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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923914/widespread-control-of-calcium-signaling-by-a-family-of-serca-inhibiting-micropeptides
#1
Douglas M Anderson, Catherine A Makarewich, Kelly M Anderson, John M Shelton, Svetlana Bezprozvannaya, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Micropeptides function as master regulators of calcium-dependent signaling in muscle. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA), the membrane pump that promotes muscle relaxation by taking up Ca(2+) into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, is directly inhibited by three muscle-specific micropeptides: myoregulin (MLN), phospholamban (PLN), and sarcolipin (SLN). The widespread and essential function of SERCA across diverse cell types has raised questions as to how SERCA is regulated in cells that lack MLN, PLN, and SLN...
December 6, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920569/does-calcium-channel-blockade-have-a-role-in-prevention-of-expression-of-sepsis-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#2
REVIEW
John A D'Elia, Ray E Gleason, Anthony P Monaco, Larry A Weinrauch
Many antihypertensive agents have been demonstrated to assist in preservation of kidney function, among them those that modulate calcium channels. Calcium channel blockers may also be of value in protecting hemodialysis patients from complications of sepsis. In diabetic recipients of kidney transplant allografts treated with cyclosporine, calcium channel blockade has been retrospectively linked to improved graft preservation and to fewer episodes of sepsis. This brief review outlines clinical and experimental publications on potential protection from sepsis by addition of calcium channel blockers to standard antibiotic therapy in individuals who may or may not have normal kidney function, or in the presence or absence of immunosuppression...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914790/sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-mg-2-k-and-cl-concentrations-adjust-quickly-as-heart-rate-changes
#3
Claudio Berti, Vilmos Zsolnay, Thomas R Shannon, Michael Fill, Dirk Gillespie
During systole, Ca(2+) is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through ryanodine receptors (RyRs) while, simultaneously, other ions (specifically K(+), Mg(2+), and Cl(-)) provide counter-ion flux. These ions move back into the SR during diastole through the SERCA pump and SR K(+) and Cl(-) channels. In homeostasis, all ion concentrations in different cellular regions (e.g., junctional and non-junctional SR, dyadic cleft, and cytosol) are the same at the beginning and end of the cardiac cycle. Here, we used an equivalent circuit compartment model of the SR and the surrounding cytoplasm to understand the heart rate dependence of SR ion homeostasis...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911767/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-inhibition-restores-ca2-release-defects-and-prolongs-survival-in-myotubularin-deficient-mice
#4
Candice Kutchukian, Mirella Lo Scrudato, Yves Tourneur, Karine Poulard, Alban Vignaud, Christine Berthier, Bruno Allard, Michael W Lawlor, Ana Buj-Bello, Vincent Jacquemond
Mutations in the gene encoding the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase myotubularin (MTM1) are responsible for a pediatric disease of skeletal muscle named myotubular myopathy (XLMTM). Muscle fibers from MTM1-deficient mice present defects in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling likely responsible for the disease-associated fatal muscle weakness. However, the mechanism leading to EC coupling failure remains unclear. During normal skeletal muscle EC coupling, transverse (t) tubule depolarization triggers sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptor channels gated by conformational coupling with the t-tubule voltage-sensing dihydropyridine receptors...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909292/crystal-structures-of-the-tric-trimeric-intracellular-cation-channel-orthologues
#5
Go Kasuya, Masahiro Hiraizumi, Andrés D Maturana, Kaoru Kumazaki, Yuichiro Fujiwara, Keihong Liu, Yoshiko Nakada-Nakura, So Iwata, Keisuke Tsukada, Tomotaka Komori, Sotaro Uemura, Yuhei Goto, Takanori Nakane, Mizuki Takemoto, Hideaki E Kato, Keitaro Yamashita, Miki Wada, Koichi Ito, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Motoyuki Hattori, Osamu Nureki
Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial for muscle contraction, cell growth, apoptosis, learning and memory. The trimeric intracellular cation (TRIC) channels were recently identified as cation channels balancing the SR and ER membrane potentials, and are implicated in Ca(2+) signaling and homeostasis. Here we present the crystal structures of prokaryotic TRIC channels in the closed state and structure-based functional analyses of prokaryotic and eukaryotic TRIC channels...
December 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906050/the-sh3-and-cysteine-rich-domain-3-stac3-gene-is-important-to-growth-fiber-composition-and-calcium-release-from-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-in-postnatal-skeletal-muscle
#6
Xiaofei Cong, Jonathan Doering, Davi A G Mazala, Eva R Chin, Robert W Grange, Honglin Jiang
BACKGROUND: The SH3 and cysteine-rich domain 3 (Stac3) gene is specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle. Stac3 knockout mice die perinatally. In this study, we determined the potential role of Stac3 in postnatal skeletal muscle growth, fiber composition, and contraction by generating conditional Stac3 knockout mice. METHODS: We disrupted the Stac3 gene in 4-week-old male mice using the Flp-FRT and tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP systems. RESULTS: RT-qPCR and western blotting analyses of the limb muscles of target mice indicated that nearly all Stac3 mRNA and more than 70 % of STAC3 protein were deleted 4 weeks after tamoxifen injection...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891582/versatile-roles-of-intracellularly-located-trpv1-channel
#7
REVIEW
Rui Zhao, Suk Ying Tsang
The ubiquitous expression in many organs throughout the body and the ability to respond to a wide variety of physical and chemical stimuli have brought transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to the vanguards of our sensory systems. TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is the founding member of the TRPV subfamily. TRPV1 can be activated by noxious heat, protons and vanilloids. Previous studies have shown that TRPV1 is located on the plasma membrane, serving to non-selectively permeate calcium ion from the extracellular region to the cytoplasm...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888388/cardiac-bin1-cbin1-is-a-regulator-of-cardiac-contractile-function-and-an-emerging-biomarker-of-heart-muscle-health
#8
REVIEW
Kang Zhou, Tingting Hong
In recent decades, a cardiomyocyte membrane scaffolding protein bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) has emerged as a critical multifunctional regulator of transverse-tubule (t-tubule) function and calcium signaling in cardiomyocytes. Encoded by a single gene with 20 exons that are alternatively spliced, more than ten BIN1 protein isoforms are expressed with tissue and disease specificity. The recently discovered cardiac alternatively spliced isoform BIN1 (cBIN1 or BIN1+13+17) plays a crucial role in organizing membrane microfolds within cardiac t-tubules...
November 23, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884956/regional-effects-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-on-shortening-and-calcium-transport-in-epicardial-and-endocardial-myocytes-from-rat-left-ventricle
#9
Manal M A Smail, Muhammad A Qureshi, Anatoliy Shmygol, Murat Oz, Jaipaul Singh, Vadym Sydorenko, Alya Arabi, Frank C Howarth, Lina Al Kury
In the heart, the left ventricle pumps blood at higher pressure than the right ventricle. Within the left ventricle, the electromechanical properties of ventricular cardiac myocytes vary transmurally and this may be related to the gradients of stress and strain experienced in vivo across the ventricular wall. Diabetes is also associated with alterations in hemodynamic function. The aim of this study was to investigate shortening and Ca(2+) transport in epicardial (EPI) and endocardial (ENDO) left ventricular myocytes in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882143/expression-of-connexin-43-ion-channels-and-ca-2-handling-proteins-in-rat-pulmonary-vein-cardiomyocytes
#10
Yaqiong Xiao, Xue Cai, Andrew Atkinson, Sunil Jit Logantha, Mark Boyett, Halina Dobrzynski
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. AF is thought to be triggered by ectopic beats, originating primarily in the myocardial sleeves surrounding the pulmonary veins (PVs). The mechanisms underlying these cardiac arrhythmias remain unclear. To investigate this, frozen sections of heart and lung tissue from adult rats without arrhythmia were obtained in different planes, stained with Masson's trichrome, and immunolabeled for connexin 43 (Cx43), caveolin-3 (Cav3), hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (HCN4), Nav1...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881552/cardiac-t-tubule-microanatomy-and-function
#11
REVIEW
TingTing Hong, Robin M Shaw
Unique to striated muscle cells, transverse tubules (t-tubules) are membrane organelles that consist of sarcolemma penetrating into the myocyte interior, forming a highly branched and interconnected network. Mature t-tubule networks are found in mammalian ventricular cardiomyocytes, with the transverse components of t-tubules occurring near sarcomeric z-discs. Cardiac t-tubules contain membrane microdomains enriched with ion channels and signaling molecules. The microdomains serve as key signaling hubs in regulation of cardiomyocyte function...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881388/hyperglycemia-induces-defective-ca2-homeostasis-in-cardiomyocytes
#12
Andrea Sorrentino, Giulia Borghetti, Yu Zhou, Antonio Cannata, Marianna Meo, Sergio Signore, Piero Anversa, Annarosa Leri, Polina Goichberg, Khaled Qanud, Jason T Jacobson, Thomas H Hintze, Marcello Rota
Diabetes and other metabolic conditions characterized by elevated blood glucose constitute important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Hyperglycemia targets myocardial cells rendering ineffective mechanical properties of the heart, but cellular alterations dictating the progressive deterioration of cardiac function with metabolic disorders remain to be clarified. In the current study, we examined the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac function and myocyte physiology by employing mice with high blood glucose induced by administration of streptozotocin, a compound toxic to insulin-producing β-cells...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879676/calcium-dyshomeostasis-in-tubular-aggregate-myopathy
#13
REVIEW
Jong-Mok Lee, Satoru Noguchi
Calcium is a crucial mediator of cell signaling in skeletal muscles for basic cellular functions and specific functions, including contraction, fiber-type differentiation and energy production. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is an organelle that provides a large supply of intracellular Ca(2+) in myofibers. Upon excitation, it releases Ca(2+) into the cytosol, inducing contraction of myofibrils. During relaxation, it takes up cytosolic Ca(2+) to terminate the contraction. During exercise, Ca(2+) is cycled between the cytosol and the SR through a system by which the Ca(2+) pool in the SR is restored by uptake of extracellular Ca(2+) via a specific channel on the plasma membrane...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873157/eicosapentaenoic-acid-triggers-ca-2-release-and-ca-2-influx-in-mouse-cerebral-cortex-endothelial-bend-3-cells
#14
King-Chuen Wu, Kar-Lok Wong, Mei-Ling Wang, Lian-Ru Shiao, Iat-Lon Leong, Chi-Li Gong, Ka-Shun Cheng, Paul Chan, Yuk-Man Leung
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid abundant in fish oil, protects endothelial cells (EC) from lipotoxicity and triggers EC NO release. The latter is related to an elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+). Although EPA has been shown to cause human EC cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation, the mechanism is unclear. Microfluorimetric imaging was used here to measure free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. EPA was shown to cause intracellular Ca(2+) release in mouse cerebral cortex endothelial bEND.3 cells; interestingly, the EPA-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) pool(s) appeared to encompass and was larger than the Ca(2+) pool mobilized by sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibition by cyclopiazonic acid...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872214/effects-of-prolonged-anoxia-on-electrical-activity-of-the-heart-in-crucian-carp-carassius-carassius
#15
Elisa Tikkanen, Jaakko Haverinen, Stuart Egginton, Minna Hassinen, Matti Vornanen
The effects of sustained anoxia on cardiac electrical excitability were examined in the anoxia-tolerant Crucian carp (Carassius carassius). The electrocardiogram (ECG) and expression of excitation-contraction coupling genes were studied in fish acclimatised to normoxia in summer (+18°C) or winter (+2°C), and in winter fish after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of anoxia. Anoxia induced a sustained bradycardia from a heart rate of 10.3±0.77 to 4.1±0.29 bpm (P<0.05) after 5 weeks, and heart rate slowly recovered to control levels when oxygen was restored...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870637/calcium-homeostasis-alterations-in-a-mouse-model-of-the-dynamin-2-related-centronuclear-myopathy
#16
Bodvaël Fraysse, Pascale Guicheney, Marc Bitoun
Autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by centrally located nuclei in muscle fibers. CNM results from mutations in the gene encoding dynamin 2 (DNM2), a large GTPase involved in endocytosis, intracellular membrane trafficking, and cytoskeleton regulation. We developed a knock-in mouse model expressing the most frequent DNM2-CNM mutation; i.e. the KI-Dnm2(R465W) model. Heterozygous (HTZ) KI-Dnm2 mice progressively develop muscle atrophy, impairment of contractile properties, histopathological abnormalities, and elevated cytosolic calcium concentration...
November 15, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866274/ryanodine-receptor-type-3-does-not-contribute-to-contractions-in-the-mouse-myometrium-regardless-of-pregnancy
#17
Katsuhito Matsuki, Masashi Takemoto, Yoshiaki Suzuki, Hisao Yamamura, Susumu Ohya, Hiroshi Takeshima, Yuji Imaizumi
Ryanodine receptor type 3 (RyR3) is expressed in myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMCs). The short isoform of RyR3 is a dominant negative variant (DN-RyR3) and negatively regulates the functions of RyR2 and full-length (FL)-RyR3. DN-RyR3 has been suggested to function as a major RyR3 isoform in non-pregnant (NP) mouse MSMCs, and FL-RyR3 may also be upregulated during pregnancy (P). This increase in the FL-RyR3/DN-RyR3 ratio may contribute to the strong contractions by MSMCs for parturition. In the present study, spontaneous contractions by the myometrium in NP and P mice were highly susceptible to nifedipine but were not affected by ryanodine...
November 20, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864509/loss-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-stimulated-phosphorylation-of-cav1-2-channels-on-ser1700-leads-to-heart-failure
#18
Linghai Yang, Dao-Fu Dai, Can Yuan, Ruth E Westenbroek, Haijie Yu, Nastassya West, Horacio O de la Iglesia, William A Catterall
L-type Ca(2+) currents conducted by voltage-gated calcium channel 1.2 (CaV1.2) initiate excitation-contraction coupling in the heart, and altered expression of CaV1.2 causes heart failure in mice. Here we show unexpectedly that reducing β-adrenergic regulation of CaV1.2 channels by mutation of a single PKA site, Ser1700, in the proximal C-terminal domain causes reduced contractile function, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure without changes in expression, localization, or function of the CaV1.2 protein in the mutant mice (SA mice)...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863940/acute-fluoride-poisoning-alters-myocardial-cytoskeletal-and-ampk-signaling-proteins-in-rats
#19
Lakshmikanthan Panneerselvam, Azhwar Raghunath, Ekambaram Perumal
BACKGROUND: Our previous findings revealed that increased oxidative stress, apoptosis and necrosis were implicated in acute fluoride (F(-)) induced cardiac dysfunction apart from hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia. Cardiac intermediate filaments (desmin and vimentin) and cytoskeleton linker molecule vinculin plays an imperative role in maintaining the architecture of cardiac cytoskeleton. In addition, AMPK is a stress activated kinase that regulates the energy homeostasis during stressed state...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861123/tecrl-a-new-life-threatening-inherited-arrhythmia-gene-associated-with-overlapping-clinical-features-of-both-lqts-and-cpvt
#20
Harsha D Devalla, Roselle Gélinas, Elhadi H Aburawi, Abdelaziz Beqqali, Philippe Goyette, Christian Freund, Marie-A Chaix, Rafik Tadros, Hui Jiang, Antony Le Béchec, Jantine J Monshouwer-Kloots, Tom Zwetsloot, Georgios Kosmidis, Frédéric Latour, Azadeh Alikashani, Maaike Hoekstra, Jurg Schlaepfer, Christine L Mummery, Brian Stevenson, Zoltan Kutalik, Antoine Af de Vries, Léna Rivard, Arthur Am Wilde, Mario Talajic, Arie O Verkerk, Lihadh Al-Gazali, John D Rioux, Zahurul A Bhuiyan, Robert Passier
Genetic causes of many familial arrhythmia syndromes remain elusive. In this study, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was carried out on patients from three different families that presented with life-threatening arrhythmias and high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Two French Canadian probands carried identical homozygous rare variant in TECRL gene (p.Arg196Gln), which encodes the trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase-like protein. Both patients had cardiac arrest, stress-induced atrial and ventricular tachycardia, and QT prolongation on adrenergic stimulation...
December 1, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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