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Protein denaturation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235590/unravelling-the-hydrophobicity-of-urea-in-water-using-thermodiffusion-implications-for-protein-denaturation
#1
Doreen Niether, Silvia Di Lecce, Fernando Bresme, Simone Wiegand
Urea is widely used as a protein denaturant in aqueous solutions. Experimental and computer simulation studies have shown that it dissolves in water almost ideally at high concentrations, introducing little disruption in the water hydrogen bonded structure. However, at concentrations of the order of 5 M or higher, urea induces denaturation in a wide range of proteins. The origin of this behaviour is not completely understood, but it is believed to stem from a balance between urea-protein and urea-water interactions, with urea becoming possibly hydrophobic at a specific concentration range...
December 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235505/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-catalytic-and-structural-properties-of-a-mu-class-glutathione-s-transferase-from-fasciola-gigantica
#2
Jupitara Kalita, Rohit Shukla, Harish Shukla, Kundlik Gadhave, Rajanish Giri, Timir Tripathi
Glutathione S‒transferases (GSTs) play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics. They catalyze the nucleophilic addition of glutathione (GSH) to nonpolar compounds, rendering the products water-soluble. In the present study, we investigated the catalytic and structural properties of a mu-class GST from Fasciola gigantica (FgGST1). The purified recombinant FgGST1 formed a homodimer composed of 25 kDa subunit. Kinetic analysis revealed that FgGST1 displays broad substrate specificity and shows high GSH conjugation activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, and trans-4-phenyl-3-butene-2-one and peroxidase activity towards trans-2-nonenal and hexa-2,4-dienal...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235019/investigation-of-the-interaction-of-%C3%AE-methylamino-l-alanine-with-eukaryotic-and-prokaryotic-proteins
#3
Brendan J Main, Carly J Italiano, Kenneth J Rodgers
There is a strong body of evidence linking the non-protein amino acid (NPAA) β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) to the development of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. BMAA has been found globally, is produced by a number of organisms including cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates; and has been shown to biomagnify through trophic levels. The role of BMAA in neurodegenerative disease is highlighted by its presence in the brains of a number of neurodegenerative disease patients, where it was found in a protein-bound form...
December 12, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232602/cooperative-protein-unfolding-a-statistical-mechanical-model-for-the-action-of-denaturants
#4
J Seelig
Knowledge of protein stability is of utmost importance in various fields of biotechnology. Protein stability can be assessed in solution by increasing the concentration of denaturant and recording the structural changes with spectroscopic or thermodynamic methods. The standard interpretation of the experimental data is to assume a 2-state equilibrium between completely folded and completely unfolded protein molecules. Here we propose a cooperative model based on the statistical-mechanical Zimm-Bragg theory...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231944/stability-of-plant-virus-based-nanocarriers-in-gastrointestinal-fluids
#5
Alberto Berardi, David J Evans, Francesca Baldelli Bombelli, George P Lomonossoff
Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant virus which is being extensively investigated as a drug delivery and vaccine nanocarrier for parenteral administration. However, to date little is known about the suitability of plant-based nanocarriers for oral delivery. In this study, the colloidal (i.e. aggregation), physical (i.e. denaturation) and chemical (i.e. digestion of the polypeptides) stability of CPMV and its empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) in conditions resembling the gastrointestinal fluids were evaluated...
December 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231284/the-science-behind-skin-care-cleansers
#6
REVIEW
Zoe Diana Draelos
Two of the most important skin care categories with profound dermatologic implications are cleansers and moisturizers. Cleansers are composed of alkaline soaps or the less barrier-damaging synthetic detergents, known as syndets. The lower skin irritation and dryness found with syndets are related to their reduced tendency to cause protein denaturation due to the charge density of protein-bound micelle-like surfactant aggregates. Many cleansing formulations are available for purchase to meet hygiene needs varying by sex, age, ethnicity, occupation, environment, personal preferences, and the presence or absence of skin disease...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229979/near-infrared-plasmonic-assemblies-of-gold-nanoparticles-with-multimodal-function-for-targeted-cancer-theragnosis
#7
Seong-Eun Kim, Bo-Ram Lee, Hohyeon Lee, Sung Duk Jo, Hyuncheol Kim, You-Yeon Won, Jeewon Lee
Here we report a novel assembly structure of near-infrared plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), possessing both photoacoustic (PA) and photothermal (PT) properties. The template for the plasmonic AuNP assembly is a bioconjugate between short double-strand DNA (sh-dsDNA) and human methyl binding domain protein 1 (MBD1). MBD1 binds to methylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (mCGs) within the sequence of sh-dsDNA. Hexahistidine peptides on the engineered MBD1 function as a nucleation site for AuNP synthesis, allowing the construction of hybrid conjugates, sh-dsDNA-MBD1-AuNPs (named DMAs)...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229289/expression-of-fibronectin-binding-protein-of-l-acidophilus-ncfm-and-in-vitro-refolding-to-adhesion-capable-native-like-protein-from-inclusion-bodies
#8
Sonu Bisht, Kumar Siddharth Singh, Ritu Choudhary, Sudarshan Kumar, Sunita Grover, Ashok Kumar Mohanty, Veena Pande, Jai Kumar Kaushik
The ability of Lactobacilli to adhere to host epithelial surface and intestinal tracts is important for colonization and persistence of bacteria in the host gut. Extracellular matrix components like fibronectin, mucin, collagen and other adhesion molecules serve as substratum for attachment of bacteria. However, the precise structure, function and mechanism of binding of microbial surface adhesion proteins such as Fibronectin-binding protein (FBP) with host molecules remains unclear. This is primarily due to limitations in high expression of these proteins in biologically active form...
December 8, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227791/dynamic-content-exchange-between-liprotides
#9
Henriette S Frislev, Stine C L Jakobsen, Signe A Frank, Daniel E Otzen
Liprotides are complexes composed of partially denatured proteins and fatty acids in which the fatty acids form a micelle-like core surrounded by a shell of proteins. Liprotides, composed of α-lactalbumin (aLA) and oleic acid (OA), are similar in components and cytotoxicity to the original HAMLET protein-fatty acid complex. Liprotides composed of aLA and OA kill tumor cells by transferring the OA component to, and thus destabilizing, the cell membrane. Here we investigate liprotides' dynamics of transfer of contents between themselves and membranes using the hydrophobic fluorescent probe pyrene...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227447/heat-shock-proteins-in-human-perilymph-implications-for-cochlear-implantation
#10
Heike Schmitt, Ariane Roemer, Carsten Zeilinger, Rolf Salcher, Martin Durisin, Hinrich Staecker, Thomas Lenarz, Athanasia Warnecke
OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers reflecting the etiology and pathophysiology of inner ear diseases are limited. Evaluation of proteins in the perilymph may improve our understanding of inner ear disease. Heat shock proteins (HSP) belong to a superfamily of stress proteins and promote refolding of denatured proteins. The aim of the study was to analyze HSP in human perilymph and to identify possible correlation with audiological and etiologic data. METHODS: Sampling of the perilymph was performed during cochlear implantation and vestibular schwannoma removal...
January 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223704/decellularized-heart-ecm-hydrogel-using-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-for-improved-angiogenesis
#11
Yoojin Seo, Youngmee Jung, Soo Hyun Kim
Initial angiogenesis within the first 3 days is critical for healing ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction. Recently, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has been reported to provide tissue-derived ECM components and can be used as a scaffold for cell delivery for angiogenesis in tissue engineering. Decellularization by various detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and triton X-100 can remove the cell nuclei in tissue organs. However, this leads to ECM structure denaturation, decreased presence of various ECM proteins and cytokines, and loss of mechanical properties...
December 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223485/preventive-effect-of-anti-vaca-egg-yolk-immunoglobulin-igy-on-helicobacter-pylori-infected-mice
#12
Kyung Sook Hong, Mi-Ran Ki, H M Arif Ullah, Eun-Joo Lee, Yong Deuk Kim, Myung-Jin Chung, Ahmed K Elfadl, Jin-Kyu Park, Kyu-Shik Jeong
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of gastric disorders and gastric cancer in the human stomach. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is among the multi-effect protein toxins released by H. pylori that enables its persistence in the human stomach. METHODS: To evaluate the effect of anti-VacA egg yolk immunoglobulin (anti-VacA IgY) on H. pylori infection, a highly specific anti-VacA IgY was produced from egg yolks of hens immunized with a mixture of two purified recombinant VacAs...
December 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223157/self-organization-of-recombinant-membrane-porin-ompf-from-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-in-aqueous-environments
#13
E V Sidorin, V A Khomenko, N Yu Kim, P S Dmitrenok, A M Stenkova, O D Novikova, T F Solov'eva
Recombinant porin OmpF (an integral protein of bacterial outer membrane) from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was synthesized in Escherichia coli cells as inclusion bodies. By combining the methods of anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatographies, recombinant OmpF (rOmpF) was isolated as an individual protein in its denatured state, and its characteristic properties (molecular mass, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and hydrodynamic radius of the protein in 8 M urea solution) were determined. According to the data of gel filtration, dynamic light scattering, optical spectroscopy, and binding of the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, the rOmpF is fully unfolded in 8 M urea and exists in random coil conformation...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223135/simultaneous-anti-diabetic-and-anti-vascular-calcification-activity-of-nocardia-sp-utmc-751
#14
Fatemeh Salimi, Saeedeh Jafari-Nodooshan, Nazanin Zohourian, Sedighe Kolivand, Javad Hamedi
Alpha-amylase can act as a significant player in causing hyperglycemia, leading to protein glycation, which is the main complication in this condition, besides causing vascular calcification (VC), an important vascular failure caused due to thisIn order to find a natural source of the biocompounds with inhibitory effects on alpha-amylase,, fifteen fermentation broth extracts of actinobacteria (FBEA) (200 μg mL-1 ) have been screened. Finally, the effects of the most efficient FBE have been investigated on osteopontin (OPN, a VC marker) mRNA level in the vascular smooth muscle cells under the calcification conditions, and the chemical constituents of the most efficient FBE were analyzed using GC-MS analysis...
December 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222970/relaxation-of-structural-constraints-during-amicyanin-unfolding
#15
John J Kozak, Harry B Gray, Roberto A Garza-López
We study the thermal unfolding of amicyanin by quantifying the resiliency of the native state to structural perturbations. Three signatures characterizing stages of unfolding are identified. The first signature, lateral extension of the polypeptide chain, is calculated directly from the reported crystallographic data. Two other signatures, the radial displacement of each residue from Cu(II) and the angular spread in the chain as the protein unfolds, are calculated using crystallographic data in concert with a geometrical model we introduced previously (J...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221478/evaluation-of-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-analgesic-and-antipyretic-activities-of-the-stem-bark-of-sapindus-mukorossi
#16
Madeha Shah, Zahida Parveen, Muhammad Rashid Khan
BACKGROUND: Saponins are the main constituents of genus Sapindus and have the therapeutic potential for inflammatory disorders. In this study the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potential of the stem bark of soap nut (Sapindus mukorossi) methanol extract and its derived fractions has been investigated. METHODS: Powder of stem bark of the S. mukorossi was extracted with methanol (SMM) and fractionated in order of n-hexane (SMH), chloroform (SMC), ethyl acetate (SME), n-butanol (SMB) and the remaining as aqueous fraction (SMA)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219231/laboratory-exercise-for-studying-the-morphology-of-heat-denatured-and-amyloid-aggregates-of-lysozyme-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#17
Sumeyra Gokalp, William Horton, Elfa B Jónsdóttir-Lewis, Michelle Foster, Marianna Török
To facilitate learning advanced instrumental techniques, essential tools for visualizing biomaterials, a simple and versatile laboratory exercise demonstrating the use of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in biomedical applications was developed. In this experiment, the morphology of heat-denatured and amyloid-type aggregates formed from a low-cost and well-characterized model protein, hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), are compared. Structural differences between the amorphous and ordered particles are quantified using ImageJ for the analysis of AFM images as a postlaboratory assignment...
December 8, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214870/advances-in-cell-free-protein-array-methods
#18
Xiaobo Yu, Brianne Petritis, Hu Duan, Danke Xu, Joshua LaBaer
Cell-free protein microarrays represent a special form of protein microarray which display proteins made fresh at the time of the experiment, avoiding storage and denaturation. They have been used increasingly in basic and translational research over the past decade to study protein-protein interactions, the pathogen-host relationship, post-translational modifications, and antibody biomarkers of different human diseases. Their role in the first blood-based diagnostic test for early stage breast cancer highlights their value in managing human health...
December 7, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214802/tmao-counteracts-urea-denaturation-by-inhibiting-protein-urea-preferential-interaction
#19
Pritam Ganguly, Pablo Boserman, Nico F A van der Vegt, Joan-Emma Shea
Osmolytes are small organic molecules that can modulate the stability and function of cellular proteins by altering the chemical environment of the cell. Some of these osmolytes work in conjunction, via mechanisms that are poorly understood. An example is the naturally-occurring protein-protective osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) that stabilizes cellular proteins in marine organisms against the detrimental denaturing effects of another naturally occurring osmolyte, urea. From a computational standpoint, our understanding of this counteraction mechanism is hampered by the fact that existing force fields fail to capture the correct balance of TMAO and urea interactions in ternary solutions...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214693/characterization-of-myofibrillar-adenosine-triphosphatase-activity-and-liberation-of-actin-from-myofibrils-upon-heating-chicken-breast-meat
#20
Masanori Matsuishi, Yoshitaka Eda, Emi Saito, Shohei Yamamoto, Kenji Kanamori, Yuto Goto, Yutaro Kobayashi, Akihiro Okitani
Denaturation of actin and myosin in myofibrils induced by heating at 50°C was investigated to reveal the mechanism of irreversible liberation of actin from myofibrils on heating at lower temperatures than conventional cooking. Denaturation of these proteins was determined by Mg2+ -ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) and Ca2+ -ATPase activities. When minced meat was heated for 20 min, actin was liberated accompanying denaturation of 80% of actin and 50% of myosin. Heating of the myofibrillar fraction (MFF) isolated from meat homogenate induced much slower denaturation of actin than myosin...
December 7, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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