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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912816/comparing-hiv-risk-related-behaviors-between-2-rds-national-samples-of-msm-in-brazil-2009-and-2016
#1
Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães, Carl Kendall, Laio Magno, Gustavo Machado Rocha, Daniela Riva Knauth, Andrea Fachel Leal, Ines Dourado, Maria Amélia Veras, Ana Maria de Brito, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr
INTRODUCTION: Periodic monitoring of sociobehavior characteristics at a national level is an essential component of understanding the dynamics the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic worldwide, including Brazil. METHODS: This paper compares descriptive sociobehavior characteristics in 2 national cross-sectional HIV biological behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSS) conducted in 2009 and 2016 among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Brazil. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) was used for recruitment in both years...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912815/monitoring-self-reported-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-public-hiv-care-facilities-in-brazil-a-national-cross-sectional-study
#2
Maria Altenfelder Santos, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães, Ernani Tiaraju Santa Helena, Cáritas Relva Basso, Felipe Campos Vale, Wania Maria do Espírito Santo Carvalho, Ana Maroso Alves, Gustavo Machado Rocha, Francisco de Assis Acurcio, Maria das Graças Braga Ceccato, Rogério Ruscitto do Prado, Paulo Rossi Menezes, Maria Ines Batistella Nemes
INTRODUCTION: Patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical for HIV treatment success. Monitoring rates of adherence in public HIV outpatient care facilities can improve outcomes in Brazil where ART is universally available. METHODS: We conducted a national cross-sectional survey of ART adherence in 2010. Participants were selected using a multistage probability sample. First, HIV outpatient care facilities were stratified according to 7 Organizational Quality Classification (OQC) groups and regions...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912814/factors-associated-with-hiv-infection-among-female-sex-workers-in-brazil
#3
Célia Landmann Szwarcwald, Giseli Nogueira Damacena, Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza-Júnior, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães, Wanessa da Silva de Almeida, Arthur Pate de Souza Ferreira, Orlando da Costa Ferreira-Júnior, Inês Dourado
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most-at-risk population groups for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This paper aims at identifying the main predictors of HIV infection among FSW recruited in the 2nd Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey in 12 Brazilian cities in 2016. METHOD: Data were collected on 4245 FSW recruited by respondent driven sampling (RDS). Weights were inversely proportional to participants' network sizes. To establish the correlates of HIV infection, we used logistic regression models taking into account the dependence of observations resultant from the recruitment chains...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911856/full-spectrum-isotopic-13c-nmr-using-polarization-transfer-for-position-specific-isotope-analysis
#4
Valentin Joubert, Virginie Silvestre, Mathilde Grand, Denis Loquet, Virginie Ladroue, Fabrice Besacier, Serge Akoka, Gerald Stanislas Remaud
For the last ten years, quantitative isotope ratio monitoring 13C NMR (irm-13C NMR) has been successfully tested and proved as an efficient tool for the determination of the position-specific determination of 13C/12C ratios. Several applications in different domains have shown its interest. In the context of origin assignment, the possibility to track the distribution network of illicit drugs or cutting agents is of prime importance. However irm-13C NMR still suffers from a relative lack of sensitivity limiting its dissemination among control laboratories...
June 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909756/phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors-in-chinese-tonic-liquors-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#5
Bo Ding, Zhiyuan Wang, Jianjun Xie, Guangfeng Zeng, Wenrui Chen
Chinese tonic liquor is an important dietary supplement in daily use, but it often happens that illicitly adulterated drugs in Chinese tonic liquor could lead to food safety issues. In this survey an analytical method consisting of a liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (LC-Q-TOF-MS), coupled with QuEChERS pretreatment, was established for identification of phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme (PDE-5) inhibitors in Chinese tonic liquors. 86 PDE-5 inhibitors were qualitatively analyzed by employing information dependent acquisition mass spectrometry (IDA-MS) in comparison with the accurate mass of the protonated molecular ion, isotopic pattern, library and chemical formula...
June 18, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909719/impure-but-not-inactive-behavioral-pharmacology-of-dibenzylpiperazine-a-common-by-product-of-benzylpiperazine-synthesis
#6
Sean B Dolan, Ritu A Shetty, Michael J Forster, Michael B Gatch
BACKGROUND: Substituted piperazines comprise a substantial proportion of the novel psychoactive substance market. Among the most widely abused piperazine compounds are meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), tri-fluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), and, especially, benzylpiperazine (BZP), which are commonly incorporated, either alone or in combination, in illicit "party pills" or "ecstasy" formulations. Illicit synthesis of BZP often results in production of an impure by-product dibenzylpiperazine (DBZP), which frequently appears alongside BZP in these formulations; however, despite its ubiquity, little information exists regarding the abuse liability of DBZP...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908515/an-altered-state-emergent-changes-to-illicit-drug-markets-and-distribution-networks-in-scotland
#7
James Densley, Robert McLean, Ross Deuchar, Simon Harding
BACKGROUND: Many efforts have been undertaken to construct an overview of various aspects of illicit drug distribution in the United Kingdom. Yet given that national, regional, and local differences can be profound, this has proven difficult, to the extent that Scotland has been largely excluded from the conversation. In addition, the level of supply being examined, the drug type, and the actors involved only add to confusion and vast differences between some findings. METHOD: The current study aims to provide a holistic account, as best as possible considering variations of illegal drug supply in illicit networks, by focusing in on a particular geographical context (Scotland) and addressing drug supply at all levels...
June 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908336/positive-reinforcement-targeting-abstinence-in-substance-misuse-praise-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-rct-process-evaluation-of-contingency-management
#8
N Metrebian, T Weaver, S Pilling, J Hellier, S Byford, J Shearer, L Mitcheson, M Astbury, P Bijral, N Bogdan, O Bowden-Jones, E Day, J Dunn, E Finch, S Forshall, A Glasper, G Morse, S Akhtar, J Bajaria, C Bennett, E Bishop, V Charles, C Davey, R Desai, C Goodfellow, F Haque, N Little, H McKechnie, J Morris, F Mosler, J Mutz, R Pauli, D Poovendran, E Slater, J Strang
There are approximately 256,000 heroin and other opiate users in England of whom 155,000 are in treatment for heroin (or opiate) addiction. The majority of people in treatment receive opiate substitution treatment (OST) (methadone and buprenorphine). However, OST suffers from high attrition and persistent heroin use even whilst in treatment. Contingency management (CM) is a psychological intervention based on the principles of operant conditioning. It is delivered as an adjunct to existing evidence based treatments to amplify patient benefit and involves the systematic application of positive reinforcement (financial or material incentives) to promote behaviours consistent with treatment goals...
June 13, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902699/abuse-of-fentanyl-an-emerging-problem-to-face
#9
REVIEW
Katarzyna Kuczyńska, Piotr Grzonkowski, Łukasz Kacprzak, Jolanta B Zawilska
Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid used as a narcotic analgesic supplement in general and regional anesthesia as well as in management of persistent, severe chronic pain. Alarming epidemiological and forensic medicine reports, accumulated mainly during the last two decades, point to a growing increase in illicit use of fentanyl, mainly in North America and Europe. Toxicological data indicates that fentanyl use is inextricably linked with polydrug use. There are two main sources of fentanyl on the "recreational" drug market...
June 2, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899119/effect-of-restricting-the-legal-supply-of-prescription-opioids-on-buying-through-online-illicit-marketplaces-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#10
James Martin, Jack Cunliffe, David Décary-Hétu, Judith Aldridge
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect on the trade in opioids through online illicit markets ("cryptomarkets") of the US Drug Enforcement Administration's ruling in 2014 to reschedule hydrocodone combination products. DESIGN: Interrupted time series analysis. SETTING: 31 of the world's largest cryptomarkets operating from October 2013 to July 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of total transactions, advertised and active listings for prescription opioids, prescription sedatives, prescription steroids, prescription stimulants, and illicit opioids, and the composition of the prescription opioid market between the US and elsewhere...
June 13, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896656/wastewater-analysis-for-community-wide-drugs-use-assessment
#11
Christoph Ort, Lubertus Bijlsma, Sara Castiglioni, Adrian Covaci, Pim de Voogt, Erik Emke, Félix Hernández, Malcolm Reid, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Kevin V Thomas, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) complements existing epidemiology-based estimation techniques and provides objective, evidence-based estimates of illicit drug use. After consumption, biomarkers - drugs and their metabolites - excreted to toilets and flushed into urban sewer networks can be measured in raw wastewater samples. The quantified loads can serve as an estimate for the collective consumption of all people contributing to the wastewater sample. This transdisciplinary approach, further explained in this chapter, has developed, matured and is now established for monitoring substances such as cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants...
June 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896097/a-focus-on-reward-prediction-and-the-lateral-habenula-functional-alterations-and-the-behavioral-outcomes-induced-by-drugs-of-abuse
#12
REVIEW
Nicholas M Graziane, Peter A Neumann, Yan Dong
The lateral habenula (LHb) regulates reward learning and controls the updating of reward-related information. Drugs of abuse have the capacity to hijack the cellular and neurocircuit mechanisms mediating reward learning, forming non-adaptable, compulsive behaviors geared toward obtaining illicit substances. Here, we discuss current findings demonstrating how drugs of abuse alter intrinsic and synaptic LHb neuronal function. Additionally, we discuss evidence for how drug-induced LHb alterations may affect the ability to predict reward, potentially facilitating an addiction-like state...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894597/trends-in-illicit-drug-use-among-smokers-and-nonsmokers-in-the-united-states-2002-2014
#13
Scott J Moeller, David S Fink, Misato Gbedemah, Deborah S Hasin, Sandro Galea, Michael J Zvolensky, Renee D Goodwin
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking has declined in the United States. Still, identifying prevalent and modifiable barriers to quitting can help inform the next steps for tobacco control. Illicit drug use, which may be increasingly common in the United States, could be one such factor. We investigated the relationship between past-month illicit drug use and cigarette smoking status and estimated trends in the prevalence of past-month illicit drug use by cigarette smoking status from 2002 to 2014 in the United States...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891008/the-association-between-cannabis-use-and-suicidal-behavior-in-patients-with-psychiatric-disorders-an-analysis-of-sex-differences
#14
Leen Naji, Tea Rosic, Brittany Dennis, Meha Bhatt, Nitika Sanger, Jackie Hudson, Natalia Mouravska, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug. In the general population, its use has been linked to a heightened propensity for suicidal behavior (SB). We hypothesize that this association varies in patients with psychiatric disorders. SB is known to vary by sex and therefore an investigation of cannabis' association with SB must consider sex differences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between cannabis use and suicide attempts in men and women with psychiatric disorders...
June 11, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886378/exploring-weight-control-as-motivation-for-illicit-stimulant-use
#15
Amanda B Bruening, Marisol Perez, Tara K Ohrt
OBJECTIVE: Research has highlighted a growing trend among young, adult women to initiate drug use for weight loss. With known suppressive effects on appetite, illicit stimulants (i.e., cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy) may be particularly attractive to college women, who are at elevated risk for increased body dissatisfaction and experimenting with extreme weight loss techniques. The current study examines the association between risk factors and symptomatology of eating disorders and illicit stimulant use (ISU)...
June 5, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885664/zumba-induced-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-a-case-report
#16
Sana Chams, Skye El Sayegh, Mulham Hamdon, Sarwan Kumar, Zain Kulairi
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or stress cardiomyopathy is characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning in the absence of coronary occlusion. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear but possible causes have been proposed mainly catecholamine cardiotoxicity, followed by metabolic disturbance, coronary microvascular impairment, and multivessel epicardial coronary artery vasospasm. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy accounts for 1-2% of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome with the majority of patients diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy being women > 55 years of age...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885158/consistency-in-adults-self-reported-lifetime-use-of-illicit-drugs-a-follow-up-study-over-13-years
#17
Heidi Amalie Rosendahl Jensen, Karoliina Karjalainen, Knud Juel, Ola Ekholm
OBJECTIVE: Surveys are considered the best source of data available on the prevalence of illicit drug use in the general adult population. The objective of the present study was to examine the consistency in self-reported lifetime use of illicit drugs. METHOD: Data were obtained from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys. A nationally representative subsample of the individuals invited in 2000 was also invited to the subsequent three survey waves (2005, 2010, and 2013)...
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885142/mental-and-physical-health-correlates-of-discrimination-against-people-who-inject-drugs-a-systematic-review
#18
Camila E Couto Cruz, Caroline Salom, Joemer Maravilla, Rosa Alati
OBJECTIVE: The perception that people who use illicit drugs are deviant has contributed to the stigmatization of this population. The primary aim of this review is to examine the links among injection-related discrimination, mental health, physical health, and quality of life in people who inject drugs. We also identify settings, perpetrators of discrimination, and coping strategies developed by people who inject drugs to deal with the issue. METHOD: Online databases MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL (EbscoHost), and PsycINFO (APA PsycNET) were searched for articles focusing on injection-related discrimination against people who inject drugs...
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884164/using-niatx-strategies-to-implement-integrated-services-in-routine-care-a-study-protocol
#19
James H Ford, Eric L Osborne, Mehret T Assefa, Amy M McIlvaine, Ahney M King, Kevin Campbell, Mark P McGovern
BACKGROUND: Access to integrated services for individuals with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders is a long-standing public health issue. Receiving integrated treatment services are both more effective and preferred by patients and families versus parallel or fragmented care. National policy statements and expert consensus guidelines underscore the benefits of integrated treatment. Despite decades of awareness, adequate treatment for individuals with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders occurs infrequently...
June 8, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883856/polydrug-use-patterns-risk-behavior-and-unmet-healthcare-need-in-a-community-based-sample-of-women-who-use-cocaine-heroin-or-methamphetamine
#20
Jennifer Lorvick, Erica N Browne, Barrot H Lambdin, Megan Comfort
BACKGROUND: The use of multiple illicit drugs (polydrug use) is associated with health-related harms and elevated risk of drug overdose. Polydrug use in common among women who use 'hard' drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine. METHODS: Quantitative data collection was conducted with a community-recruited sample of 624 women who used heroin, methamphetamine or cocaine in Oakland, CA during 2014-2015. We conducted latent class analysis to classify polydrug use patterns...
May 24, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
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