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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040716/dietary-carbohydrates-components-of-energy-balance-and-associated-health-outcomes
#1
Harry A Smith, Javier T Gonzalez, Dylan Thompson, James A Betts
The role of dietary carbohydrates in the development of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction has recently been questioned. Within the last decade, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the role of dietary carbohydrates in human health. The current review aims to complement and extend this report by providing specific consideration of the effects of the component parts of energy balance, their interactions, and their culmination on energy storage and health...
October 5, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040508/adult-lifetime-diet-quality-and-physical-performance-in-older-age-findings-from-a-british-birth-cohort
#2
Sian M Robinson, Leo D Westbury, Rachel Cooper, Diana Kuh, Kate Ward, Holly E Syddall, Avan A Sayer, Cyrus Cooper
Background: Current evidence that links "healthier" dietary patterns to better measured physical performance is mainly from older populations; little is known about the role of earlier diet. We examined adult diet quality in relation to physical performance at age 60-64 years. Methods: Diet quality was defined using principal component analysis of dietary data collected at age 36, 43, 53, and 60-64. Throughout adulthood, diets of higher quality were characterized by higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, and wholegrain bread...
October 13, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040444/re-establishment-of-energy-balance-in-a-male-mouse-model-with-pomc-neuron-deletion-of-bmpr1a
#3
Kristy L Townsend, Christopher Madden, Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Lindsay McDougall, Domenico Tupone, Matthew D Lynes, Yuji Mishina, Paul Yu, Shaun Morrison, Yu-Hua Tseng
The regulation of energy balance involves complex processes in the brain, including coordination by hypothalamic neurons that contain pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). We previously demonstrated that central bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) reduces appetite. Now we show that a type 1 BMP receptor, BMPR1A, is co-localized with POMC neurons and POMC-BMPR1A-KO mice are hyperphagic, revealing physiological involvement of BMP signaling in anorectic POMC neurons in the regulation of appetite. Surprisingly, the hyperphagic POMC-BMPR1A-KO mice exhibit a lack of obesity, even on a 45% high-fat diet...
October 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032631/tools-to-improve-planning-implementation-monitoring-and-evaluation-of-complementary-feeding-programmes
#4
Juliawati Untoro, Rachel Childs, Indira Bose, Pattanee Winichagoon, Christiane Rudert, Andrew Hall, Saskia de Pee
Adequate nutrient intake is a prerequisite for achieving good nutrition status. Suboptimal complementary feeding practices are a main risk factor for stunting. The need for systematic and user-friendly tools to guide the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of dietary interventions for children aged 6-23 months has been recognized. This paper describes five tools, namely, ProPAN, Optifood, Cost of the Diet, Fill the Nutrient Gap, and Monitoring Results for Equity System that can be used in different combinations to improve situation analysis, planning, implementation, monitoring, or evaluation approaches for complementary feeding in a particular context...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031710/nav1-8-neurons-are-involved-in-limiting-acute-phase-responses-to-dietary-fat
#5
REVIEW
Swalpa Udit, Michael Burton, Joseph M Rutkowski, Syann Lee, Angie L Bookout, Philipp E Scherer, Joel K Elmquist, Laurent Gautron
OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Metabolic viscera and their vasculature are richly innervated by peripheral sensory neurons. Here, we examined the metabolic and inflammatory profiles of mice with selective ablation of all Nav1.8-expressing primary afferent neurons. RESULTS: While mice lacking sensory neurons displayed no differences in body weight, food intake, energy expenditure, or body composition compared to controls on chow diet, ablated mice developed an exaggerated inflammatory response to high-fat feeding characterized by bouts of weight loss, splenomegaly, elevated circulating interleukin-6 and hepatic serum amyloid A expression...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030890/influences-of-different-dietary-contents-of-macrominerals-on-the-availability-of-trace-elements-in-horses
#6
L-T Neustädter, J Kamphues, C Ratert
In this study, influences of a reduced macromineral intake on the trace element metabolism in horses at maintenance were investigated. Background of this study is the revised recommendation on the macromineral supply for horses (GfE ). Balance studies on three adult pony geldings with body weights of 405 / 348 / 384 kg were performed to obtain data on apparent digestibility (aD), retention and serum concentrations of different trace elements (Cu, Zn, Se) at different dietary macromineral levels. A mineral supplement or a complementary feed-with a reduced macromineral content-was added to a hay-based diet (daily 5...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028272/dietary-carbohydrates-components-of-energy-balance-and-associated-health-outcomes
#7
Harry A Smith, Javier T Gonzalez, Dylan Thompson, James A Betts
The role of dietary carbohydrates in the development of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction has recently been questioned. Within the last decade, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the role of dietary carbohydrates in human health. The current review aims to complement and extend this report by providing specific consideration of the effects of the component parts of energy balance, their interactions, and their culmination on energy storage and health...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027705/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-spices-on-forage-degradability-ruminal-fermentation-in-vivo-digestibility-growth-performance-and-nitrogen-balance-in-black-bengal-goat
#8
M R Chowdhury, M M H Khan, S U Mahfuz, M A Baset
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of spices on forage utilization and nitrogen (N) emission using in vitro and in vivo approach. A 6 × 5 factorial triplicate arrangement was used to assess the in vitro degradability of rice straw with control (without spices) and individual (40 mg/g rice straw) spices (cumin, coriander, clove, black cumin, turmeric) at five different incubation times. In vitro dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) degradability of rice straw were highest in presence of spices except for clove...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024089/macronutrient-intake-of-dogs-self-selecting-diets-varying-in-composition-offered-ad-libitum
#9
M T Roberts, E N Bermingham, N J Cave, W Young, C M McKenzie, D G Thomas
The diet of the domestic dog has changed significantly from that of its wolf ancestor, with to date only two studies having examined macronutrient self-selection in dogs. Whilst the first focused solely on protein intake, determining an intake of 30% metabolisable energy (ME), the second investigated dietary protein, fat and carbohydrate (PFC), indicating an intake ratio of 30:63:7% by energy. This study's aim was to further elucidate macronutrient intake by providing greater macronutrient range, energy content, and to investigate over a longer duration than previous studies...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023359/menstrual-disruption-with-exercise-is-not-linked-to-an-energy-availability-threshold
#10
Jay L Lieberman, Mary Jane De Souza, David A Wagstaff, Nancy I Williams
INTRODUCTION: Chronic reductions in energy availability (EA) suppress reproductive function. A particular calculation of EA quantifies the dietary energy remaining after exercise for all physiological functions. Reductions in LH pulse frequency have been demonstrated when EA using this calculation is < 30 kcal/ kg ffm·d. PURPOSE: We determined whether menstrual disturbances (MD) are induced when EA is < 30 kcal/ kg ffm·d. METHODS: Thirty-five sedentary, ovulatory women 18-24 yr (weight= 59...
October 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023255/adolescent-perceptions-of-peer-responses-to-diabetes-self-management-a-qualitative-study
#11
Pei-Yun Yang, Meei-Fang Lou, Angela Shin-Yu Lien, Bih-Shya Gau
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is more prevalent in adolescents than in adults, and the self-management of insulin-dependent diabetes is complex. T1D requires injections of insulin, self-management of blood testing, regular physical activity, and diet monitoring, which are challenging for growing and developing adolescents. Adolescents are often more concerned with how they are perceived by their peers than how they perceive themselves. Positive peer responses influence the self-care management of adolescents with T1D in school settings...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022388/our-gut-microbiota-a-long-walk-to-homeostasis
#12
L M T Dicks, J Geldenhuys, L S Mikkelsen, E Brandsborg, H Marcotte
The microbiome of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of billions of bacteria, fungi and viruses, of which bacteria play the most important role in nutrition, immune development, production of vitamins and maintaining a well-balanced (homeostatic) microbial population. Many papers have been published on the microbiota in the human GIT, but little is known about the first group of bacteria that colonises an infant. The intestinal tract of an unborn is, despite general belief, not sterile, but contains bacteria that have been transferred from the mother...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021372/ammonia-nitrogen-added-to-diets-deficient-in-dispensable-amino-acid-nitrogen-is-poorly-utilized-for-urea-production-in-growing-pigs
#13
Wilfredo D Mansilla, Kayla E Silva, Cuilan L Zhu, Charles M Nyachoti, John K Htoo, John P Cant, Cornelis Fm de Lange
Background: Including ammonia in low-crude protein (CP) diets deficient in dispensable amino acid (DAAs) increases nitrogen retention in growing pigs.Objective: We investigated the absorption and metabolism of dietary ammonia nitrogen in the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver of pigs fed a diet deficient in DAA nitrogen.Methods: Eight pigs with an initial mean ± SD body weight (BW) of 26.5 ± 1.4 kg were surgically fitted with 4 catheters each (portal, hepatic and mesenteric veins, and carotid artery)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021286/pomegranate-juice-but-not-an-extract-confers-a-lower-glycemic-response-on-a-high-glycemic-index-food-randomized-crossover-controlled-trials-in-healthy-subjects
#14
Asimina Kerimi, Hilda Nyambe-Silavwe, Julia S Gauer, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Gary Williamson
Background: Low-glycemic index diets have demonstrated health benefits associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes.Objectives: We tested whether pomegranate polyphenols could lower the glycemic response of a high-glycemic index food when consumed together and the mechanism by which this might occur.Design: We compared the acute effect of a pomegranate juice and a polyphenol-rich extract from pomegranate (supplement) on the bread-derived postprandial blood glucose concentration in 2 randomized, crossover, controlled studies (double-blinded for the supplements), each on 16 healthy volunteers...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021174/nutritional-geometry-of-paternal-effects-on-embryo-mortality
#15
Michal Polak, Leigh W Simmons, Joshua B Benoit, Kari Ruohonen, Stephen J Simpson, Samantha M Solon-Biet
Well-established causal links exist between maternal nutritional deficits and embryo health and viability. By contrast, environmental effects operating through the father that could influence embryo mortality have seldom been examined. Yet, ejaculates can require non-trivial resource allocation, and seminal plasma components are increasingly recognized to exert wide-ranging effects on females and offspring, so paternal dietary effects on the embryo should be expected. We test for effects of varying levels of protein (P), carbohydrate (C) and caloric load in adult male diet on embryo mortality in Drosophila melanogaster We demonstrate that macronutrient balance and caloric restriction exert significant effects, and that nutritional effects are more impactful when a prior mating has occurred...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994540/-protective-effect-of-shuyu-yiban-decoction-on-atherosclerosis-in-rats-induced-by-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress
#16
Xiao-Jun Zheng, Zhi-Qiang Hu, Shu-Wei Luan, Ran Li, Yun Li, Jian-Liang Li, Yu-Jie Li, Xiao-Xin Zhu
Shuyu Yiban decoction(SYYB) has significant effect in treating the patients with coronary heart disease combined with chronic psychological stress. In this study, in order to observe the effects of SYYB on early formation of atherosclerosis(As) and inflammation response induced by chronic psychological stress, high-fat diet+intraperitoneal injections of Vitamin D3 were given to establish As early lesion models, and based on these models, chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) was used to observe whether the chronic psychological stress could increase coronary atherosclerotic lesions investigate the intervention effect of SYYB(6...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992004/the-effects-of-copper-source-and-concentration-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-pen-cleanliness-in-finishing-pigs
#17
K F Coble, J M DeRouchey, M D Tokach, S S Dritz, R D Goodband, J C Woodworth, J L Usry
A total of 1,143 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050, initially 25.1 ± 0.03 kg BW) were used in a 111-d study to determine the effects of copper sulfate (CuSO; Prince Agri-Products, Quincy, IL) or tribasic copper chloride (TBCC; IntelliBond C; Micronutrients, Indianapolis, IN) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pen cleanliness. Pens of pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, balanced on average pen weight in a randomized complete block design with 25 to 28 pigs per pen and 7 replications per treatment...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991995/energy-and-protein-requirements-for-maintenance-of-dairy-goats-during-pregnancy-and-their-efficiencies-of-use
#18
C J Härter, L D Lima, H G O Silva, D S Castagnino, A R Rivera, K T Resende, I A M A Teixeira
It has been suggested that maintenance requirements are similar among animals of different physiological stages; however, important physiological changes occur in the maternal body during pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements for the maintenance of pregnant dairy goats and to estimate their efficiency of energy and protein utilization for maintenance and pregnancy. We used 66 multiparous pregnant goats having 49.0 ± 1.59 kg initial BW (around the third or fourth parturition) arranged in a randomized block design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme including slaughter at different days of pregnancy (DOP; 80, 110, and 140 d) and feed restriction (0, 20, and 40% feed restriction)...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991897/the-influence-of-different-diets-on-metabolism-and-atherosclerosis-processes-a-porcine-model-blood-serum-urine-and-tissues-1h-nmr-metabolomics-targeted-analysis
#19
Adam Zabek, Robert Paslawski, Urszula Paslawska, Wojciech Wojtowicz, Katarzyna Drozdz, Sergio Polakof, Marzena Podhorska, Piotr Dziegiel, Piotr Mlynarz, Andrzej Szuba
The global epidemic of cardiovascular diseases leads to increased morbidity and mortality caused mainly by myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerosis is the major pathological process behind this epidemic. We designed a novel model of atherosclerosis in swine. Briefly, the first group (11 pigs) received normal pig feed (balanced diet group-BDG) for 12 months, the second group (9 pigs) was fed a Western high-calorie diet (unbalanced diet group-UDG) for 12 months, the third group (8 pigs) received a Western type high-calorie diet for 9 months later replaced by a normal diet for 3 months (regression group-RG)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990541/associations-of-dietary-patterns-with-bone-mass-muscle-strength-and-balance-in-a-cohort-of-australian-middle-aged-women
#20
Feitong Wu, Karen Wills, Laura L Laslett, Brian Oldenburg, Graeme Jones, Tania Winzenberg
Influences of dietary patterns on musculoskeletal health are poorly understood in middle-aged women. This cross-sectional analysis from a cohort of 347 women (aged 36-57 years) aimed to examine associations between dietary patterns and musculoskeletal health outcomes in middle-aged women. Diet was measured by the Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ. Total body bone mineral content (TB BMC), femoral neck and lumbar spine bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), lower limbs muscle strength (LMS) and balance tests (timed up and go test, step test, functional reach test (FRT) and lateral reach test) were also measured...
October 9, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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