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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185627/strategies-for-enhancing-the-implementation-of-school-based-policies-or-practices-targeting-risk-factors-for-chronic-disease
#1
REVIEW
Luke Wolfenden, Nicole K Nathan, Rachel Sutherland, Sze Lin Yoong, Rebecca K Hodder, Rebecca J Wyse, Tessa Delaney, Alice Grady, Alison Fielding, Flora Tzelepis, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Benjamin Parmenter, Peter Butler, John Wiggers, Adrian Bauman, Andrew Milat, Debbie Booth, Christopher M Williams
BACKGROUND: A number of school-based policies or practices have been found to be effective in improving child diet and physical activity, and preventing excessive weight gain, tobacco or harmful alcohol use. Schools, however, frequently fail to implement such evidence-based interventions. OBJECTIVES: The primary aims of the review are to examine the effectiveness of strategies aiming to improve the implementation of school-based policies, programs or practices to address child diet, physical activity, obesity, tobacco or alcohol use...
November 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139110/unconditional-cash-transfers-for-reducing-poverty-and-vulnerabilities-effect-on-use-of-health-services-and-health-outcomes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#2
REVIEW
Frank Pega, Sze Yan Liu, Stefan Walter, Roman Pabayo, Ruhi Saith, Stefan K Lhachimi
BACKGROUND: Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs; provided without obligation) for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities (e.g. orphanhood, old age or HIV infection) are a type of social protection intervention that addresses a key social determinant of health (income) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The relative effectiveness of UCTs compared with conditional cash transfers (CCTs; provided so long as the recipient engages in prescribed behaviours such as using a health service or attending school) is unknown...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072618/an-integrated-pest-management-intervention-improves-knowledge-pest-control-and-practices-in-family-child-care-homes
#3
Michelle Stephens, Kimberly Hazard, Debra Moser, Dana Cox, Roberta Rose, Abbey Alkon
To reduce young children's exposure to pesticides when attending family child care homes (FCCHs), we developed an integrated pest management (IPM) intervention for FCCH directors. First, we developed IPM educational materials and resources to provide the foundation for an IPM educational intervention for FCCHs. Next, we conducted and evaluated a six-month nurse child care health consultant (CCHC)-led education and consultation IPM intervention to increase IPM knowledge, IPM practices, IPM policies, and decrease the presence or evidence of pests...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928167/development-of-the-huddle-observation-tool-for-structured-case-management-discussions-to-improve-situation-awareness-on-inpatient-clinical-wards
#4
Julian Edbrooke-Childs, Jacqueline Hayes, Evelyn Sharples, Dawid Gondek, Emily Stapley, Nick Sevdalis, Peter Lachman, Jessica Deighton
BACKGROUND: 'Situation Awareness For Everyone' (SAFE) was a 3-year project which aimed to improve situation awareness in clinical teams in order to detect potential deterioration and other potential risks to children on hospital wards. The key intervention was the 'huddle', a structured case management discussion which is central to facilitating situation awareness. This study aimed to develop an observational assessment tool to assess the team processes occurring during huddles, including the effectiveness of the huddle...
September 19, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753234/manipulative-interventions-for-reducing-pulled-elbow-in-young-children
#5
REVIEW
Marjolein Krul, Johannes C van der Wouden, Emma J Kruithof, Lisette Wa van Suijlekom-Smit, Bart W Koes
BACKGROUND: Pulled elbow (nursemaid's elbow) is a common injury in young children. It often results from a sudden pull on the arm, usually by an adult or taller person, which pulls the radius through the annular ligament, resulting in subluxation (partial dislocation) of the radial head. It can also be caused by a fall or twist. The child experiences sudden acute pain and loss of function in the affected arm. Pulled elbow is usually treated by manual reduction of the subluxed radial head...
July 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748583/overall-and-abortion-related-maternal-mortality-rates-in-uruguay-over-the-past-25-years-and-their-association-with-policies-and-actions-aimed-at-protecting-women-s-rights
#6
Leonel Briozzo, Rodolfo Gómez Ponce de León, Giselle Tomasso, Anibal Faúndes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in maternal mortality rates in Uruguay over the past 25 years, as well as their distribution by cause, and their temporal relationship with social changes and Human Development Index (HDI) indicators. METHODS: Data on maternal mortality obtained directly from the Uruguayan Ministry of Public Health for the 2001 to 2015 period were analyzed together with data from the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation for the 1990 to 2015 period...
August 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693700/longitudinal-effects-of-an-intervention-on-perfectionism-in-adolescents
#7
Carmen Bento, Ana T Pereira, Carolina Roque, Jorge M Tavares Saraiva, António J Ferreira Macedo E Santos
Perfectionism is a personality disposition characterized by a person´s striving for flawlessness and the setting of excessively high performance standards. This trait has been associated with a broad range of psychopathological conditions. Consequently, prevention of its harmful effects must start early. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if one group session to manage perfectionism has the effect of reducing the levels of this trait, two and six months later. METHOD: A community-based sample of 978 Portuguese adolescents from three different high schools completed a self-reporting questionnaire including the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, before and after one skill session...
August 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601619/family-focussed-interventions-to-reduce-harm-from-smoking-in-primary-school-aged-children-a-systematic-review-of-evaluative-studies
#8
REVIEW
Nicola Brown, Tim Luckett, Patricia M Davidson, Michelle DiGiacomo
Children living in families where adults smoke are exposed to harmful effects of tobacco smoke and risk a predisposition to smoking initiation. Interventions to support families to reduce risk of harm from smoking have been developed and tested. The purpose of this review is to identify effective family-based interventions used to promote smoke-free home environments in families with primary school age children (aged 5-12years). A systematic search of MEDLINE, Cochrane and CINAHL electronic databases was conducted...
August 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508736/out-of-harm-s-way-secure-versus-insecure-disorganized-attachment-predicts-less-adolescent-risk-taking-related-to-childhood-poverty
#9
Brianna C Delker, Rosemary E Bernstein, Heidemarie K Laurent
Although some risk taking in adolescence is normative, evidence suggests that adolescents raised in conditions of socioeconomic disadvantage are disproportionately burdened with risk taking and its negative consequences. Using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we investigated quality of the early caregiving environment as a potential prospective buffer against the long-term association between childhood poverty and adolescent risk taking. Multicategorical moderation model results indicated that if raised in poverty across age 1-54 months (average family income to needs ratio ≤ 1...
May 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472859/lifestyle-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Nisreen A Alwan, Jane West, Stephen Brown, Christopher Jd McKinlay, Diane Farrar, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is glucose intolerance, first recognised in pregnancy and usually resolving after birth. GDM is associated with both short- and long-term adverse effects for the mother and her infant. Lifestyle interventions are the primary therapeutic strategy for many women with GDM. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of combined lifestyle interventions with or without pharmacotherapy in treating women with gestational diabetes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (14 May 2016), ClinicalTrials...
May 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321847/antenatal-corticosteroids-for-accelerating-fetal-lung-maturation-for-women-at-risk-of-preterm-birth
#11
REVIEW
Devender Roberts, Julie Brown, Nancy Medley, Stuart R Dalziel
BACKGROUND: Respiratory morbidity including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a serious complication of preterm birth and the primary cause of early neonatal mortality and disability. While researching the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on premature parturition in fetal sheep in 1969, Liggins found that there was some inflation of the lungs of lambs born at gestations at which the lungs would be expected to be airless. Liggins and Howie published the first randomised controlled trial in humans in 1972 and many others followed...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299785/should-obese-women-s-access-to-assisted-fertility-treatment-be-limited-a-scientific-and-ethical-analysis
#12
Kelton Tremellen, Dominic Wilkinson, Julian Savulescu
Obesity is associated with a reduction in fertility treatment success and increased risks to mother and child. Therefore guidelines of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) suggest that a body mass index exceeding 35 kg/m(2) should be an absolute contraindication to assisted fertility treatment such as in vitro fertilisation IVF. In this paper we challenge the ethical and scientific basis for such a ban. Livebirth rates for severely obese women are reduced by up to 30%, but this result is still far better than that observed for many older women who are allowed access to IVF...
October 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288601/babies-living-safe-smokefree-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-multilevel-multimodal-behavioral-intervention-to-reduce-low-income-children-s-tobacco-smoke-exposure
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Bradley N Collins, Stephen J Lepore
BACKGROUND: Addressing children's tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) remains a public health priority. However, there is low uptake and ineffectiveness of treatment, particularly in low-income populations that face numerous challenges to smoking behavior change. A multilevel intervention combining system-level health messaging and advice about TSE delivered at community clinics that disseminate the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), combined with nicotine replacement and intensive multimodal, individual-level behavioral intervention may improve TSE control efforts in such high-risk populations...
March 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196995/injection-drug-use-among-children-and-adolescents-in-india-ringing-the-alarm-bells
#14
Anju Dhawan, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Anita Chopra, Vinod Kumar Tikoo, Rajesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Injection drug use (IDU) is intricately linked to preventive aspects for human immunodeficiency virus from a public health perspective. No large-scale data are yet available for injectable drug use among children and adolescents in India, apart from few anecdotal reports. AIMS AND METHODS: The present paper reports on the profile and substance use pattern of 509 child IDU users, among a total sample of over 4000 children using substances across 100 sites from 27 states and 2 UTs in India...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174149/smartmom-text-messaging-for-prenatal-education-a-qualitative-focus-group-study-to-explore-canadian-women-s-perceptions
#15
Sarah Munro, Amber Hui, Vanessa Salmons, Carolyn Solomon, Emily Gemmell, Nahal Torabi, Patricia A Janssen
BACKGROUND: We engaged Canadian women in the development of a prenatal education program delivered via one-way text messaging called SmartMom. SmartMom is the first peer-reviewed, evidence-based mHealth program for prenatal education in Canada and the first to be endorsed by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. OBJECTIVE: To explore women's preferences for a prenatal education program by text messaging. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative focus group study in three Canadian communities in the Northern Health Authority...
February 7, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919242/reducing-child-abuse-amongst-adolescents-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-pre-post-trial-in-south-africa
#16
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Alexa Yakubovich, Jenny Doubt, Alice Redfern, Catherine Ward, Nasteha Salah, Sachin De Stone, Tshiamo Petersen, Phelisa Mpimpilashe, Rocio Herrero Romero, Lulu Ncobo, Jamie Lachman, Sibongile Tsoanyane, Yulia Shenderovich, Heidi Loening, Jasmina Byrne, Lorraine Sherr, Lauren Kaplan, Frances Gardner
BACKGROUND: No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. 'Parenting for Lifelong Health' ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH ) is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i) to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii) to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii) to identify potential adaptations...
July 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852690/maternal-use-of-mild-analgesics-during-pregnancy-associated-with-reduced-anogenital-distance-in-sons-a-cohort-study-of-1027-mother-child-pairs
#17
Dorte Vesterholm Lind, Katharina M Main, Henriette Boye Kyhl, David Møbjerg Kristensen, Jorma Toppari, Helle Raun Andersen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Niels E Skakkebæk, Tina Kold Jensen
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal use of mild analgesics in pregnancy associated with anogenital distance (AGD)-the distance from the anus to the genitals-in the offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Maternal use of mild analgesics [especially simultaneous use of paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)] during pregnancy was associated with a shorter AGD in boys whereas no effect was found in girls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mild analgesics including paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs (e...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678342/the-effectiveness-acceptability-and-cost-effectiveness-of-psychosocial-interventions-for-maltreated-children-and-adolescents-an-evidence-synthesis
#18
REVIEW
Geraldine Macdonald, Nuala Livingstone, Jennifer Hanratty, Claire McCartan, Richard Cotmore, Maria Cary, Danya Glaser, Sarah Byford, Nicky J Welton, Tania Bosqui, Lucy Bowes, Suzanne Audrey, Gill Mezey, Helen L Fisher, Wendy Riches, Rachel Churchill
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment is a substantial social problem that affects large numbers of children and young people in the UK, resulting in a range of significant short- and long-term psychosocial problems. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise evidence of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of interventions addressing the adverse consequences of child maltreatment. STUDY DESIGN: For effectiveness, we included any controlled study...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631756/quality-of-care-in-a-safe-abortion-hotline-in-indonesia-beyond-harm-reduction
#19
Caitlin Gerdts, Inna Hudaya
OBJECTIVES: To examine services offered by safe-abortion hotlines in contexts in which abortion is legally restricted and to document the experiences of women contacting a safe-abortion hotline in Indonesia. METHODS: We analyzed 1829 first-time contacts to a safe-abortion hotline in Indonesia as a part of routine service provision between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2014. RESULTS: Nearly one third (29.9%) of initial contacts reported their age as between 18 and 24 years, and most (51...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577021/overall-and-abortion-related-maternal-mortality-rates-in-uruguay-over-the-past-25years-and-their-association-with-policies-and-actions-aimed-at-protecting-women-s-rights
#20
Leonel Briozzo, Rodolfo Gómez Ponce de León, Giselle Tomasso, Anibal Faúndes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in maternal mortality rates in Uruguay over the past 25years, as well as their distribution by cause, and their temporal relationship with social changes and Human Development Index (HDI) indicators. METHODS: Data on maternal mortality obtained directly from the Uruguayan Ministry of Public Health for the 2001 to 2015 period were analyzed together with data from the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation for the 1990 to 2015 period...
August 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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