINTS: A classic unresolved issue in human integrative physiology involves the role of exercise intensity, duration and volume in regulating skeletal muscle adaptations to training. We employed counterweighted single-leg cycling as a unique within-subject model to investigate the role of exercise intensity in promoting training-induced increases in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content. Six sessions of high-intensity interval training performed over 2 weeks elicited greater increases in citrate synthase maximal activity and mitochondrial respiration compared to moderate-intensity continuous training matched for total work and session duration...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Martin J MacInnis, Maria E Haikalis, Brian J Martin, Lauren E Skelly, Jenna B Gillen, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Martin J Gibala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Mary K Allison, Brian J Martin, Martin J MacInnis, Brendon Gurd, Martin J Gibala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jenna B Gillen, Brian J Martin, Martin J MacInnis, Lauren E Skelly, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Martin J Gibala
AIMS: We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT) was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session. METHODS: Sedentary men (27±8y; BMI = 26±6kg/m2) performed three weekly sessions of SIT (n = 9) or MICT (n = 10) for 12 weeks or served as non-training controls (n = 6)...
2016: PloS One
Martin J Gibala, Patrick J Gagnon, Bradley C Nindl
Militaries from around the globe have predominantly used endurance training as their primary mode of aerobic physical conditioning, with historical emphasis placed on the long distance run. In contrast to this traditional exercise approach to training, interval training is characterized by brief, intermittent bouts of intense exercise, separated by periods of lower intensity exercise or rest for recovery. Although hardly a novel concept, research over the past decade has shed new light on the potency of interval training to elicit physiological adaptations in a time-efficient manner...
November 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Michael E Percival, Brian J Martin, Jenna B Gillen, Lauren E Skelly, Martin J MacInnis, Alex E Green, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Martin J Gibala
We tested the hypothesis that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) prior to an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would augment signaling cascades and gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. On two occasions separated by ∼1 wk, nine men (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 yr, weight 78 ± 13 kg, V̇O(2 peak) 48 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 10 × 60-s cycling efforts at an intensity eliciting ∼90% of maximal heart rate (263 ± 40 W), interspersed with 60 s of recovery...
December 1, 2015: Journal of Applied Physiology
Sophie Joanisse, Bryon R McKay, Joshua P Nederveen, Trisha D Scribbans, Brendon J Gurd, Jenna B Gillen, Martin J Gibala, Mark Tarnopolsky, Gianni Parise
The purpose of the present studies was to determine the effect of various nonhypertrophic exercise stimuli on satellite cell (SC) pool activity in human skeletal muscle. Previously untrained men and women (men: 29 ± 9 yr and women: 29 ± 2 yr, n = 7 each) completed 6 wk of very low-volume high-intensity sprint interval training. In a separate study, recreationally active men (n = 16) and women (n = 3) completed 6 wk of either traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (n = 9, 21 ± 4 yr) or low-volume sprint interval training (n = 10, 21 ± 2 yr)...
November 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Jorn Trommelen, Milou Beelen, Marjan Mullers, Martin J Gibala, Luc J C van Loon, Naomi M Cermak
Carbohydrate mouth rinsing during exercise has been suggested to enhance performance of short (45-60 min) bouts of high-intensity (>75% VO2peak) exercise. Recent studies indicate that this performance enhancing effect may be dependent on the prandial state of the athlete. The purpose of this study was to define the impact of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on ~1-hr time trial performance in both the fasted and fed states. Using a double-blind, crossover design, 14 trained male cyclists (27 ± 6 years; 5.0 ± 0...
December 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Naomi M Cermak, Dominique Hansen, Imre W K Kouw, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Jamie R Blackwell, Andrew M Jones, Martin J Gibala, Luc J C van Loon
Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been proposed as an emerging treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that ingestion of a single bolus of dietary NO3(-) ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin, 7.3% ± 0.2%) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. The subjects ingested a glucose beverage 2.5 hours after consumption of either sodium NO3(-) (0.15 mmol NaNO3(-) · kg(-1)) or a placebo solution...
August 2015: Nutrition Research
Andrew J R Cochran, Michael E Percival, Sara Thompson, Jenna B Gillen, Martin J MacInnis, Murray A Potter, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Martin J Gibala
Sprint interval training (SIT), repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise, improves skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and exercise performance. β-alanine (β-ALA) supplementation has been shown to enhance exercise performance, which led us to hypothesize that chronic β-ALA supplementation would augment work capacity during SIT and augment training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle and performance. Twenty-four active but untrained men (23 ± 2 yr; VO2peak = 50 ± 6 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) ingested 3...
December 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Andrew J Cochran, Frank Myslik, Martin J MacInnis, Michael E Percival, David Bishop, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Martin J Gibala
Commencing some training sessions with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability has been shown to enhance skeletal muscle adaptations, but the effect on exercise performance is less clear. We examined whether restricting CHO intake between twice daily sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) augments improvements in exercise performance and mitochondrial content. Eighteen active but not highly trained subjects (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] = 44 ± 9 ml/kg/min), matched for age, sex, and fitness, were randomly allocated to two groups...
October 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Naomi L Kuehnbaum, Jenna B Gillen, Aleshia Kormendi, Karen P Lam, Alicia DiBattista, Martin J Gibala, Philip Britz-McKibbin
High efficiency separations are needed to enhance selectivity, mass spectral quality, and quantitative performance in metabolomic studies. However, low sample throughput and complicated data preprocessing remain major bottlenecks to biomarker discovery. We introduce an accelerated data workflow to identify plasma metabolite signatures of exercise responsiveness when using multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MSI-CE-MS). This multiplexed separation platform takes advantage of customizable serial injections to enhance sample throughput and data fidelity based on temporally resolved ion signals derived from seven different sample segments analyzed within a single run...
January 28, 2015: Electrophoresis
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