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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656554/a-single-day-of-bed-rest-irrespective-of-energy-balance-does-not-affect-skeletal-muscle-gene-expression-or-insulin-sensitivity
#1
Marlou L Dirks, Francis B Stephens, Sarah R Jackman, Jesús Galera Gordo, David Machin, Richard M Pulsford, Luc Jc van Loon, Benjamin T Wall
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What are the initial metabolic and molecular events that underpin bed rest-induced skeletal muscle deconditioning, and what is the contribution of energy balance? What is the main finding and its importance? A single day of bed rest, irrespective of energy balance, did not lead to overt changes in skeletal muscle gene expression or insulin sensitivity. More than one day of physical inactivity is required to observe the insulin resistance and robust skeletal muscle transcriptional responses associated with bed rest and consequent alterations in energy balance...
April 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656036/laparoscopic-adjustable-gastric-banding-in-adolescents-with-severe-obesity-psychological-aspects-decision-makers-of-surgery-and-2-year-outcomes-a-case-series
#2
E Riquin, F Schmitt, N Bouhours-Nouet, M Beaumesnil, M Dinomais, J Malka, M Robin, R Coutant, P Duverger
BACKGROUND: The results of medical treatment of severe obesity in the adolescent population (balanced diet and physical activity) are often unsatisfactory, and bariatric surgery is questioned. The psychological determinants for requesting bariatric surgery in these adolescents are unclear. The objective of this study was to report the psychiatric and psychological aspects as well as the determinants of the medical decision for surgery in a cohort of obese adolescents requesting bariatric surgery by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding...
April 11, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653359/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-the-pathology-and-prevention-of-liver-disease
#3
REVIEW
Alejandra Altamirano-Barrera, Misael Uribe, Norberto C Chávez-Tapia, Natalia Nuño-Lámbarri
Several microorganisms belonging to the intestinal microbiota act in an ecosystem responsible for maintaining the homeostasis and vital functions of human beings. From birth to old age the diversity of the intestinal microbiota may change due to environmental factors such as nutrition, immunity, diseases or the use of antibiotics leading to dysbiosis. Improvement in microbiota diversity can be achieved by modifying related risk factors through changes in lifestyle and a healthy diet. Besides, the addition of probiotics, prebiotics or the combination of both (symbiotics), can result in the improvement of the intestinal permeability, inflammatory pathways and the immune system...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652797/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-and-diet-on-uremic-retention-solutes-production-in-the-context-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Laetitia Koppe, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage
Uremic retention solutes (URS) are associated with cardiovascular complications and poor survival in chronic kidney disease. The better understanding of the origin of a certain number of these toxins enabled the development of new strategies to reduce their production. URS can be classified according to their origins (i.e., host, microbial, or exogenous). The discovery of the fundamental role that the intestinal microbiota plays in the production of many URS has reinstated nutrition at the heart of therapeutics to prevent the accumulation of URS and their deleterious effects...
April 13, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650023/sustained-impact-of-energy-dense-tv-and-online-food-advertising-on-children-s-dietary-intake-a-within-subject-randomised-crossover-counter-balanced-trial
#5
Jennifer Norman, Bridget Kelly, Anne-T McMahon, Emma Boyland, Louise A Baur, Kathy Chapman, Lesley King, Clare Hughes, Adrian Bauman
BACKGROUND: Policies restricting children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing have been impeded by the lack of evidence showing a direct link between food advertising exposure and children's energy intake and body weight. Food advertising exposure increases children's immediate food consumption, but whether this increased intake is compensated for at later eating occasions is not known; consequently the sustained effect on diets remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a within-subject, randomised, crossover, counterbalanced study across four, six-day holiday camps in New South Wales, Australia between April 2016 and January 2017...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642660/digestibility-ruminal-fermentation-and-nitrogen-balance-with-different-feeding-levels-of-oil-palm-frond-treated-with-lentinus-sajor-caju-in-goats
#6
Puwadon Hamchara, Pin Chanjula, Anusorn Cherdthong, Metha Wanapat
Objective: This study was an attempt to investigate the effect of levels of fungal (Lentinus sajor-caju) treated oil palm fronds (FTOPF) on digestibility, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen balance in goats. Methods: Four 16 month old male crossbred (Thai Native x Anglo Nubian) goats with initial body weights (BWs) of 33.5+1.7 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Four levels of fungal treated oil palm fronds (FTOPF) were assigned for feed intake...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642444/nutritionally-optimized-culturally-acceptable-cost-minimized-diets-for-low-income-ghanaian-families-using-linear-programming
#7
Esa-Pekka A Nykänen, Hanna E Dunning, Richmond N O Aryeetey, Aileen Robertson, Alexandr Parlesak
The Ghanaian population suffers from a double burden of malnutrition. Cost of food is considered a barrier to achieving a health-promoting diet. Food prices were collected in major cities and in rural areas in southern Ghana. Linear programming (LP) was used to calculate nutritionally optimized diets (food baskets (FBs)) for a low-income Ghanaian family of four that fulfilled energy and nutrient recommendations in both rural and urban settings. Calculations included implementing cultural acceptability for families living in extreme and moderate poverty (food budget under USD 1...
April 7, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629980/development-of-an-enhanced-recovery-protocol-for-children-undergoing-gastrointestinal-surgery
#8
Mehul V Raval, Kurt F Heiss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enhanced recovery protocols (ERPs) have been adopted for a variety of adult surgical conditions and resulted in markedly improved outcomes, including decreased length of stays, complications, costs, and narcotic utilization. In this review, we describe the development and implementation of an ERP for children undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Existing ERP components from adult and pediatric surgical populations were reviewed and modified through an iterative process that included literature review, a national survey of practicing pediatric surgeons, and appropriateness assessment by a multidisciplinary expert panel...
April 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627252/effects-of-rumen-undegradable-protein-on-intake-performance-and-mammary-gland-development-in-prepubertal-and-pubertal-dairy-heifers
#9
A L Silva, E Detmann, J Dijkstra, A M Pedroso, L H P Silva, A F Machado, F C Sousa, G B Dos Santos, M I Marcondes
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different amounts of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on intake, N balance, performance, mammary gland development, carcass traits, and hormonal status of Holstein heifers at different physiological stages (PS). Sixteen prepubertal (PRE) heifers (initial BW = 106 ± 7.6 kg; age = 4.3 ± 0.46 mo) and 16 pubertal (PUB) heifers (initial BW = 224 ± 7.9 kg; age = 12.6 ± 0.45 mo) were used in an experiment over a period of 84 d. Four diets with increasing RUP contents (38, 44, 51, and 57% of dietary crude protein) and heifers at 2 PS (PRE or PUB) were used in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627246/robustness-and-sensitivity-of-a-blueprint-for-on-farm-estimation-of-dairy-cow-energy-balance
#10
Vivi M Thorup, Mizeck G G Chagunda, Amelie Fischer, Martin R Weisbjerg, Nicolas C Friggens
Excessive negative energy balance (EB) has been associated with decreased reproductive performance and increased risk of lameness and metabolic diseases. On-farm, automated EB estimates for individual cows would enable dairy farmers to detect excessive negative EB early and act to minimize its extent and duration by altering feeding. Previously, we have shown that EB can be estimated from frequent measurements of body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) changes, referred to as EBbody . In this study, we investigated the robustness and sensitivity of the EBbody method to assess its genericity and on-farm applicability...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625018/sugar-sensor-genes-in-the-murine-gastrointestinal-tract-display-a-cephalocaudal-axis-of-expression-and-a-diurnal-rhythm
#11
Patrick O'Brien, Rhys Hewett, Christopher Corpe
Distributed along the length of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are nutrient sensing cells that release numerous signalling peptides influencing GI function, nutrient homeostasis and energy balance. Recent studies have shown a diurnal rhythm in GI nutrient sensing, but the mechanisms responsible for rhythmicity are poorly understood. In this report we studied murine GI sugar sensor gene and protein expression levels in the morning (7am) and evening (7pm). Sweet taste receptor (tas1r2/tas1r3/gnat3/ gnat1) sugar transporter (slc5a1, slc2a2, slc2a5) and putative sugar sensor (slc5a4a and slc5a4b) gene expression levels were highest in tongue, proximal and distal small intestine, respectively...
April 6, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624024/morphology-and-elemental-analysis-of-free-range-and-stabled-polish-konik-horses-hair-using-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectroscopy-eds
#12
N Siwińska, A Żak, M Słowikowska, K Kubiak, Z Jaworski, A Niedzwiedź
Hair is a more biologically stable material than other tissues and contains a relatively constant level of minerals, drugs or toxins. The content of essential elements in hair depends on dietary and non-dietary factors. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the effect of diet on the elemental composition and morphological properties of the hair of healthy Polish Konik horses. Mane hair was collected from 19 horses living in The National Park in Popielno in Poland. Six of these horses were free-ranged all year with permanent access to pasture, while 13 horses were kept in the stable and fed oats, hay and straw...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623690/observation-about-phosphorus-and-protein-supply-in-cats-and-dogs-prior-to-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
L F Böswald, E Kienzle, B Dobenecker
There is evidence that nutritional phosphorus (P) excess may be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans and pets (Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal (2014), 5, 104; The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (2013), 98, 6; Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, (2017); The source of phosphorus influences serum PTH, apparent digestibility and blood levels of calcium and phosphorus in dogs fed high phosphorus diets with balanced Ca/P ratio. Proc. Waltham International Nutritional Sciences Symposium, USA; Clinical aspects of natural and added phosphorus in foods, 2017, Springer Science+Business, Media)...
April 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619385/the-relationship-between-anthropometric-index-and-primary-dysmenorehea-in-female-high-school-students
#14
Mostafa Rad, Marzieh Torkamannejad Sabzevari, Sedigheh Rastaghi, Zahra Mohebbi Dehnavi
INTRODUCTION: Primary dysmenorrhea, painful menstruation without pelvic pathologic complications, is one of the most common problems in women's gynecology and is one of the main causes for women referring to the clinic. Overweight and obesity may play a role in the etiology of primary dysmenorrhea. As a result, this study was conducted to determine the association between primary dysmenorrhea and anthropometric indices in female high school Students. METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 high school female students with primary dysmenorrhea in 2017 in Sabzevar...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619220/development-of-the-recovery-from-eating-disorders-for-life-food-guide-real-food-guide-a-food-pyramid-for-adults-with-an-eating-disorder
#15
Susan Hart, Claire Marnane, Caitlin McMaster, Angela Thomas
Background: There is limited evidence to inform nutrition and dietetic interventions for individuals with eating disorders even though it is recommended as an essential part of multidisciplinary management. There is minimal guidance, an absence of standardised nutrition educational material, and no research on how best to educate patients on healthy eating and how to achieve nutrition adequacy. Therefore the REAL Food Guide was developed. Methods: The REAL Food Guide is a pyramid with four layers and key nutrition messages beside each layer that was conceived to address gaps in nutrition education and intervention for individuals with eating disorders...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618986/the-antioxidant-therapy-new-insights-in-the-treatment-of-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Daniela Sorriento, Nicola De Luca, Bruno Trimarco, Guido Iaccarino
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a key role in the regulation of the physiological and pathological signaling within the vasculature. In physiological conditions, a delicate balance between oxidants and antioxidants protects cells from the detrimental effects of ROS/RNS. Indeed, the imbalance between ROS/RNS production and antioxidant defense mechanisms leads to oxidative and nitrosative stress within the cell. These processes promote the vascular damage observed in chronic conditions, such as hypertension...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617807/effects-of-feeding-monensin-to-bred-heifers-fed-in-a-drylot-on-nutrient-and-energy-balance
#17
Courtney N Hemphill, Tryon A Wickersham, Jason E Sawyer, T M Brown-Brandl, Harvey C Freetly, Kristin E Hales
The objective of this study was to determine if feeding monensin would improve diet digestion, energy and nitrogen balance in bred heifers receiving a limit-fed corn stalk-based diet. Sixteen pregnant Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) III composite heifers were used in a 161-d completely randomized design. Heifers were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, no monensin (CON) or 150 mg/d monensin (MON), with eight heifers in each treatment group. Heifers were limit-fed a corn stalk-based diet at 100% of MEm requirements...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616223/geraniin-protects-high-fat-diet-induced-oxidative-stress-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#18
Alexis Panny Y S Chung, Sunil Gurtu, Srikumar Chakravarthi, Mohanambal Moorthy, Uma D Palanisamy
Geraniin, a hydrolysable polyphenol derived from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit rind, has been shown to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro and recently been recognized for its therapeutic potential in metabolic syndrome. This study investigated its antioxidative strength and protective effects on organs in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced rodents. Rats were fed HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 10 and 50 mg/kg of geraniin supplementation for 4 weeks to assess its protective potential...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615655/supplementation-of-pelleted-hazel-corylus-avellana-leaves-decreases-methane-and-urinary-nitrogen-emissions-by-sheep-at-unchanged-forage-intake
#19
Shaopu Wang, Melissa Terranova, Michael Kreuzer, Svenja Marquardt, Lukas Eggerschwiler, Angela Schwarm
This study is the first to quantify the effects of hazel (Corylus avellana) leaves on methane and urinary nitrogen emissions, digestibility, nitrogen and the energy balance of ruminants. Four experimental pellets were produced with 0, 30% and 60% hazel leaves, the latter also with 4% polyethylene glycol. Hazel leaves gradually replaced lucerne. The diet was composed of the pellets and grass hay (80%: 20%). Six adult sheep were allocated to all four treatments in a 6 × 4 crossover design. Including hazel leaves did not affect the feed intake, but it decreased the apparent digestibility of organic matter and fibre, especially at the high level...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610670/community-based-childhood-obesity-prevention-intervention-for-parents-improves-health-behaviors-and-food-parenting-practices-among-hispanic-low-income-parents
#20
Laura Otterbach, Noereem Z Mena, Geoffrey Greene, Colleen A Redding, Annie De Groot, Alison Tovar
Background: Given the current prevalence of childhood obesity among Hispanic populations, and the importance of parental feeding behaviors, we aimed to assess the impact of the evidence-based Healthy Children, Healthy Families (HCHF) intervention on responsive food parenting practices (FPPs) in a low-income Hispanic population. Methods: This community-based pilot study used a non-experimental pre/post within-subjects design. Parents ( n  = 94) of children aged 3-11 years old were recruited to participate in an 8-week, weekly group-based intervention...
2018: BMC Obesity
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