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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740819/prophylactic-vaccination-against-human-papillomaviruses-to-prevent-cervical-cancer-and-its-precursors
#1
REVIEW
Marc Arbyn, Lan Xu, Cindy Simoens, Pierre Pl Martin-Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) types is causally linked with the development of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the harms and protection of prophylactic human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccines against cervical precancer and HPV16/18 infection in adolescent girls and women. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Embase (June 2017) for reports on effects from trials...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719972/juggling-two-balls-smoking-re-normalization-and-harm-reduction-e-cigarettes-facts-and-misconceptions-in-taiwan
#2
Wayne Gao, Mattia Sanna, Li-Ling Huang, Ya-Wen Chiu, Yi-Hua Chen, Hung-Yi Chiou
The increasing popularity of e-cigarettes, especially among adolescents, has alarmed health advocates and government officials, dominating the tobacco control narrative in the past few years. According to the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, the percentage of Taiwanese teenagers reporting use of e-cigarettes in the past 30 days rose from 2.01% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.82% to 2.23%) in 2014 to 3.54% (95% CI = 3.30% to 3.80%) in 2017. However, during the same period, prevalence of cigarettes declined from 11...
May 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718475/how-to-think-not-feel-about-tobacco-harm-reduction
#3
Kenneth E Warner
Introduction: The debate over tobacco harm reduction (THR) has divided the tobacco control community into two camps, one expressing serious reservations about THR while the other believes that reduced-risk products like e-cigarettes will disrupt the cigarette market. The often emotional debate would benefit from dispassionate data-based evaluation of evidence. Methods: After briefly discussing harm reduction in public health and specifically in tobacco control, this paper identifies major issues concerning e-cigarettes and reviews relevant evidence...
April 30, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669064/effects-of-e-cigarette-health-warnings-and-modified-risk-ad-claims-on-adolescent-e-cigarette-craving-and-susceptibility
#4
J Craig Andrews, Darren Mays, Richard G Netemeyer, Scot Burton, Jeremy Kees
Introduction: A between-subjects experiment examines the effects of different warning types and modified risk e-cigarette ad claims on adolescent e-cigarette craving and future e-cigarette susceptibility for two different themes. One theme focuses on nicotine and addiction, and the other on the effects of potentially harmful constituents (e.g., flavored chemicals and lung disease). Methods: The effects of warning type (control, text-only, graphic health warning (GHW) and text) and modified risk e-cigarette ad claims (control, exposure reduction, risk reduction) are tested experimentally with two different arms (themes) for a sample of 1,011 adolescents who had tried either e-cigarettes or cigarettes...
April 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667699/lean-perspectives-a-case-for-implementing-parent-child-relational-problem-screening
#5
Bryson C Okeoma
The purpose of the current study was to make a case for instituting parent-child relational problem (PCRP) screening as a standard of care in pediatric inpatient psychiatric units due to increasing evidence that PCRP may be an underreported problem that affects more adolescents than currently realized. Adolescents who are admitted to the hospital for mood exacerbation, suicidal ideation, self-harm behavior, or behavioral escalation may improve and be discharged. However, these adolescents often are readmitted, which may be associated with parent-child relational factors...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588345/documentation-of-sexual-history-in-hospitalized-adolescents-on-the-general-pediatrics-service
#6
Alison Riese, Elizabeth E Tarr, Janette Baird, Brian Alverson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of sexual history taking and the associated characteristics of hospitalized adolescents in the pediatric hospitalist service. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of adolescents 14 to 18 years old who were admitted to the pediatric hospitalist service at an urban, academic children's hospital in the Northeast from 2013 to 2015 was conducted. Repeat admissions, admissions to specialty services, and charts that noted impairment because of psychosis, cognitive delay, or illness severity were excluded...
April 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538396/quantifying-population-level-health-benefits-and-harms-of-e-cigarette-use-in-the-united-states
#7
Samir S Soneji, Hai-Yen Sung, Brian A Primack, John P Pierce, James D Sargent
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help cigarette smokers quit smoking, yet they may also facilitate cigarette smoking for never-smokers. We quantify the balance of health benefits and harms associated with e-cigarette use at the population level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Monte Carlo stochastic simulation model. Model parameters were drawn from census counts, national health and tobacco use surveys, and published literature. We calculate the expected years of life gained or lost from the impact of e-cigarette use on smoking cessation among current smokers and transition to long-term cigarette smoking among never smokers for the 2014 US population cohort...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527087/the-influences-of-described-and-experienced-information-on-adolescent-risky-decision-making
#8
Gail M Rosenbaum, Vinod Venkatraman, Laurence Steinberg, Jason M Chein
Adolescents are known to take more risks than adults, which can be harmful to their health and well-being. However, despite age differences in real-world risk taking, laboratory risk-taking paradigms often do not evince these developmental patterns. Recent findings in the literature suggest that this inconsistency may be due in part to differences between how adolescents process information about risk when it is described (e.g., in a description-based classroom intervention) versus when it is experienced (e...
March 2018: Developmental Review: DR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525770/steps-towards-alcohol-misuse-prevention-programme-stampp-a-school-based-and-community-based-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Michael McKay, Ashley Agus, Jonathan Cole, Paul Doherty, David Foxcroft, Séamus Harvey, Lynn Murphy, Andrew Percy, Harry Sumnall
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention (the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP)), compared with alcohol education as normal (EAN), in reducing self-reported heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related harms (ARHs) in adolescents. SETTING: 105 high schools in Northern Ireland (NI) and in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: Schools were stratified by free school meal provision...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485748/hiv-and-aids-among-adolescents-who-use-drugs-opportunities-for-drug-policy-reform-within-the-sustainable-development-agenda
#10
Khalid Tinasti
INTRODUCTION: The international community's commitment to halve by 2015 the HIV transmission among people who inject drugs has not only been largely missed, instead new HIV infections have increased by 30%. Moreover, drug injection remains one of the drivers of new HIV infections due to punitive responses and lack of harm reduction resourcing. In the midst of this situation, adolescents are a forgotten component of the global response to illegal drugs and their link with HIV infection...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470471/e-cigarette-use-in-new-zealand-a-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis
#11
Sarah Merry, Christopher R Bullen
AIM: This study aimed to systematically review the literature on e-cigarette use in New Zealand, focusing on prevalence, rationale for use, perceptions and exposure to the devices. METHODS: Six databases were systematically searched for articles regarding e-cigarette use in New Zealand, supplemented with a grey literature search. Seven hundred and eighteen abstracts were identified and full text of 100 articles reviewed. Studies addressing prevalence of and rationale for use, perceptions of and exposure to e-cigarettes were included...
February 23, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455713/age-specific-global-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-hiv-and-tuberculosis-among-incarcerated-people-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Stuart A Kinner, Kathryn Snow, Andrea L Wirtz, Frederick L Altice, Chris Beyrer, Kate Dolan
PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the global prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, and tuberculosis in incarcerated adolescents and young adults (AYAs) and older prisoners. METHODS: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting the age-specific prevalence of each infection in prisoners. We grouped age-specific prevalence estimates into three overlapping age categories: AYA prisoners (<25 years), older prisoners (≥25 years), and mixed category (spanning age 25 years)...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417834/helping-adolescents-to-better-support-their-peers-with-a-mental-health-problem-a-cluster-randomised-crossover-trial-of-teen-mental-health-first-aid
#13
Laura M Hart, Amy J Morgan, Alyssia Rossetto, Claire M Kelly, Andrew Mackinnon, Anthony F Jorm
BACKGROUND: teen Mental Health First Aid (tMHFA) is a classroom-based training programme for students aged 15-18 years to improve supportive behaviours towards peers, increase mental health literacy and reduce stigma. This research evaluated tMHFA by comparing it to a matched emergency Physical First Aid (PFA) training programme. METHODS: A cluster-randomised crossover trial matched four public schools in two pairs and then randomised each to first receive tMHFA or PFA for all Year 10 students...
February 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397445/population-attributable-risk-of-factors-associated-with-the-repetition-of-self-harm-behaviour-in-young-people-presenting-to-clinical-services-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Katrina Witt, Allison Milner, Matthew J Spittal, Sarah Hetrick, Jo Robinson, Jane Pirkis, Gregory Carter
The repetition of hospital-treated self-harm by young people is common. However, little work has summarised the modifiable factors associated with this. A thorough understanding of those factors most strongly associated with repetition could guide the development of relevant clinical interventions. We systematically reviewed four databases (EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and PsycINFO) until 15 April 2016 to identify all observational studies of factors for the repetition of self-harm or suicide reattempts (together referred to as 'self-harm behaviour') in young people...
February 3, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382632/a-smartphone-app-blueice-for-young-people-who-self-harm-open-phase-1-pre-post-trial
#15
Paul Stallard, Joanna Porter, Rebecca Grist
BACKGROUND: Recent years have seen a significant increase in the availability of smartphone apps for mental health problems. Despite their proliferation, few apps have been specifically developed for young people, and almost none have been subject to any form of evaluation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to undertake a preliminary evaluation of a smartphone app (BlueIce), coproduced with young people and designed to help young people manage distress and urges to self-harm...
January 30, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369917/androgen-abuse-epidemiology
#16
Dominic Sagoe, Ståle Pallesen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To systematically review current epidemiological literature on androgen abuse. Estimates from 32 empirical epidemiological articles were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Generally, androgen abuse epidemiology and prevalence is higher in Europe, the Middle East, North America (the USA), Oceania (Australia and New Zealand), and South America (Brazil) and lower in Africa and Asia. In contrast to the general population, androgen abuse epidemiology and prevalence is higher among athletes, injection drug users, recreational sportspeople, and sexual and gender minorities...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359282/-health-care-organization-the-new-german-s3-guideline-on-alcohol-related-disorders-and-its-relevance-for-health-care
#17
Arthur Günthner, Volker Weissinger, Heribert Fleischmann, Clemens Veltrup, Bettina Jäpel, Gerhard Längle, Klaus Amann, Eva Hoch, Karl Mann
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is one of the most serious diseases of addiction in Germany. The new S3-guideline "Screening, Diagnostics and Treatment of Alcohol-Related Disorders" has been presented in 2015 and summarizes the present state of knowledge pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. METHODS: This guideline was developed over four years within the framework of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF)...
January 22, 2018: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318284/screening-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#18
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, a lateral curvature of the spine of unknown cause with a Cobb angle of at least 10°, occurs in children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form and usually worsens during adolescence before skeletal maturity. Severe spinal curvature may be associated with adverse long-term health outcomes (eg, pulmonary disorders, disability, back pain, psychological effects, cosmetic issues, and reduced quality of life)...
January 9, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318283/screening-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#19
REVIEW
John Dunn, Nora B Henrikson, Caitlin C Morrison, Paula R Blasi, Matt Nguyen, Jennifer S Lin
Importance: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), a spinal curvature of 10° or more, is the most common form of scoliosis, with a prevalence of 1% to 3%. Curves progress in approximately two-thirds of patients with AIS before skeletal maturity, and large curves (>50°) may be associated with adverse health outcomes. Objective: To systematically review evidence on benefits and harms of AIS screening for the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Data Sources: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, and relevant systematic reviews were searched for studies published from January 1966 to October 20, 2016; studies included in a previous USPSTF report were also reviewed...
January 9, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273844/attitudes-perceptions-and-use-of-marijuana-in-youth-with-multiple-sclerosis
#20
J Nicholas Brenton, Teri Schreiner, Krystle Karoscik, Meg Richter, Samantha Ferrante, Amy Waldman, Brenda Banwell
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a negative impact on cognition and brain volume in marijuana-using adult multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy adolescents. Given that onset of MS during childhood and adolescence negatively impacts brain growth and the normal maturation of neuronal networks, the addition of marijuana exposure in these youth may be even more harmful. OBJECTIVE: Determine attitudes toward and prevalence of recreational marijuana use in MS youth...
February 2018: Journal of Neurology
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