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Angiotensin II

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149676/high-salt-diet-decreases-reproductive-performance-in-rams-and-down-regulates-gene-expression-of-some-components-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-the-testis
#1
Yi Fang, Rongzhen Zhong, Xuezhao Sun, Daowei Zhou
Although salt-tolerant plants can be used to combat dryland salinity, these plants contain high concentrations of salt (NaCl), which may have deleterious effects if fed to livestock. Twenty-four Merino rams (9 mo of age) with similar body weight were equally allocated to two groups and fed a normal- or high-salt diet (0.5 and 12% NaCl, respectively) for 3 mo. Rams fed the high-salt diet had lower live weight gains, higher water intake, smaller testes (466 ± 48.4 vs 604 ± 51.1 g) and reductions (P <0...
November 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148061/endocannabinoids-modulate-gq-11-protein-coupled-receptor-agonist-induced-vasoconstriction-via-a-negative-feedback-mechanism
#2
REVIEW
Olga Karpińska, Marta Baranowska-Kuczko, Monika Kloza, Hanna Kozłowska
OBJECTIVES: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system centrally and peripherally regulates cardiovascular parameters, including blood pressure, in health and disease. The relationship between Gq/11 protein-coupled receptor activation, regulation of eCBs release (mainly 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and subsequent CB1 receptor activation was initially observed in the central nervous system. Here, we review the latest findings from systemic physiological studies which include for the first time data from pulmonary arteries...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147891/long-term-presence-of-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-autoantibody-reduces-aldosterone-production-by-triggering-ca-2-overload-in-h295r-cells
#3
Jinghui Lei, Suli Zhang, Pengli Wang, Yang Liao, Jingwei Bian, Xiaochen Yin, Ye Wu, Lina Bai, Feng Wang, Xiaoli Yang, Huirong Liu
Preeclamptic women are reported to have inadequate plasma volume expansion coupled with a suppressed secretion of aldosterone; however, the specific mechanism of preeclampsia remains unclear. We demonstrated that the presence of long-term angiotensin II type 1 receptor autoantibody (AT1-AA) reduces aldosterone production by triggering a Ca(2+) overload in H295R cells. AT1-AA was discovered in preeclamptic women and reported to activate AT1R, and consequently elevate intracellular Ca(2+). We found that AT1-AA significantly prolonged the time of intracellular Ca(2+) elevation...
November 16, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146274/effects-of-angiotensin-neprilysin-inhibition-as-compared-to-angiotensin-inhibition-on-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-reduced-ejection-fraction-patients-under-continuous-remote-monitoring-of-implantable-defibrillator-devices
#4
Carlos de Diego, Luis González-Torres, José María Núñez, Raúl Centurión Inda, David A Martin-Langerwerf, Antonio D Sangio, Piotr Chochowski, Pilar Casasnovas, Julio C Blazquéz, Jesús Almendral
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition as compared to angiotensin inhibition decreased sudden cardiac death in reduced ejection fraction heart failure (rEFHF). The precise mechanism remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition on ventricular arrhythmias as compared to angiotensin inhibition in rEFHF patients with an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) and remote monitoring. METHODS: We prospectively included 120 patients with ICD and: 1) New York Heart Association functional class≥ II, 2) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40%, 3) remote monitoring...
November 13, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145252/identifications-of-potential-therapeutic-targets-and-drugs-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#5
Xiaoli Wu, Ruihua Fan
This study aimed to identify the underlying therapeutic targets of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension, and screen the related drugs.The gene expression profiles of GSE93579 and GSE75815 were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between AngII-induced hypertension and control samples based on meta-analysis. These DEGs were analyzed using Gene-Ontology (GO) function and pathway enrichment methods. Subsequently, the weighed gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA)-based meta-analysis was applied to determine transcriptional signature with DEGs...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145198/heavy-alcohol-consumption-effects-on-blood-pressure-and-on-kidney-structure-persist-after-long-term-withdrawal
#6
Sandra Leal, Dinis-Oliveira Ricardo Jorge, Barbosa Joana, Silva Susana Maria, Sá Susana Isabel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Heavy ethanol consumption is a risk factor for hypertension and prompts organ damage. There is no information regarding the impact of long-term heavy ethanol consumption on kidney structure and function linking to their hypertensive effects nor the repercussions after withdrawal. METHODS: Rats were exposed to ethanol for 24 weeks and, afterwards, a group was assigned to withdrawal for 8 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) was measured and serum biochemical parameters were quantified...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142252/gallic-acid-reduces-blood-pressure-and-attenuates-oxidative-stress-and-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#7
Li Jin, Zhe Hao Piao, Simei Sun, Bin Liu, Gwi Ran Kim, Young Mi Seok, Ming Quan Lin, Yuhee Ryu, Sin Young Choi, Hae Jin Kee, Myung Ho Jeong
Gallic acid (GA) has been reported to have beneficial effects on cancer, vascular calcification, and diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction. We hypothesized that GA controls hypertension via oxidative stress response regulation in an animal model for essential hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were administered GA for 16 weeks. GA treatment lowered elevated systolic blood pressure in SHRs through the inhibition of vascular contractility and components of the renin-angiotensin II system. In addition, GA administration reduced aortic wall thickness and body weight in SHRs...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140957/beneficial-effects-of-angiotensin-1-7-on-cd34-cells-from-heart-failure-patients
#8
Colleen T Cole-Jeffrey, Carl J Pepine, Michael J Katovich, Maria B Grant, Mohan K Raizada, Sugata Hazra
The dysfunctional nature of CD34 cells from heart failure (HF) patients makes them unsuitable for autologous stem cell therapy. In view of evidence that the vasoprotective axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) improves CD34 cell functions, we hypothesized that CD34 cells from HF patients will be dysfunctional and that Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] would improve their function. Peripheral blood was collected from NYHA class II-IV HF patients (n=31) and reference subjects (n=16). CD34 cell numbers from HF patients were reduced by 47% (p<0...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140821/retarding-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-use-of-modalities-that-counter-acid-retention
#9
Jeffrey A Kraut, Nicolaos E Madias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acid retention because of chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases tissue acidity and accelerates progression of CKD, whereas reduction in acid retention slows progression of CKD. Herein, we describe the mechanisms through which increased tissue acidity worsens CKD, modalities for countering acid retention and their impact on progression of CKD, and current recommendations for therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in animals and humans show that increased tissue acidity raises the renal levels of endothelin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and ammoniagenesis, thereby worsening renal fibrosis and causing progression of CKD...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140729/gene-expression-and-gene-associations-during-the-development-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-the-dahl-salt-sensitive-model-of-hypertension
#10
Jeffrey Yim, Hyokeun Cho, Simon W Rabkin
Gene expression and associations were examined in a model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a condition with minimal effective treatment. Genes with at least two studies showing significant changes in Dahl rat with heart failure were examined by meta-analysis. Significantly increased in expression were iNOS, p47phox, ADM, ANP, OPN, ACE, MCP-1, GP91PHOX, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, CTGF, ET-1, p22phox, ETB, BNP, ETA, MMP13, Col1a1, MMP2, TIMP1, Col3a1, Il-1β, β-MHC, ECE1, MMP14, AGT, and MMP9...
November 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140411/effect-of-angiotensin-ii-and-acth-on-adrenal-blood-flow-in-the-male-rat-adrenal-gland-in-vivo
#11
Abdul J Shah, Tamas Kriska, Kathryn M Gauthier, John R Falck, William B Campbell
Angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) regulate adrenal vascular tone in vitro through endothelial and/or zona glomeulosa cell-derived mediators. The role of these mediators in regulating adrenal blood flow (ABF) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was examined in anesthetized rats. Ang II (0.01-100 ng/kg) increased ABF (maximal increase of 97.2 ± 6.9 perfusion units (PU) at 100 ng/kg) and MAP (basal, 115 ± 7 mm Hg; Ang II, 163 ± 5 mm Hg). ACTH (0.1-1000 ng/kg) also increased ABF (maximum increase of 91...
November 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138860/an-rna%C3%A2-sequencing-study-identifies-candidate-genes-for-angiotensin-ii%C3%A2-induced-cardiac-remodeling
#12
Jin Shu, Zhanwen Liu, Li Jin, Haiya Wang
The present study aimed to reveal the underlying mechanism of angiotensin II (AngII)‑induced cardiac remodeling and to identify potential therapeutic targets for prevention. Rat cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were cultured with 10 nM AngII for 12 h, and CFs without AngII were used as the control. Following RNA isolation from AngII treated and control CFs, RNA‑sequencing was performed to detect gene expression levels. Differentially‑expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the linear models for microarray analysis package in R software, and their functions and pathways were examined via enrichment analysis...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138270/low-and-high-renin-heart-failure-phenotypes-with-clinical-implications
#13
Noemi Pavo, Georg Goliasch, Raphael Wurm, Johannes Novak, Guido Strunk, Mariann Gyöngyösi, Marko Poglitsch, Marcus D Säemann, Martin Hülsmann
BACKGROUND: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) represents a main strategy in the therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), but the role of active renin concentration (ARC) for guiding therapy in the presence of an RAS blockade remains to be established. This study assessed angiotensin profiles of HFrEF patients with distinct RAS activations as reflected by ARC. METHODS: Two cohorts of stable chronic HFrEF patients on optimal medical treatment (OMT) were enrolled...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138017/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-enhance-the-hypotensive-effects-of-propofol-by-increasing-nitric-oxide-production
#14
Gustavo H Oliveira-Paula, Lucas C Pinheiro, Graziele C Ferreira, Waynice N P Garcia, Riccardo Lacchini, Luis V Garcia, Jose E Tanus-Santos
Propofol anesthesia is usually accompanied by hypotension. Studies have shown that the hypotensive effects of propofol increase in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). Given that both propofol and ACEi affect nitric oxide (NO) signaling, the present study tested the hypothesis that ACEi treatment induces pronounced hypotensive responses to propofol by increasing NO bioavailability. In this study we evaluated 65 patients, divided into three groups: hypertensive patients chronically treated with ACEi (HT-ACEi; n=21), hypertensive patients treated with other antihypertensive drugs instead of ACEi, such as angiotensin II receptor blockers, β-blockers or diuretics (HT; n=21) and healthy normotensive subjects (NT; n=23)...
November 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137154/two-sulfur-glycoside-compounds-isolated-from-lepidium-apetalum-willd-protect-nrk52e-cells-against-hypertonic-induced-adhesion-and-inflammation-by-suppressing-the-mapk-signaling-pathway-and-raas
#15
Peipei Yuan, Xiaoke Zheng, Meng Li, Yingying Ke, Yang Fu, Qi Zhang, Xiaolan Wang, Weisheng Feng
Lepidium apetalum Willd has been used to reduce edema and promote urination. Cis-desulfoglucotropaeolin (cis-DG) and trans-desulfoglucotropaeolin (trans-DG) were isolated from Lepidium apetalum Willd, and caused a significant increase in cell viability in a hypertonic model in NRK52e cells. In the hypertonic model, cis-DG and trans-DG significantly promoted the cell viability of NRK52e cells and inhibited the elevation of Na⁺ in the supernatant, inhibited the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) system, significantly reduced the levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone (ALD), and lowered aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and Na⁺-K⁺ ATP content in renal medulla...
November 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136335/sii-ang-ii-potentiates-insulin-receptor-signalling-and-glycogen-synthesis-in-hepatocytes
#16
Samra Joke Sanni, Christina Lyngsø, Steen Gammeltoft, Jakob Lerche Hansen
The angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Excessive activation of AT1R by angiotensin II (Ang II) leads to cardiovascular disease and may be involved in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Functionally selective Ang II analogues, such as the [Sar1, Ile4, Ile8]-angiotensin II (SII Ang II) analogue that only activates a subset of signalling networks have been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular function in certain settings, including lowering blood pressure and increasing cardiac performance...
November 14, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135932/extracts-of-crataegus-oxyacantha-and-rosmarinus-officinalis-attenuate-ischemic-myocardial-damage-by-decreasing-oxidative-stress-and-regulating-the-production-of-cardiac-vasoactive-agents
#17
Raúl Enrique Cuevas-Durán, Juan Carlos Medrano-Rodríguez, María Sánchez-Aguilar, Elizabeth Soria-Castro, María Esther Rubio-Ruíz, Leonardo Del Valle-Mondragón, Alicia Sánchez-Mendoza, Juan Carlos Torres-Narvaéz, Gustavo Pastelín-Hernández, Luz Ibarra-Lara
Numerous studies have supported a role for oxidative stress in the development of ischemic damage and endothelial dysfunction. Crataegus oxyacantha (Co) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Ro) extracts are polyphenolic-rich compounds that have proven to be efficient in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effect of extracts from Co and Ro on the myocardial damage associated with the oxidative status and to the production of different vasoactive agents. Rats were assigned to the following groups: (a) sham; (b) vehicle-treated myocardial infarction (MI) (MI-V); (c) Ro extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro); (d) Co extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Co); or (e) Ro+Co-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro+Co)...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133788/regulation-of-angiotensin-ii-actions-by-enhancers-and-super-enhancers-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#18
Sadhan Das, Parijat Senapati, Zhuo Chen, Marpadga A Reddy, Rituparna Ganguly, Linda Lanting, Varun Mandi, Anita Bansal, Amy Leung, Selena Zhang, Ye Jia, Xiwei Wu, Dustin E Schones, Rama Natarajan
Angiotensin II (AngII) promotes hypertension and atherosclerosis by activating growth-promoting and pro-inflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Enhancers and super-enhancers (SEs) play critical roles in driving disease-associated gene expression. However, enhancers/SEs mediating VSMC dysfunction remain uncharacterized. Here, we show that AngII alters vascular enhancer and SE repertoires in cultured VSMCs in vitro, ex vivo, and in AngII-infused mice aortas in vivo. AngII-induced enhancers/SEs are enriched in binding sites for signal-dependent transcription factors and dependent on key signaling kinases...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132172/can-screening-and-confirmatory-testing-in-the-management-of-patients-with-primary-aldosteronism-be-improved
#19
Michael Stowasser, Ashraf Ahmed, Zeng Guo, Martin Wolley, Jacobus Ungerer, Brett McWhinney, Marko Poglitsch, Richard Gordon
Widespread application of the plasma aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) as a screening test has led to the recognition that primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common specifically treatable and potentially curable form of hypertension, accounting for 5-10% of patients. Maximal detection requires accurate diagnostic approaches and awareness and control of factors that confound results, including most antihypertensives, posture, time of day, dietary salt, and plasma potassium. Recent studies have revealed potential for false positives in patients on beta-adrenoceptor blockers, and, when direct renin concentration (but not plasma renin activity) is used to measure renin, in women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or receiving estrogen-containing contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy...
November 13, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131070/pathophysiology-of-post-transplant-hypertension-in-kidney-transplant-focus-on-calcineurin-inhibitors-induced-oxidative-stress-and-renal-sodium-retention-and-implications-with-rhoa-rho-kinase-pathway
#20
Lorenzo A Calò, Verdiana Ravarotto, Francesca Simioni, Elena Naso, Francesco Marchini, Luciana Bonfante, Lucrezia Furian, Paolo Rigotti
Post-transplant hypertension is a common occurrence during treatment with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in kidney transplant population. The pathogenesis of vasoconstriction induced by CNIs involves vascular tone alterations and kidney sodium transport regulation. Among the factors involved a key role is played by the activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system with enhanced release of Angiotensin II (Ang II) and increase of oxidative stress. A common pathway between oxidative stress and hypertension induced by CNIs may be identified in the involvement of the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway, key for the induction of hypertension and cardiovascular-renal remodeling, of the oxidative stress mediated increased nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and increased renal sodium retention via increased activity of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule...
October 16, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
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