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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632873/screening-for-obesity-and-intervention-for-weight-management-in-children-and-adolescents-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#1
Elizabeth A O'Connor, Corinne V Evans, Brittany U Burda, Emily S Walsh, Michelle Eder, Paula Lozano
Importance: Obesity is common in children and adolescents in the United States, is associated with negative health effects, and increases the likelihood of obesity in adulthood. Objective: To systematically review the benefits and harms of screening and treatment for obesity and overweight in children and adolescents to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Collaboration Registry of Controlled Trials, and the Education Resources Information Center through January 22, 2016; references of relevant publications; government websites...
June 20, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619692/a-randomized-trial-of-motivational-interviewing-and-facilitated-contraceptive-access-to-prevent-rapid-repeat-pregnancy-among-adolescent-mothers
#2
Jack Stevens, Robyn Lutz, Ngozi Osuagwu, Dana Rotz, Brian Goesling
BACKGROUND: Most interventions designed to reduce teen pregnancy rates have not focused on pregnant and/or parenting adolescents. Therefore, a large randomized controlled trial was conducted regarding a motivational interviewing program entitled Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy in a low income sample of adolescent mothers. This program recommended monthly sessions between a participant and a registered nurse over 18 months. This program also featured facilitated birth control access through transportation assistance and a part-time contraceptive clinic...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600490/treating-tobacco-dependence-guidance-for-primary-care-on-life-saving-interventions-position-statement-of-the-ipcrg
#3
O C P Van Schayck, S Williams, V Barchilon, N Baxter, M Jawad, P A Katsaounou, B J Kirenga, C Panaitescu, K W I G Tsiligianni, N Zwar, A Ostrem
Tobacco smoking is the world's leading cause of premature death and disability. Global targets to reduce premature deaths by 25% by 2025 will require a substantial increase in the number of smokers making a quit attempt, and a significant improvement in the success rates of those attempts in low, middle and high income countries. In many countries the only place where the majority of smokers can access support to quit is primary care. There is strong evidence of cost-effective interventions in primary care yet many opportunities to put these into practice are missed...
June 9, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532431/high-prevalence-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-peruvian-adolescents-living-in-a-peri-urban-shantytown-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Elizabeth S Abbs, José Viñoles, Jorge O Alarcón, Heather M Johnson, Joseph R Zunt
BACKGROUND: Adults of the peri-urban Peruvian shantytown of Lomas de Zapallal have a high prevalence of risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD)-likely due to behavioral choices established during childhood and adolescence. To guide the development of community-based risk reduction programs, we assessed the prevalence of risk factors for developing CVD among adolescents. METHODS: We collected cross sectional data from adolescents of Peruvian peri-urban shantytown to evaluate four domains of CVD risk factors: (1) clinical (blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and blood lipids), (2) anthropometric (height, weight, and waist circumference), (3) behavioral (physical activity, diet, and substance abuse), and (4) psychosocial (mental health and violence)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529370/prevention-early-intervention-and-harm-reduction-of-substance-use-in-adolescents
#5
R C Jiloha
This paper presents a systematic review on the effectiveness of prevention, early intervention, and harm reduction including treatment of substance abuse among adolescents for tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Taxation, public consumption bans, restriction on advertisements, and minimum legal age for consumption, are effective measures to reduce the use of tobacco and alcohol. School-based prevention and skill-training interventions are effective tools to reduce substance use among adolescents. Social norms and intervention to reduce substance use in adolescents do not have strong evidence of effectiveness...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513831/avoidance-versus-use-of-neuromuscular-blocking-agents-for-improving-conditions-during-tracheal-intubation-or-direct-laryngoscopy-in-adults-and-adolescents
#6
REVIEW
Lars H Lundstrøm, Christophe Hv Duez, Anders K Nørskov, Charlotte V Rosenstock, Jakob L Thomsen, Ann Merete Møller, Søren Strande, Jørn Wetterslev
BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation during induction of general anaesthesia is a vital procedure performed to secure a patient's airway. Several studies have identified difficult tracheal intubation (DTI) or failed tracheal intubation as one of the major contributors to anaesthesia-related mortality and morbidity. Use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) to facilitate tracheal intubation is a widely accepted practice. However, because of adverse effects, NMBA may be undesirable. Cohort studies have indicated that avoiding NMBA is an independent risk factor for difficult and failed tracheal intubation...
May 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508736/out-of-harm-s-way-secure-versus-insecure-disorganized-attachment-predicts-less-adolescent-risk-taking-related-to-childhood-poverty
#7
Brianna C Delker, Rosemary E Bernstein, Heidemarie K Laurent
Although some risk taking in adolescence is normative, evidence suggests that adolescents raised in conditions of socioeconomic disadvantage are disproportionately burdened with risk taking and its negative consequences. Using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we investigated quality of the early caregiving environment as a potential prospective buffer against the long-term association between childhood poverty and adolescent risk taking. Multicategorical moderation model results indicated that if raised in poverty across age 1-54 months (average family income to needs ratio ≤ 1...
May 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466613/seasonality-of-methylphenidate-administration-among-children-in-israel
#8
Herman A Cohen, Bella Savitsky, Arie Ashkenasi, Moshe Hoshen
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Recently, increases in ADHD prevalence and methylphenidate use have been reported. There is evidence that children and adolescents use ADHD medication only during the school year. OBJECTIVES: To investigate trends in methylphenidate dispensing over a period of 3 years (2010-2012) at the monthly level and to investigate whether there is any monthly variation, especially during the summer season...
November 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370717/e-cigarette-use-of-young-adults-motivations-and-associations-with-combustible-cigarette-alcohol-marijuana-and-other-illicit-drugs
#9
Jeff R Temple, Ryan C Shorey, Yu Lu, Elizabeth Torres, Gregory L Stuart, Vi D Le
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the prevalence of e-cigarette use among adolescents and young adults has caught up to or eclipsed that of combustible cigarette use, there is relatively little known about (a) the link between e-cigarettes and other substances and (b) the reasons underlying this increase in e-cigarette use. To address this gap in knowledge, the current study examined associations between e-cigarette use and other substances and identified motives for e-cigarette use among young adults...
June 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325535/age-is-just-a-number-wpath-affiliated-surgeons-experiences-and-attitudes-toward-vaginoplasty-in-transgender-females-under-18-years-of-age-in-the-united-states
#10
Christine Milrod, Dan H Karasic
BACKGROUND: A rising number of female-affirmed transgender adolescents are being treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues and subsequently cross-sex hormones at early or mid-puberty, with vaginoplasty as the presumed final step in their physical transition. But, despite the minimum age of 18 years defining eligibility to undergo this irreversible procedure, anecdotal reports have shown that vaginoplasties are being performed on minors by surgeons in the United States, thereby contravening the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) standards of care (SOC)...
April 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196995/injection-drug-use-among-children-and-adolescents-in-india-ringing-the-alarm-bells
#11
Anju Dhawan, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Anita Chopra, Vinod Kumar Tikoo, Rajesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Injection drug use (IDU) is intricately linked to preventive aspects for human immunodeficiency virus from a public health perspective. No large-scale data are yet available for injectable drug use among children and adolescents in India, apart from few anecdotal reports. AIMS AND METHODS: The present paper reports on the profile and substance use pattern of 509 child IDU users, among a total sample of over 4000 children using substances across 100 sites from 27 states and 2 UTs in India...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049113/update-on-pediatric-overuse
#12
Eric R Coon, Paul C Young, Ricardo A Quinonez, Daniel J Morgan, Sanket S Dhruva, Alan R Schroeder
As concerns over health care-related harms and costs continue to mount, efforts to identify and combat medical overuse are needed. Although much of the recent attention has focused on health care for adults, children are also harmed by overuse. Using a structured PubMed search and manual tables of contents review, we identified important articles on pediatric overuse published in 2015. These articles were evaluated according to the quality of the methods, the magnitude of clinical effect, and the number of patients potentially affected and were categorized into overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and overutilization...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997660/serologic-screening-for-genital-herpes-an-updated-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#13
REVIEW
Cynthia Feltner, Catherine Grodensky, Charles Ebel, Jennifer C Middleton, Russell P Harris, Mahima Ashok, Daniel E Jonas
Importance: Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Vertical transmission of HSV can lead to fetal morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess the evidence on serologic screening and preventive interventions for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adults and adolescents to support the US Preventive Services Task Force for an updated recommendation statement. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through March 31, 2016...
December 20, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956942/obesity-and-hypertensive-heart-disease-focus-on-body-composition-and-sex-differences
#14
REVIEW
Giovanni de Simone, Costantino Mancusi, Raffaele Izzo, Maria Angela Losi, L Aldo Ferrara
There is evidence that hypertension is frequently associated with overweight/obesity even in kids and adolescents. Either conditions influence development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH), through different biological and hemodynamic mechanisms: obesity is conventionally thought to elicit a coherent growth of LV chamber dimensions and myocardial wall thickness (eccentric LV geometry), whereas a more accentuated increase in wall-thickness (concentric LV geometry) is attributed to hypertension. While during youth these differences are visible, proportion of LV concentric geometry, the most harmful LV geometric pattern, sharply raises in obese individuals during middle age, and becomes the most frequent geometric patterns among obese-hypertensive individuals...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919242/reducing-child-abuse-amongst-adolescents-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-pre-post-trial-in-south-africa
#15
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Alexa Yakubovich, Jenny Doubt, Alice Redfern, Catherine Ward, Nasteha Salah, Sachin De Stone, Tshiamo Petersen, Phelisa Mpimpilashe, Rocio Herrero Romero, Lulu Ncobo, Jamie Lachman, Sibongile Tsoanyane, Yulia Shenderovich, Heidi Loening, Jasmina Byrne, Lorraine Sherr, Lauren Kaplan, Frances Gardner
BACKGROUND: No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. 'Parenting for Lifelong Health' ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH ) is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i) to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii) to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii) to identify potential adaptations...
July 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869972/effectiveness-of-psychosocial-care-in-school-continuity-of-adolescents-in-social-vulnerability
#16
Tassiane Cristine Santos de Paula, Fernanda Gonçalves Moreira, Sérgio Baxter Andreoli
OBJECTIVE: to study the effectiveness of a psychosocial care program in school continuity of adolescents in social vulnerability. METHODS: this was a retrospective cohort study involving 200 adolescents assisted in a multidisciplinary intervention program with harm reduction approach, from 2007 to 2012; the intervention effect was assessed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: 200 adolescents were included in the program; 116 of them continued and 84 dropped it; 74...
October 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782782/uneven-reductions-in-high-school-students-alcohol-use-from-2007-to-2012-by-age-sex-and-socioeconomic-strata
#17
Nicki Jackson, Simon Denny, Janie Sheridan, Terry Fleming, Terryann Clark, Roshini Peiris-John, Shanthi Ameratunga
BACKGROUND: Many Western countries have reported declines in adolescent alcohol use. This study examined changes in adolescent alcohol use in New Zealand between 2007 and 2012 and explored variations across sociodemographic strata. METHODS: Data from 2 nationally representative, cross-sectional high school surveys conducted in 2007 (n = 7709) and 2012 (n = 7266) were examined. Changes in the prevalence of drinking in the past 4 weeks were examined among the total sample, as well as the frequency of drinking in the past 4 weeks and typical drinking-occasion quantity among drinkers...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720453/-new-patterns-of-substance-use-and-abuse-among-french-adolescents-a-knowledge-synthesis
#18
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678342/the-effectiveness-acceptability-and-cost-effectiveness-of-psychosocial-interventions-for-maltreated-children-and-adolescents-an-evidence-synthesis
#19
REVIEW
Geraldine Macdonald, Nuala Livingstone, Jennifer Hanratty, Claire McCartan, Richard Cotmore, Maria Cary, Danya Glaser, Sarah Byford, Nicky J Welton, Tania Bosqui, Lucy Bowes, Suzanne Audrey, Gill Mezey, Helen L Fisher, Wendy Riches, Rachel Churchill
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment is a substantial social problem that affects large numbers of children and young people in the UK, resulting in a range of significant short- and long-term psychosocial problems. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise evidence of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of interventions addressing the adverse consequences of child maltreatment. STUDY DESIGN: For effectiveness, we included any controlled study...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621413/brief-primary-care-obesity-interventions-a-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Leslie A Sim, Jocelyn Lebow, Zhen Wang, Afton Koball, M Hassan Murad
CONTEXT: Although practice guidelines suggest that primary care providers working with children and adolescents incorporate BMI surveillance and counseling into routine practice, the evidence base for this practice is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of brief, primary care interventions for pediatric weight management on BMI. DATA SOURCES: Medline, CENTRAL, Embase, PsycInfo, and CINAHL were searched for relevant publications from January 1976 to March 2016 and cross-referenced with published studies...
October 2016: Pediatrics
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