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Protein denaturation

Qi Deng, Yaling Wang, Lijun Sun, Jianrong Li, Zhijia Fang, Ravi Gooneratne
Water and protein are major constituents of shrimp, any changes in protein and the state of water influence the quality of shrimp. Therefore, a study to examine the law of moisture migration and protein denaturation under different freezing and thawing conditions is important. The proton density images of thawed frozen-shrimp revealed that the water loss during quick-freezing was much greater than that during slow freezing or microfreezing. At room temperature (25 °C), the water loss from brine-thawing was more than still-water thawing and still-water thawing was more than thawing spontaneously...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Mrinmoy Mukherjee, Jagannath Mondal
Osmolytes' mechanism of protecting proteins against denaturation is a longstanding puzzle, further complicated by the complex diversities inherent in protein sequences. An emergent approach in understanding osmolytes' mechanism of action towards biopolymer has been to investigate osmolytes' interplay with hydrophobic interaction, the major driving force of protein folding. However, the crucial question is whether all these protein-stabilizing osmolytes display a single unified mechanism towards hydrophobic interactions...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Rui Gui, Hong-Yan Shi, Wei Liu, Li Feng, Ke-Li Yang, Rui Guo, Wan Liang, Fang-Yan Yuan, Zheng-Ying Duan, Ze-Wen Liu, Khalid Mehmood, Riaz Hussain, Dan-Na Zhou, Yong-Xiang Tian
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea and dehydration in new-born piglets with subsequent economic losses to swine industry. In the current study, gene encoding of 381aa-792aa spike protein (S1) with the main epitope relative to virus neutralization of PEDV was amplified by RT-PCR and inserted into vector pET-30A(+). The plasmid was transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Meanwhile, recombinant protein expression was induced by isopropy1-β-galactopyranoside (IPTG). After denaturation and renaturation of inclusion bodies, the S1 protein was obtained by using purified recombinant S1 protein in immunized female BALB/c mice...
June 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Christopher Weiyang Liu, David Flamer
The perineural administration of alcohol or phenol results in protein denaturation and, consequently, neurolysis. This can produce long-lasting analgesia, with a duration of 3-6 months. Although neurolytic blocks for the brachial plexus have been described in multiple review articles and textbooks, they are rarely performed. As such, little is known about the efficacy and adverse effect profile of this commonly described treatment. In this article, we report the outcomes of a patient who underwent a left brachial plexus neurolytic block for the management of upper limb pain arising from a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor...
June 11, 2018: A&A practice
Rakesh R Chavan, Kallappa M Hosamani
An efficient, high-yield and rapid synthesis of (E)-1,5-dimethyl-4-((2-((substituted-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)methoxy)naphthalen-1-yl)methyleneamino)-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydropyrazol-3-one derivatives (3a-3i) containing Schiff base structures under microwave-irradiation has been described. Schiff base is a potential target to discover anti-inflammatory chemotherapeutics, material science, catalysis and molecular magnetism. All the newly synthesized compounds (3a-3i) have been characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Alexander Schwenger, Tomasz P Jurkowski, Clemens Richert
The encapsulation of folded proteins in stabilizing matrices is one of the challenges of soft-matter materials science. Capturing such fragile bio-macromolecules from aqueous solution, and embedding them in a lattice that stabilizes them against denaturation and decomposition is difficult. Here, we report that tetrahedral oligonucleotide hybrids as branching elements, and connecting DNA duplexes with sticky ends can assemble into materials. The material-forming property was used to capture DNA-binding proteins selectively from aqueous protein mixtures...
June 10, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Jose K James, Douglas H Pike, I John Khan, Vikas Nanda
To what extent do structural and biophysical features of food allergen proteins distinguish them from other proteins in our diet? Invertebrate tropomyosins (Tpms) as a class are considered "pan-allergens," inducing food allergy to shellfish and respiratory allergy to dust mites. Vertebrate Tpms are not known to elicit allergy or cross-reactivity, despite their high structural similarity and sequence identity to invertebrate homologs. We expect allergens are sufficiently stable against gastrointestinal proteases to survive for immune sensitization in the intestines, and that proteolytic stability will correlate with thermodynamic stability...
May 22, 2018: Structure
Abigail B Diack, Jason C Bartz
Prion strains occur in natural prion diseases, including prion diseases of humans. Prion strains can correspond with differences in the clinical signs and symptoms of disease and the distribution of prion infectivity in the host and are hypothesized to be encoded by strain-specific differences in the conformation of the disease-specific isoform of the host-encoded prion protein, PrPTSE . Prion strains can differ in biochemical properties of PrPTSE that can include the relative sensitivity to digestion with proteinase K and conformational stability in denaturants...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
D Eckhardt, X Li-Blatter, H-J Schönfeld, H Heerklotz, J Seelig
Apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-1) plays an important role in lipid transfer and obesity. Chemical unfolding of α-helical Apo A-1 is induced with guanidineHCl and monitored with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and CD spectroscopy. The unfolding enthalpy and the midpoint temperature of unfolding decrease linearly with increasing guanidineHCl concentration, caused by the weak binding of denaturant. At room temperature, binding of 50-60 molecules guanidineHCl leads to a complete Apo A-1 unfolding. The entropy of unfolding decreases to a lesser extent than the unfolding enthalpy...
May 25, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
Sreetama Pal, Ramdas Aute, Parijat Sarkar, Shroddha Bose, Mandar V Deshmukh, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are major signaling proteins in eukaryotic cells and are important drug targets. In spite of their role in GPCR function, the extramembranous regions of GPCRs are relatively less appreciated. The third intracellular loop (ICL3), which connects transmembrane helices V and VI, is important in this context since its crucial role in signaling has been documented for a number of GPCRs. Unfortunately, the structure of this loop is generally not visualized in x-ray crystallographic studies since this flexible loop is either stabilized using a monoclonal antibody or replaced with lysozyme...
June 1, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
Sunayana Begum Syed, Faez Iqbal Khan, Sabab Hasan Khan, Saurabha Srivastava, Gulam Mustafa Hasan, Kevin A Lobb, Asimul Islam, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a ubiquitously expressed Ser/Thr kinase which plays significant role in the cell-matrix interactions and growth factor signalling. In this study, guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)-induced unfolding of kinase domain of ILK (ILK193-446 ) was carried out at pH 7.5 and 25 °C. Eventually, denaturation curves of mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm ([θ]222 ) and fluorescence emission spectrum were analysed to estimate stability parameters. The optical properties maximum emission (λmax ) and difference absorption coefficient at 292 nm (Δε292 ) were analysed...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kaitlin E Johnson, Sukriti Gakhar, Subhash H Risbud, Marjorie L Longo
We study bacteriorhodopsin (BR) in its native purple membrane encapsulated within amorphous titanium dioxide, or titania, gels and in the presence of titania sol-particles to explore this system for hydrogen production. Förster resonance energy transfer between BR and titanium dioxide sol particles was used to conclude that there is nanometer-scale proximity of bacteriorhodopsin to the titanium dioxide. The detection of BR-titania sol aggregates by fluorescence anisotropy and particle sizing indicated the affinity amorphous titania has for BR without the use of additional cross-linkers...
June 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Guangdong Zhou, Junmei Guo, Jun Yang, Junxing Yang
Addition of fertilizer amendments is regarded as an ideal approach to enhancing phytoextraction. However, there is little information available on the influence of common fertilizers on Cd accumulation of two newly reported Cd accumulators, Cosmos sulphureus and Cosmos bipinnata (C. sulphureus and C. bipinnata). The effects of N (CO(NH2 )2 ), NP (CO(NH2 )2 + Ca(H2 PO4 )2 ), and NPK (CO(NH2 )2 + Ca(H2 PO4 )2 + KCl) fertilizers on Cd accumulation and subcellular distribution of C. sulphureus and C. bipinnata were studied in a 70-d pot experiment...
July 29, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Xuxin Lim, Matthew Potter, Zhanfeng Cui, Julian F Dye
There are significant challenges for using emulsion templating as a method of manufacturing macro-porous protein scaffolds. Issues include protein denaturation by adsorption at hydrophobic interfaces, emulsion instability, oil droplet and surfactant removal after protein gelation, and compatible cross-linking methods. We investigated an oil-in-water macro-emulsion stabilised with a surfactant blend, as a template for manufacturing protein-based nano-structured bio-intelligent scaffolds (EmDerm) with tuneable micro-scale porosity for tissue regeneration...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Pierce T O'Neil, Alexandra J Machen, Benjamin C Deatherage, Caleb Trecazzi, Alexander Tischer, Venkata R Machha, Matthew T Auton, Michael R Baldwin, Tommi A White, Mark T Fisher
The nucleotide-free chaperonin GroEL is capable of capturing transient unfolded or partially unfolded states that flicker in and out of existence due to large-scale protein dynamic vibrational modes. In this work, three short vignettes are presented to highlight our continuing advances in the application of GroEL biosensor biolayer interferometry (BLI) technologies and includes expanded uses of GroEL as a molecular scaffold for electron microscopy determination. The first example presents an extension of the ability to detect dynamic pre-aggregate transients in therapeutic protein solutions where the assessment of the kinetic stability of any folded protein or, as shown herein, quantitative detection of mutant-type protein when mixed with wild-type native counterparts...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Ziwei Huang, Thomas Gengenbach, Junfei Tian, Wei Shen, Gil Garnier
Paper and cellulosic films are used in many designs of low-cost diagnostics such as paper-based blood grouping devices. A major issue limiting their commercialization is the short stability of the functional biomolecules. To address this problem, the effect of relative humidity (RH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the antibody bioactivity and the surface chemical composition of a paper blood typing biodiagnostic were studied. An IgM blood typing antibody was physisorbed from solution onto paper - with or without BSA pretreatment, and aged for periods up to 9 weeks under various conditions with a series of RH...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Xin Li, Hao Feng, JiangQi Wen, Jiangli Dong, Tao Wang
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in legume root nodules injects millions of tons of nitrogen into agricultural lands and provides ammonia to non-legume crops under N-deficient conditions. During plant growth and development, environmental stresses, such as drought, salt, cold, and heat stress are unavoidable. This raises an interesting question as to how the legumes cope with the environmental stress along with SNF. Under drought stress, dehydrin proteins are accumulated, which function as protein protector and osmotic substances...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Robert M Glaeser
It has become clear that the standard cartoon, in which macromolecular particles prepared for electron cryo-microscopy are shown to be surrounded completely by vitreous ice, often is not accurate. In particular, the standard picture does not include the fact that diffusion to the air-water interface, followed by adsorption and possibly denaturation, can occur on the time scale that normally is required to make thin specimens. The extensive literature on interaction of proteins with the air-water interface suggests that many proteins can bind to the interface, either directly or indirectly via a sacrificial layer of already-denatured protein...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science
Eytan Abraham, Or Gadish, Joseph W Franses, Vipul C Chitalia, Natalie Artzi, Elazer R Edelman
Culture of endothelial cells (ECs) embedded in 3D scaffolds of denatured collagen has shown tremendous therapeutic potential in clinical trials of tissue repair. It is postulated that these matrix-embedded ECs (MEECs) attain a differential phenotype similar to early progenitor forms, which cannot be attained in 2D culture. MEECs are compared to 2D-ECs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) by secretome, phenotype, and genetic fingerprint, and are found to be altered from 2D-ECs on all levels, adopting an EPC-like phenotype...
September 2017: Advanced Biosystems
ZIjiang Wang, H Peter Lu
The effects of molecular crowding on protein folding-unfolding processes are of importance for understanding protein function and structure dynamics in living cells. The enhancement of protein stability as a result of reduced entropic effect in the presence of molecular crowding is well understood both experimentally and theoretically. However, due to the complexity and interplay between various interactions existing in an equally favored environment of protein folding and unfolding conformational dynamics, such simple reduced entropic enhancement model does not suffice to describe protein folding conformational dynamics under a protein crowding condition...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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