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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245085/excretion-of-metabolites-of-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-jwh-018-in-urine-after-controlled-inhalation
#1
Stefan W Toennes, Anna Geraths, Werner Pogoda, Alexander Paulke, Cora Wunder, Eef L Theunissen, Johannes G Ramaekers
Each year, synthetic cannabinoids are occurring in high numbers on the illicit drug market but data obtained after controlled application are rare. The present study on pharmacokinetics in urine is part of a pilot study on adverse effects of JWH-018, which is one of the oldest and best known synthetic cannabinoids. Six subjects inhaled smoke from 2 and 3mg JWH-018. The drug and ten potential metabolites were analyzed in urine samples collected during 12h after inhalation by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) without and with conjugate cleavage...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245040/characterising-the-online-weapons-trafficking-on-cryptomarkets
#2
Damien Rhumorbarbe, Denis Werner, Quentin Gilliéron, Ludovic Staehli, Julian Broséus, Quentin Rossy
Weapons related webpages from nine cryptomarkets were manually duplicated in February 2016. Information about the listings (i.e. sales proposals) and vendors' profiles were extracted to draw an overview of the actual online trafficking of weapons. Relationships between vendors were also inferred through the analysis of online digital traces and content similarities. Weapons trafficking is mainly concentrated on two major cryptomarkets. Besides, it accounts for a very small proportion of the illicit trafficking on cryptomarkets compared to the illicit drugs trafficking...
December 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242084/predictors-of-timing-of-pregnancy-discovery
#3
Molly McCarthy, Ushma Upadhyay, M Antonia Biggs, Renaisa Anthony, Jennifer Holl, Sarah Cm Roberts
OBJECTIVE: Earlier pregnancy discovery is important in the context of prenatal and abortion care. We evaluated characteristics associated with later pregnancy discovery among women seeking abortion care. STUDY DESIGN: Data come from a survey of women seeking abortion care at four family planning facilities in Utah. The participants completed a survey during the state-mandated abortion information visit they are required to complete prior to having an abortion. The outcome in this study was pregnancy discovery before versus after 6weeks since respondents' last menstrual period (LMP)...
December 11, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239889/are-trajectories-of-psychosocial-risk-in-adolescence-linked-to-hiv-vulnerability-in-emerging-and-young-adulthood-an-eighteen-year-longitudinal-study
#4
David Cordova, Justin Heinze, Hsing-Fang Hsieh, Ritesh Mistry, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Stephanie H Cook, Marc A Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: To examine trajectories of adolescent psychosocial risk-drug use, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and violence victimization and observation-and the longitudinal relationship between psychosocial risk trajectories during adolescence and HIV risk behaviors in adulthood. METHODS: The eighteen-year longitudinal study was conducted from September 1994 through May 2013, in Michigan. Eight-hundred and fifty predominantly (80%) African American adolescents completed demographics and measures of drug use, depressive and anxiety symptoms, violence victimization and observation at Times 1-4, sexual risk behaviors at Times 5 and 6, and social conditions (i...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239574/dui-offenders-may-have-multiple-health-and-social-problems-doctors-play-a-central-role-in-monitoring-the-use-of-medications-affecting-the-central-nervous-system
#5
Karoliina Karjalainen, Tomi Lintonen
While the overall number of driving under the influence (DUI) cases has reduced, the proportion of drivers under the influence of medications or illicit drugs has increased. In studies based on Finnish register data sets, the factors involved in DUI have been examined with the conclusion that drunk driving may be an indication of multiple health or social problems. According to several measures, DUI offenders who had used medications, especially benzodiazepines, were ill and disadvantaged. Doctors play a central role in reducing the number of DUI cases, e...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237577/randomized-controlled-trials-of-technology-based-hiv-sti-and-drug-abuse-preventive-interventions-for-african-american-and-hispanic-youth-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
David Córdova, Frania Mendoza Lua, Lauretta Ovadje, Ethan Hong, Berenice Castillo, Christopher P Salas-Wright
BACKGROUND: HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and drug abuse remain significant public health concerns in the United States, and African American and Hispanic youth are disproportionately affected. Although technology-based interventions are efficacious in preventing and reducing HIV/STI and licit/illicit drug use behaviors, relatively little is known regarding the state of the science of these interventions among African American and Hispanic youth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to identify and examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of technology-based HIV/STI and/or drug abuse preventive interventions for African American and Hispanic youth...
December 13, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237262/attogram-meth-detection-enabled-by-selective-organic-crystal-disaggregation-via-directed-crystal-level-interactions
#7
Wei Xu, Yanyan Fu, Huan Liu, Qingguo He, Huimin Cao, Jiangong Cheng
In this contribution, completely different from traditional probes based on molecular host-guest interaction, crystal level interaction was proposed as an ultrasensitive design strategy for molecule detection. In such strategy, crystal-guest interaction triggered rapid crystal disaggregation to gain great signal change, far more efficient than molecule scale coupling. Highly ordered pyrene methanol (PM) crystal was self-assembled with hydrogen bond chain and π-π stacking force. Its {011} surface can be destabilized by methamphetamine hydrochlorate (MA, heavily used illicit drug) selectively and efficiently...
December 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236640/drug-companies-liability-for-the-opioid-epidemic
#8
Rebecca L Haffajee, Michelle M Mello
The opioid epidemic has claimed more than 300,000 lives in the United States since 2000 and could claim another half million over the next decade. Although heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl account for an increasing proportion of opioid-involved overdoses, the majority of persons with..
December 14, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233952/epidemiological-study-of-mortality-rate-from-alcohol-and-illicit-drug-abuse-in-iran
#9
Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Ghoreishi, Fatemeh Shahbazi, Seyed Davood Mirtorabi, Mohammad Reza Ghadirzadeh, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari
BACKGROUND: The estimate of mortality associated with illicit opiate use provides useful information to those directing and monitoring local, national and international policies and programs. This study investigated the epidemiology of mortality due to the illegal consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances in the Iran to provide evidence-based public health data for useful programs and actions aimed at preventing drug-related mortality. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233439/an-investigation-of-final-year-pharmacy-students-moral-reasoning-ability-and-their-views-on-professionalism-and-fitness-to-practice-panel-determinations-a-questionnaire-study
#10
Lezley-Anne Hanna, John Gillen, Maurice Hall
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim was to establish pharmacy students' moral reasoning ability and obtain their views on professionalism and fitness to practice (FtP) determinations involving pharmacists. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Following ethical approval and piloting, final year pharmacy students at Queen's University Belfast (QUB) (n=119) were invited to participate in a questionnaire study. Section A was a validated moral reasoning assessment tool [Defining Issues Test (DIT2); five moral dilemmas], Section B was FtP cases and professionalism...
July 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232991/mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-illicit-drugs-in-latent-fingerprints-by-matrix-free-and-matrix-assisted-desorption-ionization-techniques
#11
Anton Skriba, Vladimir Havlicek
Compared with classical matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI), the matrix free-based strategies generate a cleaner background, without significant noise or interference coming from an applied matrix, which is beneficial for the analysis of small molecules, such as drugs of abuse. In this work, we probed the detection efficiency of methamphetamine, heroin and cocaine in nanostructure-assisted laser desorption-ionization (NALDI) and desorption electrospray ionization and compared the sensitivity of these two matrix-free tools with a standard MALDI mass spectrometry experiment...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232975/mass-spectrometric-studies-on-selective-androgen-receptor-modulators-sarms-using-electron-ionization-and-electrospray-ionization-collision-induced-dissociation
#12
Mario Thevis, Dietrich A Volmer
Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have been identified as a promising class of drug candidates potentially applicable to diverse pathological conditions commonly associated with significantly reduced muscle mass. Due to a suspected and meanwhile repeatedly proven misuse of SARMs in elite and amateur sport, sustaining constantly updated doping control analytical methods is critical for sports drug testing laboratories. These test methods predominantly utilize mass spectrometry-based instrumentations and, consequently, studies on the mass spectrometric behavior of new compounds and, where available, their metabolic products are vital for comprehensive doping controls...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232651/body-packing-and-intra-vaginal-body-pushing-of-cocaine-a-case-report
#13
Vishwajit Kishor Wankhade, B G Chikhalkar
Drug trafficking is an international problem. The prevalence of drug trafficking and newer concealing methods has been ever increasing. Body packing is described as using the abdominal or pelvic cavity for concealing illegal drugs. Body pushers smuggle illicit drugs by inserting them into rectum or vagina. These cases are either presented to the emergency departments as Body Packer Syndrome or as asymptomatic cases for observation, detained for alleged possession of contraband substances. We report a unique case of an asymptomatic white female who was detained at Mumbai International Airport under suspicion and brought to hospital for observation...
December 5, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228383/oral-fungal-bacterial-biofilm-models-in-vitro-a-review
#14
Marlene Chevalier, Stephane Ranque, Isabelle Prêcheur
Inclusion of fungi as commensals in oral biofilm is an important innovation in oral biology, and this work aimed to review the literature on the available biofilm and related disease in vitro models. Actually, thousands of bacterial and around one hundred of fungal phylotypes can colonize the oral cavity. Taxonomic profiling combined with functional expression analysis has revealed that Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and prominent periodontopathogens are not always present or numerically important in candidiasis, caries, or periodontitis lesions...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227839/medical-marijuana-laws-and-adolescent-use-of-marijuana-and-other-substances-alcohol-cigarettes-prescription-drugs-and-other-illicit-drugs
#15
Magdalena Cerdá, Aaron L Sarvet, Melanie Wall, Tianshu Feng, Katherine M Keyes, Sandro Galea, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: Historical shifts have taken place in the last twenty years in marijuana policy. The impact of medical marijuana laws (MML) on use of substances other than marijuana is not well understood. We examined the relationship between state MML and use of marijuana, cigarettes, illicit drugs, nonmedical use of prescription opioids, amphetamines, and tranquilizers, as well as binge drinking. METHODS: Pre-post MML difference-in-difference analyses were performed on a nationally representative sample of adolescents in 48 contiguous U...
December 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227236/use-of-marijuana-and-other-substances-among-pregnant-and-parenting-women-with-substance-use-disorders-changes-in-washington-state-after-marijuana-legalization
#16
Therese M Grant, J Christopher Graham, Beatriz H Carlini, Cara C Ernst, Natalie Novick Brown
OBJECTIVE: In 2012, possession of marijuana for nonmedical use was legalized in Washington State. This study examined how legalization affected alcohol and drug use in a sample of pregnant and parenting women with substance use disorders. METHOD: Study participants from nine counties in Washington State (N = 1,359) were questioned about their substance use after completing a 3-year case management intervention program. The sample was divided into two cohorts based on whether participants had completed the program before or after legalization...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226017/buprenorphine-for-medication-assisted-treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-in-pregnancy-relationship-to-neonatal-opioid-withdrawal-syndrome
#17
Niraj R Chavan, Kristin B Ashford, Amanda T Wiggins, Michelle R Lofwall, Agatha S Critchfield
Objective  To examine the relationship between antepartum buprenorphine dose for medication-assisted treatment (MAT) of opioid use disorder (OUD) and incident neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). Study Design  We performed a prospective cohort study of pregnant women with a singleton gestation diagnosed with OUD and receiving buprenorphine for MAT at a tertiary care academic institution from July 2015 to January 2017. We divided the study cohort into two groups-pregnancies with versus without NOWS...
October 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225452/the-effects-of-perceived-racial-ethnic-discrimination-on-substance-use-among-youths-living-in-the-cherokee-nation
#18
Brady A Garrett, Bethany J Livingston, Melvin D Livingston, Kelli A Komro
We examined frequency and intensity of racial/ethnic discrimination and the longitudinal relationship to substance use. The sample included (N = 1,421) American Indian, American Indian and White, and White adolescents. A high frequency of perceived racial discrimination was associated with an increased risk for heavy alcohol use, prescription drug misuse, and other illicit drug use. Experiences of perceived racial discrimination high in intensity were associated with further increased risk of prescription drug misuse and other illicit drug use...
2017: Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225192/effects-of-the-new-psychoactive-substances-diclofensine-diphenidine-and-methoxphenidine-on-monoaminergic-systems
#19
Dino Luethi, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
Diclofensine, diphenidine, and methoxphenidine are new psychoactive substances (NPSs) that recently appeared on the illicit drug market. Pharmacological profiling of such newly emerged drugs is crucial for a better understanding of their psychotropic effects and toxicity. We therefore investigated the potential of these NPSs to inhibit the norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin transporters in human embryonic kidney cells stably transfected with the respective transporters. In addition, we determined monoamine transporter and receptor affinities for the substances...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220642/substance-use-patterns-associated-with-recent-exposure-to-fentanyl-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-cross-sectional-urine-toxicology-screening-study
#20
Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Mark Lysyshyn, Kora DeBeck, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
INTRODUCTION: Vancouver, Canada is experiencing an opioid overdose crisis where fentanyl, a potent, synthetic opioid contaminating the illicit drug supply, has been detected in the majority of fatal overdose cases. Despite its growing presence throughout North America, few studies have characterized exposure to fentanyl among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). We sought to identify the prevalence and correlates of fentanyl exposure among PWUD in Vancouver. METHODS: Data were derived from cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver...
December 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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