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Angiotensin II

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544034/knock-down-of-farnesyl-pyrophosphate-synthase-protects-heart-derived-h9c2-cells-against-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-injury
#1
Dong-Pu Dai, Huan-Dong Wu, Jian Yang, Shi-Zhen Shen, Chen-Ze Zhao, Jie Ding, Shen-Jiang Hu
Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. Our previous studies have indicated that cardiac-specific overexpression of FPPS induces cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice, and inhibition of FPPS prevents angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes. However, the role for FPPS in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR) injury is still not clear. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of FPPS on MIR injury in H9c2 cells which were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR) to mimic MIR...
May 24, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542215/treatment-with-enalapril-and-not-diltiazem-ameliorated-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-rats-and-normalized-renal-at1-receptor-expression-as-measured-with-pet-imaging
#2
Basma Ismail, Rob A deKemp, Etienne Croteau, Tayebeh Hadizad, Kevin D Burns, Rob S Beanlands, Jean N DaSilva
ACE inhibitors are considered first line of treatment in patients with many forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Other antihypertensives such as calcium channel blockers achieve similar therapeutic effectiveness in attenuating hypertension-related renal damage progression. Our objective was to explore the value of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of renal AT1 receptor (AT1R) to guide therapy in the 5/6 subtotal-nephrectomy (Nx) rat model of CKD. Ten weeks after Nx, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 10mg/kg/d enalapril (NxE), 30mg/kg/d diltiazem (NxD) or left untreated (Nx) for an additional 8-10 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540409/angiotensin-ii-induces-calcium-calcineurin-signaling-and-podocyte-injury-by-downregulating-microrna-30-family-members
#3
Yue Zhao, Junnan Wu, Mingchao Zhang, Minlin Zhou, Feng Xu, Xiaodong Zhu, Xianguang Zhou, Yue Lang, Fan Yang, Shifeng Yun, Shaolin Shi, Zhihong Liu
Angiotensin II (AngII) is capable of inducing calcium/calcineurin signaling and podocyte injury; however, the precise underlying mechanism is not well understood. Because we have previously demonstrated that microRNA-30s (miR-30s) inhibit calcium/calcineurin signaling in podocytes, we hypothesize that AngII may induce podocyte injury by downregulating miR-30s and thereby activating calcium/calcineurin signaling. To test this hypothesis, we used an AngII-induced podocyte injury mouse model. The mice were treated with AngII via infusion for 28 days, which resulted in hypertension, albuminuria, and glomerular damage...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539232/adipose-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-associated-protein-ameliorates-metabolic-disorders-via-promoting-adipose-tissue-adipogenesis-and-browning
#4
Chengting Luo, Na Lv, Zai Chang, Qiannuo Qu, Jianzhen Huang
Adipose tissue is a complicated organ that not only stores excess energy, but also secrets many adipokines regulating whole-body energy hemostasis. Dysfunction of adipose tissue leads to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we generated a mouse model with overexpression of Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein (ATRAP) in adipose tissue specifically. Under a normal diet, ATRAP transgene (TgATRAP) mice showed similar bodyweight, fat mass and insulin sensitivity with wild-type controls (WT)...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537660/relation-between-blood-pressure-variability-and-early-renal-damage-in-hypertensive-patients
#5
L-H Yin, W-J Yan, Z-X Guo, F-Z Zhou, H-Y Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to observe the relation between blood pressure variability (BPV) and early renal damage in hypertensive patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 118 hypertensive patients were consecutively selected. General parameters including sex, age, duration, and grade of hypertension, antihypertensive drugs taken, smoking status, blood sugar, blood lipid level, body mass index, indexes of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and renal function including cystatin C (CysC), serum creatinine (SCr), angiotensin II (Ang II), microalbuminuria (mALb), and urine creatinine (UCr) were measured...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536140/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-1-in-the-median-preoptic-nucleus-contributes-to-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-hypertension
#6
Katelynn E Faulk, T Prashant Nedungadi, J Thomas Cunningham
Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is used to model the arterial hypoxemia seen in sleep apnea patients and is associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity and a sustained diurnal increase in blood pressure. The renin angiotensin system has been associated with hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1, which cleaves angiotensin I to the active counterpart angiotensin II, is present within the central nervous system and has been shown to be regulated by AP-1 transcription factors, such as ΔFosB...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535551/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-modulate-the-function-of-myelinated-fibers-after-chemotherapy-a-quantitative-sensory-testing-study
#7
Carlos J Roldan, Juhee Song, Mitchell P Engle, Patrick M Dougherty
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) have sufficient scientific support for their use as tissue protectors. Preliminary studies suggest that their angiotensin-II type 2 receptor (AT2R)-blocking properties have a beneficial profile in the treatment of neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study was to quantify the extent of the somatosensory effects of ACEI and ARB in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy...
May 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535536/losartan-preserves-erectile-function-by-suppression-of-apoptosis-and-fibrosis-of-corpus-cavernosum-and-corporal-veno-occlusive-dysfunction-in-diabetic-rats
#8
Wen Ji Li, Mingxi Xu, Meng Gu, Da-Chao Zheng, Jianhua Guo, Zhikang Cai, Zhong Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays important roles in penile corporal fibrosis and veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD). Angiotensin II (Ang II) is critically involved in erectile dysfunction, and blocking of Ang II is more important than inhibition of TGF-β in non-penile tissue fibrosis. However, the role of Ang II in corporal fbrosis and CVOD in a diabetic condition has not been investigated. METHODS: Diabetic rats were treated with sildenafil or losartan (an Ang II antagonist) alone or in combination...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534086/neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-modulation-of-intracellular-ca-2-handling-overrides-fatty-acid-potentiation-of-cardiac-inotropy-in-hypertensive-rats
#9
Chun Li Jin, Ming Zhe Yin, Jin Chul Paeng, Seunggyun Ha, Jeong Hoon Lee, Peng Jin, Chun Zi Jin, Zai Hao Zhao, Yue Wang, Keon Wook Kang, Chae Hun Leem, Jong-Wan Park, Sung Joon Kim, Yin Hua Zhang
Cardiac neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an important molecule that regulates intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and contractility of healthy and diseased hearts. Here, we examined the effects of nNOS on fatty acid (FA) regulation of left ventricular (LV) myocyte contraction in sham and angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive (HTN) rats. Our results showed that palmitic acid (PA, 100 μM) increased the amplitudes of sarcomere shortening and intracellular ATP in sham but not in HTN despite oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was increased by PA in both groups...
May 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533289/treatment-with-standard-and-low-dose-of-conjugated-equine-estrogen-differentially-modulates-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-response-to-angiotensin-ii-in-mesenteric-venular-bed-of-surgically-postmenopausal-hypertensive-rats
#10
Priscila Xavier Araujo, Tiago Januario Costa, Cinthya Echem, Maria Aparecida Oliveira, Rosangela Aparecida Santos-Eichler, Lucas Giglio Colli, Francesc Jimenez-Altayo, Elisabet Vila, Eliana Hiromi Akamine, Ana Paula Dantas, Graziela Scalianti Ceravolo, Maria Helena Catelli de Carvalho
Standard hormone therapy for menopausal women [conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) 0.625 mg] has been associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis. Regimens containing lower CEE dose (0.30 mg) have been clinically used to decrease side effects of supra-physiological doses of estrogen. In this study, we determined the effects of standard (SD) and low (LD) dose of CEE on venular function in ovariectomized (OVX) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Contractions to Angiotensin-II (Ang-II 10μM) in perfused mesenteric venular bed were markedly increased in OVX (21...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533088/a-ubiquitin-proteasome-inhibitor-bortezomib-suppresses-the-expression-of-cyp11b2-a-key-enzyme-of-aldosterone-synthesis-as-revealed-by-chemical-screening
#11
Ryo Ito, Ikuko Sato, Tadayuki Tsujita, Atsushi Yokoyama, Akira Sugawara
CYP11B2 is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. CYP11B2 expression in the adrenal glands is controlled by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and plays an important role in the maintenance of electrolyte metabolism in higher organisms. Abnormal overexpression of CYP11B2 results in the disruption of mineral balance and can lead to hypertension. Though the molecular mechanism of the regulation of CYP11B2 expression has remained elusive, we hypothesize that compounds that prevent CYP11B2 expression could represent a novel class of antihypertensive drugs...
May 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531801/ace-2-ang1-7-mas-cascade-mediates-ace-inhibitor-captopril-protective-effects-in-estrogen-deficient-osteoporotic-rats
#12
Hatem M Abuohashish, Mohammed M Ahmed, Dina Sabry, Mahmoud M Khattab, Salim S Al-Rejaie
The local role of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) was documented recently beside its conventional systemic functions. Studies showed that the effector angiotensin II (AngII) alters bone health, while inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-1) preserved these effects. The newly identified Ang1-7 exerts numerous beneficial effects opposing the AngII. Thus, the current study examines the role of Ang1-7 in mediating the osteo-preservative effects of ACEI (captopril) through the G-protein coupled Mas receptor using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis...
May 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530466/angiotensin-type-1-receptor-a1166c-polymorphism-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-correlation-with-cellular-immunity-and-oxidative-stress-markers
#13
H Baniamerian, F Bahrehmand, A Vaisi-Raygani, Z Rahimi, T Pourmotabbed
Angiotensin II, one of the rennin-angiotensin system components, is important in the cardiovascular hemodynamic and plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The angiotensin II, through interaction with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), promotes proliferation, inflammation and fibrosis. The single nucleotide polymorphism of the AGTR1 (dbSNP: rs5186) gene can be associated with development and progression of SLE disease. The aims of this study were to compare the frequency of AGTR1 rs5186 in SLE patients with healthy individuals and to evaluate possible association between AGTR1 A1166C gene polymorphism and serum level of lipids, neopterin and malondialdehyde in SLE patients from a population of West Iran...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529582/angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-induce-autophagy-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#14
Yunseo Woo, Yu-Jin Jung
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are anti-hypertensive drugs that competitively inhibit the binding of angiotensin II to its receptor, resulting in blood vessel dilation and the reduction of blood pressure. These antagonists are also known as sartans, and are a group of pharmaceuticals that possess tetrazole or imidazole groups. In the present study, the anticancer and antimetastatic effects of the ARBs fimasartan, losartan, eprosartan and valsartan on the human prostate cancer PC-3, DU-145 and LNCap-LN3 cell lines were investigated in vitro...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528561/angiotensin-ii-for-the-treatment-of-vasodilatory-shock
#15
Ashish Khanna, Shane W English, Xueyuan S Wang, Kealy Ham, James Tumlin, Harold Szerlip, Laurence W Busse, Laith Altaweel, Timothy E Albertson, Caleb Mackey, Michael T McCurdy, David W Boldt, Stefan Chock, Paul J Young, Kenneth Krell, Richard G Wunderink, Marlies Ostermann, Raghavan Murugan, Michelle N Gong, Rakshit Panwar, Johanna Hästbacka, Raphael Favory, Balasubramanian Venkatesh, B Taylor Thompson, Rinaldo Bellomo, Jeffrey Jensen, Stew Kroll, Lakhmir S Chawla, George F Tidmarsh, Adam M Deane
Background Vasodilatory shock that does not respond to high-dose vasopressors is associated with high mortality. We investigated the effectiveness of angiotensin II for the treatment of patients with this condition. Methods We randomly assigned patients with vasodilatory shock who were receiving more than 0.2 μg of norepinephrine per kilogram of body weight per minute or the equivalent dose of another vasopressor to receive infusions of either angiotensin II or placebo. The primary end point was a response with respect to mean arterial pressure at hour 3 after the start of infusion, with response defined as an increase from baseline of at least 10 mm Hg or an increase to at least 75 mm Hg, without an increase in the dose of background vasopressors...
May 21, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527699/at1-receptor-signaling-pathways-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#16
REVIEW
Tatsuo Kawai, Steven J Forrester, Shannon O'Brien, Ariele Baggett, Victor Rizzo, Satoru Eguchi
The importance of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology has been well described whereas the detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 receptor) is one of the key players in the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The AT1 receptor promotes various intracellular signaling pathways resulting in hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling and end organ damage. Accumulating evidence shows the complex picture of AT1 receptor-mediated signaling; AT1 receptor-mediated heterotrimeric G protein-dependent signaling, transactivation of growth factor receptors, NADPH oxidase and ROS signaling, G protein-independent signaling, including the β-arrestin signals and interaction with several AT1 receptor interacting proteins...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527058/headache-and-arterial-hypertension
#17
Cinzia Finocchi, Davide Sassos
Elevated blood pressure (BP) and headache have long been linked in the medical literature. Headache associated with arterial hypertension is a main concern in emergency department. It is believed that headache may be a symptom attributed to arterial hypertension only if the BP values are very high or rise quickly. Many studies support the hypothesis that migraine patients have an increased risk of developing hypertension, while hypertensive subjects do not seem to have an increased risk of migraine or other types of headache...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526849/interleukin-22-attenuated-angiotensin-ii-induced-acute-lung-injury-through-inhibiting-the-apoptosis-of-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#18
Zhiyong Wu, Zhipeng Hu, Xin Cai, Wei Ren, Feifeng Dai, Huagang Liu, Jinxing Chang, Bowen Li
Apoptosis of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) was considered to be closely related to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). We aim to investigate whether IL-22 plays protective roles in lung injury through inhibiting the apoptosis of PMVECs. ALI model was induced through subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II). Lung injury and infiltration of inflammatory cells were evaluated by determining the PaO2/FiO2, calculation of dry to weight ratio in lung, and immunohistochemisty analysis...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525892/rasal1-is-a-potent-regulator-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-activity-and-liver-fibrosis
#19
Akemi Takata, Motoyuki Otsuka, Takahiro Kishikawa, Mari Yamagami, Rei Ishibashi, Kazuma Sekiba, Tatsunori Suzuki, Motoko Ohno, Yui Yamashita, Takaya Abe, Ryota Masuzaki, Tsuneo Ikenoue, Kazuhiko Koike
Liver fibrosis, leading to cirrhosis and liver failure, can occur after chronic liver injury. The transition of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) from quiescent cells into proliferative and fibrogenic cells is a central event in liver fibrosis. Here, we show that RAS protein activator like-1 (RASAL1), a RAS-GTPase-activating protein, which switches off RAS activity, is significantly decreased during HSC activation, and that HSC activation can be antagonized by forced expression of the RASAL1 protein. We demonstrate that RASAL1 suppresses HSC proliferation by regulating the Ras-MAPK pathway, and that RASAL1 suppresses HSC fibrogenic activity by regulating the PKA-LKB1-AMPK-SRF pathway by interacting with angiotensin II receptor, type 1...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525804/recombinant-adeno-associated-virus-vector-carrying-the-thrombomodulin-lectin-like-domain-for-the-treatment-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#20
Chao-Han Lai, Kuan-Chieh Wang, Cheng-Hsiang Kuo, Fang-Tzu Lee, Tsung-Lin Cheng, Bi-Ing Chang, Yu-Jen Yang, Guey-Yueh Shi, Hua-Lin Wu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Thrombomodulin (TM), through its lectin-like domain (TMD1), sequesters proinflammatory high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) to prevent it from engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) that sustains inflammation and tissue damage. Our previous study demonstrated that short-term treatment with recombinant TM containing all the extracellular domains (i.e., rTMD123) inhibits HMGB1-RAGE signaling and confers protection against CaCl2-induced AAA formation...
March 18, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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