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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036309/chiral-analysis-of-methamphetamine-in-oral-fluid-samples-a-method-to-distinguish-licit-from-illicit-drug-use
#1
Damon Borg, Elizabeth Kolb, Cindy Lantigua, Richard Stripp
Methamphetamine (MAMP) is a popular illicit drug abused for its central nervous system stimulating effects. MAMP is also used therapeutically in the treatment of overeating disorders, narcolepsy, attention deficit disorder, in over-the-counter (OTC) products to ease nasal congestion. MAMP exists in two enantiomeric forms, dextrorotary (d-MAMP) or levorotary (l-MAMP). The compounds are similar in chemical structure, simply differing in the orientation of functional groups around the asymmetric carbon. In part because of the availability of l-MAMP in OTC nasal inhalers, forensic guidelines require a sample to contain greater than 20% d-MAMP to consider illicit drug use when interpreting results...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035155/effects-of-social-and-spatial-contexts-on-young-latinas-methamphetamine-use-initiation
#2
Ann M Cheney, Christine N Newkirk, Vhuhwavho M Nekhavhambe, Matthew Baron Rotondi, Alison Hamilton
In this article, we examine methamphetamine (meth) use initiation as influenced by Latinas' social positions within institutions (e.g., family and economy). We conducted ethnographic fieldwork in five women's residential substance use treatment facilities in Los Angeles County with women who considered meth to be their primary drug of choice. Using an urban ethnographic framing, we demonstrate the effects of low-income young Latinas' spatial- and social-context rendered vulnerability to abuse and neglect, and the resulting emotional distress, on meth use initiation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034284/data-from-roadside-screening-for-psychoactive-substances-alcohol-and-illicit-drugs-among-spanish-drivers-in-2015
#3
Maria Jesús Herrero, Antonia Domingo-Salvany, Rafael de la Torre
The data presented in this article are related to the paper "Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol and illicit drugs, in Spanish drivers: A roadside study in 2015". (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.07.005) Domingo-(Salvany et al., 2017) [1]. In that paper it was not possible to directly compare 2015 results with previous editions for various reasons, one of which was the lack of a similar weighting procedure. The present paper provides 2015 figures of roadside screening tests which are weighted for traffic flow intensity and therefore allow direct comparisons with the screening tests conducted among Spanish drivers in 2008 and 2013...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032478/total-knee-arthroplasty-in-patients-with-a-history-of-illicit-intravenous-drug-abuse
#4
David E Bauer, Andreas Hingsammer, Lukas Ernstbrunner, Alexander Aichmair, Andrea B Rosskopf, Franziska Eckers, Karl Wieser, Sandro F Fucentese
PURPOSE: Injection drug users are at high risk for both infection with blood-borne pathogens, namely, human immune deficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis-B, -C virus, various bacterial infections, as well as early primary and secondary joint degeneration. When total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is anticipated the risk of septic complications is a major concern. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiographic outcome of patients with a history of intravenous drug use after total knee arthroplasty...
October 14, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030166/mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-use-in-humans-the-twisted-sisters
#5
REVIEW
Laurent Karila, Geneviève Lafaye, Amandine Scocard, Olivier Cottencin, Amine Benyamina
The new psychoactive substances phenomenon continues to represent a considerable public health challenge. Synthetic cathinones are β-keto amphetamine analogues, also known as legal highs, research chemicals, bath salts. These drugs have surfaced as a popular alternative to other illicit drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, MDMA, and methamphetamine, due to their potent psychostimulant and empathogenic effects. Pyrovalerone cathinones (a-pyrrolidinophenones) form a distinct group of designer cathinones, such as MDPV...
October 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029617/association-of-red-cell-distribution-width-with-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-specific-mortality-in-african-american-and-white-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Salman M Tajuddin, Mike A Nalls, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans
BACKGROUND: While the mortality rate is declining in the United States, the life expectancy gap among different population groups suggests a need to identify biomarkers to improve early identification of individuals at risk. Red cell distribution width (RDW), a measure of anisocytosis, is an emerging biomarker of chronic disease morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. However, little is known about its association with mortality risk in younger adults. The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between RDW and overall and cause-specific mortality risk, and to identify novel determinants of RDW level...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028563/exploring-the-relationship-between-online-buyers-and-sellers-of-image-and-performance-enhancing-drugs-ipeds-quality-issues-trust-and-self-regulation
#7
Katinka van de Ven, Rosa Koenraadt
BACKGROUND: Online drug markets are expanding the boundaries of drug supply including the sale and purchase of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). However, the role of the internet in IPED markets, and in particular the ways in which these substances are supplied via the surface web, has rarely been considered. This article examines the online IPED market in order to inform drug policy and to provide a nuanced understanding of retailers involved, particularly exploring the relationship between buyers and sellers...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028556/buspirone-maintenance-does-not-alter-the-reinforcing-subjective-and-cardiovascular-effects-of-intranasal-methamphetamine
#8
Anna R Reynolds, Justin C Strickland, William W Stoops, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush
BACKGROUND: Medications development efforts for methamphetamine-use disorder have targeted central monoamines because these systems are directly involved in the effects of methamphetamine. Buspirone is a dopamine autoreceptor and D3 receptor antagonist and partial agonist at serotonin 1A receptors, making it a logical candidate medication for methamphetamine-use disorder. Buspirone effects on abuse-related behaviors of methamphetamine have been mixed in clinical and preclinical studies...
September 22, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026500/effectiveness-of-resilience-training-on-ego-control-and-hardiness-of-illicit-drug-users
#9
Amin Roustaei, Babollah Bakhshipoor, Younes Doostian, Ali Akbar Goodiny, Mansoureh Koohikar, Omid Massah
BACKGROUND: The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of resilience training upon ego-control and hardiness of the addicted persons. METHODS: This was a semi-experimental study with pretest and posttest control groups which was conducted in Sari, Iran, during 2014-2015. Thirty persons were selected among 240 illicit drug users who underwent screening. Resilience training was performed in ten sessions for the experimental group. The Kobasa hardiness questionnaire and self-restraint scale (SRS) were used for data collection and multivariate covariance test was performed for data analysis...
January 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020729/diagnosing-and-managing-androgen-deficiency-in-men
#10
Raveen Kaur Sandher, Jonathan Aning
Androgens play a crucial role in bone, muscle and fat metabolism, erythropoiesis and cognitive health. In men aged 40-79 years the incidence of biochemical deficiency and symptomatic hypogonadism is 2.1-5.7%. Decreased libido or reduced frequency and quality of erections, fatigue, irritability, infertility or a diminished feeling of wellbeing may be presenting complaints. However, a significant proportion of men with androgen deficiency will be identified when they present for unrelated concerns. Important factors to elicit from the history in addition to the presenting complaint include: a medical history of obesity, type 2 diabetes, systemic diseases or metabolic syndrome which all impact on testosterone physiology...
April 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017108/sexual-orientation-disparities-in-prescription-drug-misuse-among-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-adolescents-prevalence-and-correlates
#11
Dennis H Li, Blair C Turner, Brian Mustanski, Gregory L Phillips
OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) may be at disproportionate risk for misusing prescription psychotropic medications compared to their heterosexual peers. However, generalizable studies specific to this age group are lacking. The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of sexual orientation disparities in prescription drug misuse among a nationally representative sample of adolescents as well as to examine key correlates of misuse. METHOD: Using data from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, we conducted stepwise multivariable weighted logistic regressions, sequentially controlling for demographics, experiences of victimization, mental health, and other illicit substance use...
September 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016951/compliance-with-opioid-therapy-distinguishing-clinical-characteristics-and-demographics-among-patients-with-cancer-pain
#12
Dhanalakshmi Koyyalagunta, Eduardo Bruera, Mitchell P Engle, Larry Driver, Wenli Dong, Chris Demaree, Diane M Novy
Background: Because an increase of patients who misuse opioids has been identified in our cancer clinical setting through urine drug testing (UDT) and the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patient's with Pain-Short Form (SOAPP-SF), we conducted this retrospective cohort study to identify patient characteristics that are associated with UDT that indicates noncompliance. Methods: Over a two-year period, 167 of 8,727 patients (2.4%) seen in the pain clinic and who underwent UDT were evaluated to determine compliance with prescribed opioid regimens...
July 29, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993024/exposure-to-cocaine-and-its-main-metabolites-altered-the-protein-profile-of-zebrafish-embryos
#13
Marco Parolini, Luca Bini, Stefano Magni, Alessandro Rizzo, Anna Ghilardi, Claudia Landi, Alessandro Armini, Luca Del Giacco, Andrea Binelli
Illicit drugs have been identified as emerging aquatic pollutants because of their widespread presence in freshwaters and potential toxicity towards aquatic organisms. Among illicit drug residues, cocaine (COC) and its main metabolites, namely benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), are commonly detected in freshwaters worldwide at concentration that can induce diverse adverse effects to non-target organisms. However, the information of toxicity and mechanisms of action (MoA) of these drugs, mainly of COC metabolites, to aquatic species is still fragmentary and inadequate...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992356/uplc-hr-ms-ms-based-determination-study-on-the-metabolism-of-four-synthetic-cannabinoids-adb-fubica-ab-fubica-ab-bica-and-adb-bica-by-human-liver-microsomes
#14
Jing Li, Cuimei Liu, Tao Li, Zhendong Hua
Since 2012, several cannabimimetic indazole and indole derivatives with valine amino acid amide residue have emerged in the illicit drug market, and gradually replaced the old generations of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) with naphthyl or adamantine groups. Among them, ADB-FUBICA, AB-FUBICA, AB-BICA and ADB-BICA were detected in China recently, but unfortunately no information about their in vitro human metabolism is available for now. Therefore, biomonitoring studies to screen their consumption lack any information about the potential biomarkers (e...
October 9, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991556/a-58-year-old-woman-with-pneumonia-and-gram-negative-diplococci
#15
Giuseppe Famularo, Pasquale Sordillo, Alessandro Stasolla, Maria Gabriella Parisi
A 58-year-old woman with COPD, cor pulmonale, diabetes, and hypertension had a productive cough of greenish and purulent sputum, low-grade fever, and shortness of breath. Medications were metformin, losartan, cholecalciferol, folic acid, a multivitamin, fluticasone by inhalation, and, as needed, ipratropium by inhalation. She lived alone and worked as a physician, had received that year's seasonal influenza vaccine, was a heavy smoker, did not drink alcohol or use illicit drugs, and had no personal or family history of allergy and autoimmunity...
October 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991555/a-63-year-old-woman-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-and-pulmonary-hypertension-with-worsening-hypoxemia
#16
Udit Chaddha, Ioan Puscas, Ashley Prosper, Sivagini Ganesh, Bassam Yaghmour
A 63-year-old woman with a history of neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF-1) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) thought to be secondary to the NF-1 presented with a few weeks of worsening dyspnea on exertion. She took no medications other than sildenafil for her pulmonary hypertension (PH). She denied tobacco, alcohol, and illicit or anorectic drug use. She had previously worked as a waitress. Her mother and her brother had NF-1 but no PH or lung disease.
October 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991520/mortality-risk-in-a-sample-of-emergency-department-patients-who-use-cocaine-with-alcohol-and-or-cannabis
#17
Devin Gilmore, Jennifer Zorland, Joanna Akin, J Aaron Johnson, James G Emshoff, Gabriel P Kuperminc
BACKGROUND: Illicit drug use is common among Emergency Department (ED) patients, yet the association between drug use and subsequent mortality is not well understood. This study examines 36-month mortality rates for a sample of ED patients based on reported use of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine both individually and in combination. METHODS: Patients (N = 1669) from two urban EDs were surveyed at the time of the visit. The patient survey included the Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and information on physical and mental health, healthcare utilization, and risk factors associated with substance use...
October 9, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987516/cannabis-can-augment-thrombolytic-properties-of-rtpa-case-report-of-an-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-a-heavy-cannabis-user
#18
Amar Shere, Hemant Goyal
Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in the United States and is considered to have several adverse health effects. There is evidence suggesting that its recreational use is associated with both increased cardio- and cerebrovascular events. Recently, multiple cases of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes associated with cannabis use were reported in the literature (Goyal et al., 2017). It has been suggested that cannabis can affect cerebral auto-regulation and vascular tone leading to vasoconstriction and acute ischemic stroke...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986963/development-and-evaluation-of-pure-rush-an-online-serious-game-for-drug-education
#19
Lexine A Stapinski, Bill Reda, Nicola C Newton, Siobhan Lawler, Daniel Rodriguez, Catherine Chapman, Maree Teesson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Learning is most effective when it is active, enjoyable and incorporates feedback. Past research demonstrates that serious games are prime candidates to utilise these principles, however the potential benefits of this approach for delivering drug education are yet to be examined in Australia, a country where drug education in schools is mandatory. DESIGN AND METHODS: The serious game 'Pure Rush' was developed across three stages. First, formative consultation was conducted with 115 students (67% male, aged 15-17 years), followed by feasibility and acceptability testing of a prototype of the game (n = 25, 68% male)...
October 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983184/examination-of-the-extent-to-which-employment-factors-are-associated-with-reduced-child-maltreatment-potential-and-drug-use
#20
Brad Donohue, Christopher P Plant, Kimberly A Barchard, David J Gillis
Job assistance programs are commonly recommended for parents of children who have been victimized by child maltreatment, particularly when illicit drugs are indicated. However, the relationship between employment factors, substance abuse and risk of child maltreatment has received limited empirical attention. Therefore, the current study examines employment factors in a sample of 72 mothers who were referred by Child Protective Services (CPS) for treatment of substance abuse and child neglect. Child maltreatment potential was found to be negatively associated with number of hours employed and self-reported happiness with employment...
January 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
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