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Balanced diet

Pankajini Mallick, Pranav Shah, Michael M Ittmann, Meghna Trivedi, Ming Hu, Song Gao, Romi Ghose
Irinotecan is highly effective in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer as well as many other cancers. However, irinotecan is known to cause severe diarrhea, which pose significant problems in patients undergoing irinotecan based chemotherapy. Dietary and herbal components have shown promise in improving gastrointestinal health. Therefore, we compared the effect of grain-based chow diet containing phytoestrogens and corn/alfalfa as fat source to purified diets containing either animal-derived fat source (lard) or plant-derived fat source (soybean oil) on irinotecan-induced toxicities in mice...
June 15, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Sunmi Seok, Young-Chae Kim, Sangwon Byun, Sunge Choi, Zhen Xiao, Naoki Iwamori, Yang Zhang, Chaochen Wang, Jian Ma, Kai Ge, Byron Kemper, Jongsook Kim Kemper
Jumonji D3 (JMJD3) histone demethylase epigenetically regulates development and differentiation, immunity, and tumorigenesis by demethylating a gene repression histone mark, H3K27-me3, but a role for JMJD3 in metabolic regulation has not been described. SIRT1 deacetylase maintains energy balance during fasting by directly activating both hepatic gluconeogenic and mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation genes, but the underlying epigenetic and gene-specific mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, JMJD3 was identified unexpectedly as a gene-specific transcriptional partner of SIRT1 and epigenetically activated mitochondrial β-oxidation, but not gluconeogenic, genes during fasting...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
A S M L Ahasan, G Invernizzi, G Farina, A Pilotto, F Barbé, V Bontempo, R Rossi, F Bellagamba, C Lecchi, G Savoini, A Agazzi
Piglets can often suffer impaired antioxidant status and poor immune response during post-weaning, especially when chronic inflammation takes place, leading to lower growth rates than expected. Oral administration of dietary antioxidant compounds during this period could be a feasible way to balance oxidation processes and increase health and growth performance. The aim of the trial was to study the effects of an antioxidant feed supplement (melon pulp concentrate) that contains high concentration of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) on inflammation, antioxidant status and growth performance of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged weaned piglets...
June 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
O R Drehmel, T M Brown-Brandl, J V Judy, S C Fernando, P S Miller, K E Hales, P J Kononoff
Feeding fat to lactating dairy cows may reduce methane production. Relative to cellulose, fermentation of hemicellulose is believed to result in less methane; however, these factors have not been studied simultaneously. Eight multiparous, lactating Jersey cows averaging (±SD) 98 ± 30.8 d in milk and body weight of 439.3 ± 56.7 kg were used in a twice-replicated 4 × 4 Latin square to determine the effects of fat and hemicellulose on energy utilization and methane production using a headbox-type indirect calorimetry method...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
N Morchiladze, B Tkeshelashvili, T Gagua, D Gagua
The isolated hypothyroxinemia of pregnancy (IHP) has gained specific attention in the specialized literature during the recent years as the possible factor impeding the intellectual development of fetus and increasing the risk of complications related with pregnancy, delivery and perinatal period. Aim of the study was to define the importance of isolated hypothyroxinemia in the development of obstetric and somatic pathologies in outpatient population of pregnant females. The study of prospective design was performed at the base of "David Gagua Clinic" Ltd...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Jiashun Chen, Baoju Kang, Qian Jiang, Mengmeng Han, Yurong Zhao, Lina Long, Chenxing Fu, Kang Yao
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a critical molecule in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is beneficial to intestinal functions. However, its influence on intestinal microbiota and metabolism is not fully understood. We investigated the effects of a low-protein (LP) diet supplemented with AKG on cecal microbial communities and the parameters of microbial metabolism in growing pigs. Twenty-seven young pigs (Large White × Landrace) with an average initial body weight of 11.96 ± 0.18 kg were randomly allotted into three groups ( n = 9): a normal protein (NP) diet containing 20% crude protein (CP); LP diet formulated with 17% CP (LP diet); or LP diet supplemented with 10 g kg-1 of AKG (ALP diet)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
F K Gomes, M D B L Oliveira, B G C Homem, R M Boddey, T F Bernardes, M P Gionbelli, M A S Lara, D R Casagrande
Maintenance of mixed grass-legume pastures for stand longevity and improved animal utilization is a challenge in warm-season climates. The goal of this study was to assess grazing management on stand persistence, forage intake, and N balance of beef heifers grazing mixed pastures of Brachiaria brizantha and Arachis pintoi. A two-year experiment was carried out in Brazil, where four grazing management were assessed: rest period interrupted at 90%, 95%, and 100% of light interception (LI) and a fixed rest period of 42 days (90LI, 95LI, 100LI, and 42D, respectively)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Sigal Tepper, Amit Alter Sivashensky, Danit Rivkah Shahar, Diklah Geva, Tali Cukierman-Yaffe
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetes and dysglycemia increase the risk of frailty and decreased physical abilities. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) may reduce this risk. We hypothesized that adherence to the MD is associated with physical function in older type-2 diabetic patients and that the association is stratified by age. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited type-2 diabetes patients aged >60 years at the Center for Successful Aging with Diabetes at Sheba Medical Center...
June 14, 2018: Nutrients
Yentl Gautier, Isabelle Luneau, Nicolas Coquery, Paul Meurice, Charles-Henri Malbert, Sylvie Guerin, Bas Kemp, J Elizabeth Bolhuis, Caroline Clouard, Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Sophie Blat, David Val-Laillet
This study explores the long-term effects of exposure to a maternal Western diet (WD) vs. standard diet (SD) in the Yucatan minipig, on the adult progeny at lean status ( n = 32), and then overweight status. We investigated eating behavior, cognitive abilities, brain basal glucose metabolism, dopamine transporter availability, microbiota activity, blood lipids, and glucose tolerance. Although both groups demonstrated similar cognitive abilities in a holeboard test, WD pigs expressed a higher stress level than did SD pigs (immobility, P < 0...
June 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ivan Gusarov, Evgeny Nudler
Glycogen is synthesized and stored to maintain postprandial blood glucose homeostasis and to ensure an uninterrupted energy supply between meals. Although the regulation of glycogen turnover has been well studied, the effects of glycogen on aging and disease development have been largely unexplored. In Caenorhabditis elegans fed a high sugar diet, glycogen potentiates resistance to oxidants, but paradoxically, shortens lifespan. Depletion of glycogen by oxidants or inhibition of glycogen synthesis extends the lifespan of worms by an AMPK-dependent mechanism...
June 13, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Sung-Hwan Eom, Yong-Gi Chun, Chan-Eun Park, Bum-Keun Kim, Sang-Hoon Lee, Dong-June Park
The aims of this study were to determine the viability of using freeze-thaw infusion technology to produce a range of root vegetables using enzyme treatments with improved texture characteristics for elderly consumers with swallowing difficulties. We applied enzyme impregnation as a technology to soften the textures of root vegetables commonly consumed in Korea; balloon flower root (Platycodon grandiflorus), burdock root (Arctium lappa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L), and lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) through use of a texture analyzer after the freeze-thaw infusion of a commercial enzyme...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Texture Studies
Ken Ho
Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is energy dissipated as heat after a meal, contributing 5-15% to total daily EE. There has been a long interest in the intriguing possibility that a defect in DIT predisposes to obesity. However the evidence is conflicting, DIT is usually quantified by indirect calorimetry which does not measure heat. Using gas exchange, indirect calorimetry measures total post-prandial EE which comprises heat energy produced from brown adipose tissue (BAT) and energy required for processing and storing nutrients...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Joao Paulo Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, Grasielle Clotildes Kincheski, Ruy Andrade Louzada, Antônio Galina, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha Pierucci, Denise P Carvalho
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Physical exercise has emerged as a non-pharmacological treatment for obesity by promoting changes in energy balance. Despite the accumulated knowledge about exercise effects on energy expenditure, the central question of this study is to understand how an acute session of exercise might affect food intake of male Wistar rats. What is the main finding? The main finding of this work is that food intake in male Wistar rats is decreased in the first hour after physical exercise independent of the intensity...
June 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Guangsu Zhu, Fangli Ma, Gang Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Host gut microbiota dysbiosis occurs for multiple reasons and is often accompanied by chronic inflammation induced by a high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) diet and related metabolic disorders. Intervention with probiotics is a novel strategy for amelioration of metabolic syndrome, which is believed to regulate the gut microbiota composition to some extent. We investigated the relationship amongst bifidobacteria treatment, HFHS diet-induced metabolic disorders and the gut microbiota composition. Seven strains of bifidobacteria from four species were individually administered to rats fed a HFHS diet for 12 weeks...
June 12, 2018: Food & Function
Krasimir Kostov, Lyudmila Halacheva
Arterial hypertension is a disease with a complex pathogenesis. Despite considerable knowledge about this socially significant disease, the role of magnesium deficiency (MgD) as a risk factor is not fully understood. Magnesium is a natural calcium antagonist. It potentiates the production of local vasodilator mediators (prostacyclin and nitric oxide) and alters vascular responses to a variety of vasoactive substances (endothelin-1, angiotensin II, and catecholamines). MgD stimulates the production of aldosterone and potentiates vascular inflammatory response, while expression/activity of various antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) and the levels of important antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium) are decreased...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Renee M Petri, Payam Vahmani, Hee Eun Yang, Michael E R Dugan, Tim A McAllister
Extruded flaxseed (25%) and ground hay (75%) were each fed (DM basis) either together in a total mixed ration (TMR) or as flaxseed first followed by hay (non-TMR) to three pens of eight crossbred steers ( n = 24 per diet) for 240 days. Compared to TMR, feeding non-TMR enriched subcutaneous fat with α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) and its biohydrogenation intermediates including vaccenic acid [ trans ( t )11-18:1], rumenic acid [ cis ( c )9, t 11-conjugated linoleic acid] and conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuan Wang, Jun Han, Xi Chen, Xinning Zeng, Yi Wang, Jing Dong, Jie Chen
Iodine is an essential component for thyroid hormone synthesis. Epidemiological investigations have demonstrated that maternal mild iodine deficiency (ID)-induced hypothyroxinemia can affect intellectual and behavioral function in offspring. There is no definitive evidence demonstrating the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on neurobehavioral function in regional areas with mild ID. Thus, we aimed to clarify the effects of maternal mild ID and iodine supplementation on motor coordination in offspring and illuminate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
R M Dodds, D Kuh, A A Sayer, R Cooper
BACKGROUND: Poor performance in physical tests such as grip strength and walking speed is a risk factor for disability in old age, although whether such measures improve the discrimination of clinical prediction models when traditional clinical risk factors are already known is not clear. The prevalence of disability in mid-life is relatively low and hence screening in this age group may present an opportunity for early identification of those at increased future risk who may benefit most from preventative interventions...
June 6, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Jun Namkung, Ko Eun Shong, Hyeongseok Kim, Chang Myung Oh, Sangkyu Park, Hail Kim
BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is caused by metabolic stress associated with a positive lipid balance, such as insulin resistance and obesity. Previously we have shown the anti-obesity effects of inhibiting serotonin synthesis, which eventually improved insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis. However, it is not clear whether serotonin has direct effect on hepatic lipid accumulation. Here, we showed the possibility of direct action of serotonin on hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Mice were treated with para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) or LP-533401 to inhibit serotonin synthesis and fed with high fat diet (HFD) or high carbohydrate diet (HCD) to induce hepatic steatosis...
April 25, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
César Carneiro Linhares Fernandes, Paula Rodriguez-Villamil, Fábio Roger Vasconcelos, Celso Shiniti Nagano, Rafael Rossetto, Arlindo de Alencar Araripe Noronha Moura, Davide Rondina
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different feeding levels on the proteome of oviduct and uterus tissues of hormonally stimulated goats during the periovulatory period. Forty goats were separated into four different diet groups: Diet 1.0 M (n = 11), Diet 1.3 M (n = 10), Diet 1.6 M (n = 9), Diet 1.9 M (n = 10), fed with 1.0, 1.3, 1.6 and 1.9 times live weight maintenance, respectively. After four weeks of treatment, six hormonally stimulated females per treatment group were randomly selected for collection of uterine and the oviduct tissue samples...
June 8, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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