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Angiotensin II

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748582/extravasal-albumin-concentration-modulates-contractile-responses-of-renal-afferent-arterioles
#1
Xiang Gao, Zhi Zhao Liu, Hayar Mohammed, Zhengbing Zhuge, Ming Liu, En Yin Lai, Leif Jansson, Mattias Carlström, Andreas Patzak, A Erik G Persson
AIM: Afferent arterioles (AA) hold a key position in the regulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Being the effector site of tubuloglomerular feedback the afferent arteriole contributes to the renal handling of sodium and fluid. Dehydration goes along with increased renal interstitial protein concentration. Here, the hypothesis was tested that extravasal protein concentration directly modulates afferent arteriolar tone; a mechanism which may contribute to body fluid volume control...
July 27, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746924/cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-p21waf1-cip1-facilitates-the-development-of-cardiac-hypertrophy
#2
Yang-Fei Tong, Yan Wang, Yuan-Yuan Ding, Jing-Mei Li, Xi-Chun Pan, Xiao-Lan Lu, Xiao-Hong Chen, Ya Liu, Hai-Gang Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Adult cardiomyocytes can re-enter cell cycle as stimulated by prohypertrophic factors although they withdraw from cell cycle soon after birth. p21WAF1/CIP1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy, however, its precise contribution to this process remains largely unclear. METHODS: The gene expression profile in left ventricle (LV) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined using quantitative PCR array and verified by real-time PCR and Western blotting...
July 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746216/the-impact-of-host-s-genetic-susceptibility-on-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-children
#3
Maria Oana Mărginean, Cristina Oana Mărginean, Lorena Elena Meliţ, Septimiu Voidăzan, Valeriu Moldovan, Claudia Bănescu
The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of interleukin (IL)-6 190C/T, IL-6 174G/C, IL-6 572G/C, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) 308G/A, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D gene polymorphisms on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children.A cross-sectional study was performed on 126 children (57 children with H. pylori infection and 69 children without H. pylori infection) aged between 3 and 18 years presenting to a Pediatrics Tertiary Hospital from Romania. Children were assessed clinically, endoscopically, histopathologically, and genetically...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745215/nitroxyl-anion-mediates-relaxation-in-mesenteric-arteries-from-angiotensin-ii-hypertensive-mice
#4
Brandi M Wynne, Hicham Labazi, Rita C Tostes, R Clinton Webb
AIMS: Nitroxyl anion (HNO) has recently become an emerging candidate in vascular regulation. NO- is a potent vasodilator of both conduit and small resistance vessels and mediates relaxation in a soluble guanylate cyclase-dependent manner. Interestingly, HNO activates voltage-dependent K+ (K+V) channels, whereas nitric oxide (NO) activates calcium-activated K+ channels. To date, there are few studies investigating the role of HNO in hypertension, and the possible mechanisms, which may be altered during this condition...
July 25, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743805/ephrinb2-regulates-cardiac-fibrosis-through-modulating-the-interaction-of-stat3-and-tgf-%C3%AE-smad3-signaling
#5
Sheng-An Su, Du Yang, Yue Wu, Yao Xie, Wei Zhu, Zhejun Cai, Jian Shen, Zurong Fu, Yaping Wang, Liangliang Jia, Yidong Wang, Jian'an Wang, Meixiang Xiang
Rationale: Cardiac fibrosis is a common feature in left ventricular remodeling that leads to heart failure, regardless of the etiology. Erythropoietin-producing hepatoma interactor B2 (EphrinB2), a pivotal bidirectional signaling molecule ubiquitously expressed in mammals, is crucial in angiogenesis during development and disease progression. Recently, EphrinB2 was reported to protect kidneys from injury-induced fibrogenesis. However, its role in cardiac fibrosis remains to be clarified. Objective: We sought to determine the role of EphrinB2 in cardiac fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms during the pathological remodeling process...
July 25, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742157/angiotensin-ii-system-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-contributes-to-autonomic-dysreflexia-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Kai Wang, Shaoxia Duan, Xueping Wen, Weizhong Wang, Shangping Fang, Dunyi Qi, Xiang Huan, Liwei Wang, Zhenzhou He
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threating complication after spinal cord injury (SCI), characterized by episodic hypertension induced by colon or bladder distension. The objective of this study was to determine the role of impaired baroreflex regulation by the nucleus tractus solitarii(NTS) in the occurrence of AD in a rat model. METHODS: T4 spinal cord transection animal model was used in this study, which included 40 Male rats Colorectal distension (CD) was performed to assess AD and compare the changes of BP, HR, and BRS, six weeks after operation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741243/the-pharmacogenomic-and-metabolomic-predictors-of-ace-inhibitor-and-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blocker-effectiveness-and-safety
#7
Hania K Flaten, Andrew A Monte
Hypertension (HTN) is the most common chronic disease in the USA. Hypertensive patients frequently require repeat primary care visits to find an effective drug or drug combination to control their disease. Currently, patients are prescribed drugs for HTN based on race, age, and comorbidities and although the current guidelines are reasonable starting points for prescribing, 50% of hypertensive patients still fail to achieve target blood pressures. Despite numerous strategies to improve compliance, drug effectiveness, and optimization of initial drug choice, effectiveness has remained largely unchanged over the past two decades...
July 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738355/impact-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-inhibition-on-serum-potassium-levels-among-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#8
Silvia Carreira Ribeiro, Ana Elizabeth Figueiredo, Pasqual Barretti, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Thyago Proença de Moraes
BACKGROUND: The chronic use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blocker has been associated with hyperkalemia in patients with reduced renal function even after the initiation of hemodialysis. Whether such medications may cause a similar effect in peritoneal dialysis patients is not well established. So, the aim of our study was to analyze the impact of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors on the serum levels of potassium in a national cohort of peritoneal dialysis patients...
July 22, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737438/prenatal-exposure-to-angiotensin-ii-increases-blood-pressure-and-decreases-salt-sensitivity-in-rats
#9
Pavel Svitok, Tomas Senko, Zuzana Panakova, Lucia Olexova, Lucia Krskova, Monika Okuliarova, Michal Zeman
Renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an essential role in the homeostatic control of arterial blood pressure, perfusion of tissues, and control of extracellular fluid. Its components are highly expressed in the developing kidney, general vasculature, brain, and heart. A modified intrauterine environment alters mechanisms controlling blood pressure (BP) and can lead to hypertension in the adult offspring and developmentally programmed RAAS can be involved in this process. There are very little data about the effects of increased angiotensin II (Ang II) concentrations during pregnancy on in utero development of the fetus...
July 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733880/effect-of-asiatic-acid-on-the-ang-ii-at1r-nadph-oxidase-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-renovascular-hypertensive-rats
#10
Putcharawipa Maneesai, Sarawoot Bunbupha, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Laddawan Senggunprai, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Parichat Prachaney, Poungrat Pakdeechote
Asiatic acid, a triterpenoid compound derived from Centella asiatica, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study evaluated the effects of asiatic acid on hemodynamic alterations, renin-angiotensin system (RAS), oxidative stress, and inflammation in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with vehicle, asiatic acid (30 mg/kg/day), or captopril (5 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. We observed that 2K-1C hypertensive rats exhibited hemodynamic alterations such as high blood pressure, heart rate, hindlimb vascular resistance, and low hindlimb blood flow...
July 21, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733707/angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockers-inhibit-kat-ii-activity-in-the-brain-its-possible-clinical-applications
#11
Izabela Zakrocka, Katarzyna M Targowska-Duda, Artur Wnorowski, Tomasz Kocki, Krzysztof Jóźwiak, Waldemar A Turski
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are one of the most frequently recommended antihypertensive drugs. Apart from their activity towards the circulatory system, ARBs also penetrate the blood-brain barrier and display neuroprotective effects. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan produced by kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) in the brain. Antagonism towards all ionotropic glutamate (GLU) receptors is the main mechanism of KYNA action. An elevated brain level of KYNA is linked with memory impairment and psychotic symptoms...
July 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733135/centrally-mediated-cardiovascular-actions-of-the-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor
#12
REVIEW
U Muscha Steckelings, Annette de Kloet, Colin Sumners
Sustained increases in the activity of the sympathetic neural pathways that exit the brain and which increase blood pressure (BP) are a major underlying factor in resistant hypertension. Recently available information on the occurrence of angiotensin II type 2 receptors (AT2Rs) within or adjacent to brain cardiovascular control centers is consistent with findings that stimulation of these receptors lowers BP, particularly during hypertension of neurogenic origin. Until recently brain AT2R had not been considered by many to play a role in the central control of BP...
July 18, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732170/angiotensin-ii-receptors-modulation-of-calcium-homeostasis-in-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#13
Maud Kamal, Danielle Jacques, Ghassan Bkaily
Angiotensin II (AngII) plays an important role in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle function. However, little is known about AngII and its receptors AT1 (AT1R) and AT2 (AT2R) and their modulation of intracellular calcium in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in general and more particularly of human origin. Using western blots, our results showed that AT1Rs and AT2Rs are present in human VECs (hVECs). Using quantitative 3D confocal imaging, our results showed that AngII is present at the cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic levels and its relative density is lower in the nucleoplasm...
July 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731126/mir%C3%A2-132-in-atrial-fibrillation-directly-targets-connective-tissue-growth-factor
#14
Gang Qiao, Dongsheng Xia, Zhaoyun Cheng, Guobao Zhang
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently occurring, persistent cardiac arrhythmia, and the hallmark of AF‑dependent structural remodeling is atrial fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is important in the process of fibrosis. The association between miRNA and CTGF in AF‑dependent fibrosis remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine if microRNA (miR)‑132 was able to regulate CTGF with an anti‑fibrotic effect in AF. A total of ten dogs or patients were assigned to control (n=4) and AF groups (n=6)...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730833/short-term-administration-of-melatonin-or-ghrelin-on-diabetic-rats-effects-on-angiotensin-ii-and-vasopressin-induced-uterine-contractility
#15
D Sugár, R Agócs, E Tatár, G Tóth, P Horváth, E Sulyok, A J Szabó
The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) molecules are a group of high molecular weight, negatively charged polysaccharides present abundantly in the mammalian organism. By their virtue of ion and water binding capacity, they may affect the redistribution of body fluids and ultimately the blood pressure. Data from the literature suggests that the mitogens Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-A and VEGF-C are able to regulate the amount and charge density of GAGs and their detachment from the cell surface. Based on these findings we investigated the relationship between the level of dietary sodium intake, the expression levels of VEGF-A and VEGF-C, and the amount of the skin GAGs hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate in an in vivo rat model...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730079/effect-of-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blocker-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-on-the-intraocular-growth-factors-and-their-receptors-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#16
Ik Soo Byon, Dong Hyun Lee, Eun Sook Jun, Min Kyu Shin, Sung Who Park, Ji Eun Lee
AIM: To investigate the effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) on intraocular growth factors and their receptors in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM), candesartan-treated DM, and enalapril-treated DM (each group, n=10). After the induction of DM by streptozotocin, candesartan [ARB, 5 mg/(kg·d)] and enalapril [ACEI, 10 mg/(kg·d)] were administered to rats orally for 4wk...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729364/tgf-%C3%AE-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-protects-the-thoracic-and-abdominal-aorta-from-angiotensin-ii-induced-pathology-by-distinct-mechanisms
#17
Stoyan N Angelov, Jie Hong Hu, Hao Wei, Nathan Airhart, Minghui Shi, David A Dichek
OBJECTIVE: The role of TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β) signaling in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation is controversial. Others reported that systemic blockade of TGF-β by neutralizing antibodies accelerated AAA development in angiotensin II-infused mice. This result is consistent with other studies suggesting that TGF-β signaling prevents AAA. Development of a therapy for AAA that exploits the protective actions of TGF-β would be facilitated by identification of the mechanisms through which TGF-β prevents AAA...
July 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727938/difference-in-the-response-to-angiotensin-ii-between-left-and-right-ventricular-endocardial-endothelial-cells
#18
Danielle Jacques, Nelly Abdel-Karim Abdel-Malak, Nadia Abou Abdallah, Johny Al-Khoury, Ghassan Bkaily
Previous studies focused on the right ventricular endocardial endothelial cells (EECRs) and showed that angiotensin II (AngII) induced increase in cytosolic and nuclear calcium via AT1 receptor activation. In the present study, we verified whether the response of left EECs (EECLs) to AngII is different than that of EECRs. Our results showed that the EC50 of the AngII-induced increase of cytosolic and nuclear calcium in EECLs was ten times higher (around 2x10-13M) than in EECRs (around 8x10-12M). The densities of both AT1 and AT2 receptors were also higher in EECLs than those previously reported in EECRs...
July 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727756/dysregulation-of-micrornas-and-renin-angiotensin-system-in-high-salt-diet-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-in-uninephrectomized-rats
#19
Venkateswara Rao Amara, Sunil Kumar Surapaneni, Kulbhushan Tikoo
Uninephrectomy is not associated with major adverse events in cardiovascular and renal functions of live kidney donors. The effect of high salt diet on the quality of life of live kidney donors is largely unknown. Hence in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of high salt diet on the alterations of renin-angiotensin system and microRNAs leading to CV and renal dysfunction in uninephrectomized rats. In order to mimic clinical scenario, uninephrectomized male Sprague Dawley rats were fed initially with normal pellet diet for 12 weeks and then for 20 weeks with high salt (10% w/w NaCl) diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726518/differential-responses-of-mesenteric-arterial-bed-to-vasoactive-substances-in-l-name-induced-preeclampsia-role-of-oxidative-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#20
Taline A S Amaral, Dayane T Ognibene, Lenize C R M Carvalho, Ana Paula M Rocha, Cristiane A Costa, Roberto S Moura, Angela C Resende
To investigate the systemic and placental oxidant status as well as vascular function in experimental preeclampsia (PE) induced by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Fetal parameters and maternal blood pressure, proteinuria, mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) reactivity, and systemic and placental oxidative stress were compared between four groups: pregnant rats receiving L-NAME (60 mg/kg/day, orally) (P + L-NAME) or vehicle (P) from days 13 to 20 of pregnancy and nonpregnant rats receiving L-NAME (NP + L-NAME) or vehicle (NP) during 7 days...
July 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
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