Read by QxMD icon Read

Angiotensin II

Hongyou Yu, Corey S Moran, Alexandra F Trollope, Lynn Woodward, Robert Kinobe, Catherine M Rush, Jonathan Golledge
Angiogenesis and inflammation are implicated in aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis and regulated by angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2). The effect of Angpt2 administration on experimental aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis was examined. Six-month-old male apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were infused with angiotensin II (AngII) and administered subcutaneous human Fc-protein (control) or recombinant Angpt2 (rAngpt2) over 14 days. Administration of rAngpt2 significantly inhibited AngII-induced aortic dilatation and rupture of the suprarenal aorta (SRA), and development of atherosclerosis within the aortic arch...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jay S Mishra, Gary D Hankins, Sathish Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Blood pressure is lower in females than males. Angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) induces vasodilation. This study determined whether sex differences in vascular AT2R expression occur and if androgens exert control on AT2R expression in the vasculature. METHODS: AT2Rs in the aorta of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were examined following alteration in androgen levels by gonadectomy or hormone supplementation. RESULTS: AT2R mRNA and protein expression levels were lower in the aortas of males than females...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Min-Soo Kim, Ji Hye Bang, Jun Lee, Jung-Soo Han, Tae Gon Baik, Won Kyung Jeon
BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE)-a widely used nutraceutical-is reported to have diverse functions, including positive effects on memory and vasodilatory properties. Although numerous studies have assessed the neuroprotective properties of GBE in ischemia, only a few studies have investigated the neuro-pharmacological mechanisms of action of GBE in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). PURPOSE: In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of GBE on CCH-induced neuroinflammation and cholinergic dysfunction in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo)...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Renato Willian Martins Sá, Andrea Siqueira Haibara, Paula Magalhães Gomes, Giovana Lopes Aguiar, Rafael Souza Leopoldino Nascimento, Maria Lucia Pedrosa, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora, Lisandra Brandino de Oliveira, Leonardo Máximo Cardoso
What is the central question of this study? In this study we sought to investigate whether cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation of rats recovered from protein restriction are related to AT1 receptors activation. What is the main finding and its importance? This study highlights the fact that angiotensinergic mechanisms activated by AT1 receptors do not supported increased responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation by KCN in rats recovered from protein restriction. Also, we found that protein restriction led to increased resting ventilation in adult rats, even after recovery...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Mariana Moreira Coutinho Arroja, Emma Reid, Christopher McCabe
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) consists of the systemic hormone system, critically involved in regulation and homeostasis of normal physiological functions [i.e. blood pressure (BP), blood volume regulation], and an independent brain RAS, which is involved in the regulation of many functions such as memory, central control of BP and metabolic functions. In general terms, the RAS consists of two opposing axes; the 'classical axis' mediated primarily by Angiotensin II (Ang II), and the 'alternative axis' mediated mainly by Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7))...
2016: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
Naro Ohashi, Shinsuke Isobe, Sayaka Ishigaki, Takahisa Suzuki, Masafumi Ono, Tomoyuki Fujikura, Takayuki Tsuji, Akihiko Kato, Seiichiro Ozono, Hideo Yasuda
Circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation is maintained after renal function has deteriorated. The activation of the intrarenal RAS plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD), independently of the circulating RAS. However, the activation of intrarenal RAS and the chymase-dependent pathway after initiation of dialysis has not been clarified. We recruited 19 CKD patients (10 without dialysis and 9 with dialysis) who underwent a heminephrectomy. Circulating RAS was investigated before nephrectomy...
October 20, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Tadashi Yoshida, Patrice Delafontaine
Patients with advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) often have increased angiotensin II (Ang II) levels and cachexia. We previously demonstrated that Ang II, via its type 1 receptor (AT1R), causes muscle protein breakdown and apoptosis, and inhibits satellite cell (SC) proliferation and muscle regeneration, likely contributing to cachexia in CHF and CKD. In contrast, AT2R expression is robustly induced during SC differentiation and it potentiates muscle regeneration. To understand mechanisms regulating AT2R expression and its potential role in muscle regeneration in chronic diseases we used a mouse model of CHF and found that muscle regeneration was markedly reduced and that this was accompanied by blunted increase of AT2R expression...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Karina Di Gregoli, Nur Najmi Mohamad Anuar, Rosaria Bianco, Stephen J White, Andrew C Newby, Sarah J George, Jason L Johnson
RATIONALE: Atherosclerosis and aneurysms are leading causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRs) are key determinants of gene and protein expression, and atypical miR expression has been associated with a number of cardiovascular diseases; although their contributory role to atherosclerotic plaque and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) stability are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether miR-181b regulates TIMP-3 expression and affects atherosclerosis and aneurysms Methods and Results: Here, we demonstrate that miR-181b was over-expressed in symptomatic human atherosclerotic plaques and abdominal aortic aneurysms, and correlated with decreased expression of predicted miR-181b targets, TIMP-3 and elastin...
October 18, 2016: Circulation Research
Zhi Chen, Hao Wu, Guohua Wang, Ye Feng
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms of hypertensive nephropathy (HTN). METHODS: Gene expression profile of GSE37460, which based on 27 healthy living donor samples (HTN group) and 15 hypertensive nephropathy samples (control group), were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two groups were identified. STRING database was used to reveal protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs, followed by the functional enrichment analysis of the PPI network...
October 18, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Keisuke Shinohara, Xuebo Liu, Donald A Morgan, Deborah R Davis, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez, Martin D Cassell, Justin L Grobe, Kamal Rahmouni, Curt D Sigmund
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is a critical determinant of blood pressure, but the mechanisms regulating RAS activity in the brain remain unclear. Expression of brain renin (renin-b) occurs from an alternative promoter-first exon. The predicted translation product is a nonsecreted enzymatically active renin whose function is unknown. We generated a unique mouse model by selectively ablating the brain-specific isoform of renin (renin-b) while preserving the expression and function of the classical isoform expressed in the kidney (renin-a)...
October 17, 2016: Hypertension
Eun Joo Cho, Hae Young Lee, Ki Chul Sung, Sungha Park, Chang Gyu Park, Dong-Ju Choi, Jong Won Ha, Young Keun Ahn, Jinho Shin, Soon-Jun Hong, Soon Kil Kim, Wook-Jin Chung, Byung Su Yoo, Taek Jong Hong, Ho Joong Youn, Myeong-Chan Cho, Shung Chull Chae, Young Jo Kim, Chong-Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare 24-hour central blood pressure (24 hr c-BP) reduction efficacy between angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) combined with calcium channel blocker and with diuretics. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial in 220 hypertensive patients [mean age = 59.6 ± 12.3 years, men = 154(70%)]. Patients received losartan 50 mg monotherapy for 4 weeks, followed by additional use of amlodipine 5 mg (L/A group) or hydrochlorothiazide 12...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
James Scholey
The classical view of the RAS is a linear signaling pathway beginning with the conversion of angiotensinogen to ANG I by renin, an enzyme secreted by the kidney. ANG I is converted to ANG II by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) ANG II binds to the G-protein coupled angiotensin II receptor type 1. The RAS is a circulating system but we now know that the RAS is also locally expressed in a number of tissues, including the kidneys and the heart. ANG II exerts adverse hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic effects on renal cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
V V Muthusamy
Cardiovascular disease burden is increasing all over the world. The diagnosis of hypertension is considered when a person has persistently elevated BP (Systolic BP more than 140 mmHg and/or Diastolic BP more than 90 mmHg). Dyslipidemia denotes abnormal levels of lipids in the blood (Total Cholesterol >200 mg%, Low density lipoprotein (LDL) >100 mg%, Triglycerides (TGL) >150 mg% and High density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg in men and < 50 mg in women. Hypertension and Dyslipidemia constitute the important components of metabolic syndrome as per the definition of NCEP Guidelines-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
David Harrison
Hypertension remains an enormous health care burden that affects one third of the population. Despite its prevalence the cause of most cases of hypertension remains unknown. Our laboratory has defined a novel mechanism for hypertension involving adaptive immunity. We found that mice lacking lymphocytes (RAG-1 mice) develop blunted hypertensive responses to a variety of stimuli including chronic angiotensin II infusion, DOCA-salt challenge and norepinephrine infusion. Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores the hypertensive responses to these stimuli...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Caojian Zuo
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac fibroblasts play a vital role in the progression of fibrotic cardiac remodeling in hypertensive and failing heart. Osteoglycin (OGN) is implicated as a key regulator of left ventricular mass. However, its precise molecular role in cardiac fibrosis remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the impact of OGN in hypertensive cardiac remodeling. DESIGN AND METHOD: OGN deficient mice and its wildtype (WT) littermates were subjected to either angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion or pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Johanne Tremblay, Carole G Campion, Thomas Verissimo, Suzanne Cossette, Hiroyuki Matsuda, Pavel Hamet
OBJECTIVE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays a dual role in hypertension-induced kidney damage. EGFR is critically involved in angiotensin II-induced renal lesions and fibrosis but is also engaged in kidney tissue repair. Consequently, targeting EGFR in renal diseases is complex because even if inhibition of EGFR activity would be beneficial, a minimal EGFR activity is needed to recover from harmful insults. Our group has identified HCaRG (Hypertension-related, Calcium-Regulated Gene) whose expression is increased in kidneys of hypertensive rats and mice...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Marko Poglitsch, Ashraf H Ahmed, Andrea Stoller, Dunja Van Oyen, Cornelia Schwager, Claudia Aigner, Oliver Domenig, Manuel Haschke, Michael Stowasser
OBJECTIVE: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a widely under-diagnosed, potentially curable and specifically treatable cause of hypertension. PA screening involves measuring the aldosterone-to-renin-ratio (ARR), but false negative results can occur in the setting of medications, which block the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Withdrawing RAS blockers from patients with resistant hypertension is not without cardiovascular risk. A novel diagnostic approach, the aldosterone-to-angiotensin-II-ratio (AA2-Ratio), has the potential for less drug interference and improved reliability in PA screening and confirmation of diagnosis...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Marko Poglitsch, Ashraf H Ahmed, Michael Resl, Andrea Stoller, Dunja Van Oyen, Cornelia Schwager, Claudia Aigner, Oliver Domenig, Michael Krebs, Manuel Haschke, Michael Stowasser
OBJECTIVE: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is form of hypertension characterized by production of aldosterone by the adrenal that is excessive and relatively autonomous of the renin-angiotensin system. Once detected, unilateral PA can be usually cured by surgical removal of the affected adrenal, while bilateral PA can be specifically treated by medications, which antagonize aldosterone action. Clinical guidelines of Endocrine Societies in Europe and the US recommend screening for PA among most hypertensive patients...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anping Cai, Yingqing Feng, Yingling Zhou, Jiyan Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of levorotatory (L)-amlodipine combined fluvastatin treatment on endothelium-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), a process related to hypertension development. DESIGN AND METHOD: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used and divided to six groups based on different therapeutic strategies as follows: Blank Control, angiotensin-II (Ang-II), Ang-II+ rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Ang-II+ L-amlodipine, Ang-II+ fluvastatin, and Ang-II +L-amlodipine + fluvastatin groups...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"