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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096302/postmortem-and-toxicological-findings-in-a-series-of-furanylfentanyl-related-deaths
#1
Davide Guerrieri, Emma Rapp, Markus Roman, Henrik Druid, Robert Kronstrand
Over the course of 4 months in 2015 and 2016, a cluster of seven fatal intoxications involving the opioid-analogue furanylfentanyl occurred in Sweden; toxicological analysis showed presence of furanylfentanyl either as the only drug or in combination with other illicit substances. Previous publications have only reported non-lethal furanylfentanyl intoxications. In the cases presented here, furanylfentanyl intoxication-alone or in combination with other drugs-was determined to be the cause of death by the responsible pathologist...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092168/associations-between-at-risk-alcohol-use-substance-use-and-smoking-with-lipohypertrophy-and-lipoatrophy-among-patients-living-with-hiv
#2
Marisela Noorhasan, Daniel Drozd, Carl Grunfeld, Joe Merrill, Greer Burkholder, Michael J Mugavero, James H Willig, Amanda Willig, Karen L Cropsey, Kenneth Mayer, Aaron Blashill, Matthew Mimiaga, Mary E McCaul, Heidi Hutton, Geetanjali Chander, William C Matthews, Sonia Napravnik, Joseph J Eron, Katerina Christopoulos, Rob Fredericksen, Robin Nance, Joseph Chris Delaney, Paul Crane, Michael Saag, Mari M Kitahata, Heidi Crane
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy and illicit drug use, smoking, and at-risk alcohol use among a large diverse cohort of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in clinical care. METHODS: 7,931 PLWH at 6 sites across the US completed 21,279 clinical assessments including lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy, drug/alcohol use, physical activity level, and smoking. Lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy were measured using the FRAM body morphology instrument and associations were assessed with generalized estimating equations...
January 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090605/domain-adaptation-methods-for-improving-lab-to-field-generalization-of-cocaine-detection-using-wearable-ecg
#3
Annamalai Natarajan, Gustavo Angarita, Edward Gaiser, Robert Malison, Deepak Ganesan, Benjamin M Marlin
Mobile health research on illicit drug use detection typically involves a two-stage study design where data to learn detectors is first collected in lab-based trials, followed by a deployment to subjects in a free-living environment to assess detector performance. While recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of wearable sensors for illicit drug use detection in the lab setting, several key problems can limit lab-to-field generalization performance. For example, lab-based data collection often has low ecological validity, the ground-truth event labels collected in the lab may not be available at the same level of temporal granularity in the field, and there can be significant variability between subjects...
September 2016: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089207/delivery-dilemmas-how-drug-cryptomarket-users-identify-and-seek-to-reduce-their-risk-of-detection-by-law-enforcement
#4
Judith Aldridge, Rebecca Askew
BACKGROUND: Cryptomarkets represent an important drug market innovation by bringing buyers and sellers of illegal drugs together in a 'hidden' yet public online marketplace. We ask: How do cryptomarket drug sellers and buyers perceive the risks of detection and arrest, and attempt to limit them? METHODS: We analyse selected texts produced by vendors operating on the first major drug cryptomarket, Silk Road (N=600) alongside data extracted from the marketplace discussion forum that include buyer perspectives...
January 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087984/challenges-in-detecting-substances-for-equine-anti-doping
#5
REVIEW
A G Fragkaki, N Kioukia-Fougia, P Kiousi, M Kioussi, M Tsivou
The artificial increase of the physical capability of horses using drugs is well-known in racing and in other equine sports. Both illicit and therapeutic substances are regarded as prohibited substances in competition in most countries. Some countries do make distinctions for a few, specific drugs which are, however, allowed for use in other countries. The primary objective in the case of doping control is the detection of any trace of drug exposure, either parent drug or any of its metabolites, using the most powerful analytical methods which generally are based on chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques...
January 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086787/perceptions-of-a-drug-prevention-public-service-announcement-campaign-among-street-involved-youth-in-vancouver-canada-a-qualitative-study
#6
Lianlian Ti, Danya Fast, William Small, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Due to the popularity of public service announcements (PSAs), as well as the broader health and social harms associated with illicit drug use, this study sought to investigate how drug prevention messages found in the Government of Canada's DrugsNot4Me campaign were understood, experienced, and engaged with among a group of street-involved young people in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 individuals enrolled in the At-Risk Youth Study, and a thematic analysis was conducted...
January 13, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081515/distinguishing-subpopulations-of-marijuana-users-with-latent-profile-analysis
#7
Matthew R Pearson, Adrian J Bravo, Bradley T Conner
BACKGROUND: Although marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, little is known about the effects of typical marijuana use patterns and whether there are distinct subgroups of marijuana users. METHODS: The present study used latent profile analysis to determine the number of distinct subgroups of marijuana users in a large sample of college students (n=2129 past month marijuana users across 11 universities). We also examined how these distinct groups differ on several putative risk/protective factors (e...
November 23, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081482/following-lives-undergoing-change-flux-study-implementation-and-baseline-prevalence-of-drug-use-in-an-online-cohort-study-of-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-australia
#8
Mohamed A Hammoud, Fengyi Jin, Louisa Degenhardt, Toby Lea, Lisa Maher, Jeffrey Grierson, Brent Mackie, Marcus Pastorelli, Colin Batrouney, Nicky Bath, Jack Bradley, Garrett P Prestage
BACKGROUND: Drug use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) is higher than most populations. The use of crystal methamphetamine, erectile dysfunction medication (EDM), and amyl nitrite have been associated with sexual risk behaviour and HIV infection among gay and bisexual men (GBM). OBJECTIVE: This paper describes an online prospective observational study of licit and illicit drug use among GBM and explores baseline prevalence of drug use in this sample. Capturing these data poses challenges as participants are required to disclose potentially illegal behaviours in a geographically dispersed country...
January 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079530/can-intoxication-status-be-used-as-a-prediction-tool-for-manner-of-death-a-comparison-of-the-intoxication-status-in-violent-suicides-and-homicides
#9
D Kimberley Molina, Veronica M Hargrove
Determining the manner of death in medicolegal death investigations can be difficult. The investigator relies on many facets of death investigation, including the circumstances of death and autopsy examination. A study was designed to analyze whether the intoxication status of the decedent could be used as another tool in death investigations. The intoxication status of violent (nonoverdose or poisoning) suicides and homicides was retrospectively reviewed and compared. A total of 625 deaths were identified, including 366 suicides and 259 homicides...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077504/influence-of-history-of-cannabis-smoking-in-selected-donors-on-the-outcomes-of-lung-transplantation
#10
Prashant N Mohite, Mohamed Zeriouh, Diana G Sáez, Aron-Frederik Popov, Anton Sabashnikov, Bartlomiej Zych, Ashok Padukone, Levente Fazekas, Olga Ananiadou, Fabio De Robertis, Simona Soresi, Anna Reed, Martin Carby, André R Simon
OBJECTIVES: Cannabis is the most commonly abused illicit drug and the smokers are at the risk of lung infections, bullous emphysema and lung cancer. However, no evidence about the outcomes of lung transplantation (LTx) utilizing the lungs from such donors is available in the literature. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed lung 'organ offers' and LTx at our centre between January 2007 and November 2013. The outcomes of LTx utilizing lungs from donors with a history of cannabis smoking were compared with the outcomes of those with no such history using unadjusted model as well as propensity score matching...
January 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076255/problem-drug-related-behavior-and-discontinuation-of-opioids-following-the-introduction-of-an-opioid-management-program
#11
Lucinda A Grande, Ellen Campbell Thompson, Margaret A Au, Devin Sawyer, Laura-Mae Baldwin, Roger Rosenblatt
PURPOSE: Problem drug-related behavior (PDB) among patients on chronic opioid therapy may reflect an opioid use disorder. This study assessed PDB prevalence and the relationship between PDB and ongoing prescription of opioids at a primary care clinic that implemented a multifaceted opioid management program. METHODS: A chart review of patients in a chronic opioid registry assessed prevalence of different types of PDB over 2 years, and whether opioids were prescribed during the last 3 months of the 2-year study period among patients with different levels of PDB...
November 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074569/screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-implications-of-samhsa-s-sbirt-initiative-for-substance-abuse-policy-and-practice
#12
Thomas F Babor, Frances Del Boca, Jeremy W Bray
AIMS: This paper describes the major findings and public health implications of a cross-site evaluation of a national Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) demonstration program funded by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). METHODS: Eleven multi-site programs in two cohorts of SAMHSA grant recipients were each funded for 5 years to promote the adoption and sustained implementation of SBIRT. The SBIRT cross-site evaluation used a multi-method evaluation design to provide comprehensive information on the processes, outcomes and costs of SBIRT as implemented in a variety of medical and community settings...
February 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074568/the-relative-impact-of-brief-treatment-versus-brief-intervention-in-primary-health-care-screening-programs-for-substance-use-disorders
#13
Arnie Aldridge, William Dowd, Jeremy Bray
AIMS: To assess the relative impact of brief treatment (BT) compared with brief intervention (BI) on changes in substance use behavior in primary care screening programs for substance use disorders, overall and by patient severity. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 9029 patients with both baseline and follow-up interviews were identified in the US Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) data from October 2004 and February 2008. Using a propensity score framework, multiple generalized linear mixed models and a local linear matching method with a difference in difference estimator, patients from the BI group that resemble BT patients were used to determine the relative treatment effect of BT...
February 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074561/substance-use-outcomes-of-patients-served-by-a-large-us-implementation-of-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-sbirt
#14
Arnie Aldridge, Robyn Linford, Jeremy Bray
AIMS: To estimate changes in the substance use behaviors of patients who received services as part of the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant program. METHODS: We use a pre-post design and performance monitoring data collected by SBIRT organizations. For a sample of 17 575 patients, we compare pre-SBIRT substance use with substance use 6 months after receipt of SBIRT services...
February 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065934/brain-cannabinoid-receptor-2-expression-function-and-modulation
#15
REVIEW
De-Jie Chen, Ming Gao, Fen-Fei Gao, Quan-Xi Su, Jie Wu
Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is a fibrous flowering plant that produces an abundant variety of molecules, some with psychoactive effects. At least 4% of the world's adult population uses cannabis annually, making it one of the most frequently used illicit drugs in the world. The psychoactive effects of cannabis are mediated primarily through cannabinoid receptor (CBR) subtypes. The prevailing view is that CB1Rs are mainly expressed in the central neurons, whereas CB2Rs are predominantly expressed in peripheral immune cells...
January 9, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065185/predictors-of-immunodeficiency-related-death-in-a-cohort-of-low-income-people-living-with-hiv-a-competing-risks-survival-analysis
#16
M F P M Albuquerque, D N Alves, C C Bresani Salvi, J D L Batista, R A A Ximenes, D B Miranda-Filho, H R L Melo, M Maruza, U R Montarroyos
We conducted a survival analysis with competing risks to estimate the mortality rate and predictive factors for immunodeficiency-related death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in northeast Brazil. A cohort with 2372 PLWH was enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 and monitored until 31 December 2012 at two healthcare centres. The event of interest was immunodeficiency-related death, which was defined based on the Coding Causes of Death in HIV Protocol (CoDe). The predictor variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, illicit drugs, tobacco, alcohol, nutritional status, antiretroviral therapy, anaemia and CD4 cell count at baseline; and treatment or chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) during follow-up...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063338/trends-and-correlates-of-marijuana-use-among-late-middle-aged-and-older-adults-in-the-united-states-2002-2014
#17
Christopher P Salas-Wright, Michael G Vaughn, Lenise A Cummings-Vaughn, Katherine J Holzer, Erik J Nelson, Millan AbiNader, Sehun Oh
BACKGROUND: Recent trend studies suggest that marijuana use is on the rise among the general population of adults ages 18 and older in the United States. However, little is known about the trends in marijuana use and marijuana-specific risk/protective factors among American adults during the latter part of adulthood. METHOD: Findings are based on repeated, cross-sectional data collected from late middle-aged (ages 50-64) and older adults (ages 65 and older) surveyed as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2014...
December 14, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063279/unintended-impacts-of-alcohol-restrictions-on-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-in-indigenous-communities-in-queensland-australia
#18
Jan A Robertson, Michelle S Fitts, Alan R Clough
BACKGROUND: 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) with a focus on alcohol restrictions were implemented in 19 discrete Indigenous communities, in 15 Local Government Areas, by the Queensland Government from 2002. Community residents' perceptions and experiences of the impacts of AMPs on local alcohol and drug use are documented. METHODS: A cross-sectional study used quantitative and qualitative survey data collected during 2014-2015 in 10 affected communities. Five had some alcohol available...
January 4, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059431/evaluation-of-treatment-changes-following-electronic-consultation-to-a-pharmacist-run-urine-drug-testing-service-in-a-veterans-healthcare-system
#19
Michelle M Stammet, Shelley S Spradley
In 2013, the North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Healthcare System established a pharmacist-run urine drug testing (UDT) electronic consultation (e-consult) service to assist providers with interpretation of this useful yet complex clinical tool. This pilot study aimed to classify clinical treatment changes implemented following e-consult to a pharmacist-run UDT service and analyze factors limiting pharmacist intervention postconsultation. One hundred forty-three e-consults were completed in the 2-year study period including interpretation of 190 UDT results classified as expected, unexpected, or not necessarily inappropriate based on prescription profile at time of urine immunoassay test...
November 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056000/adverse-health-effects-associated-with-living-in-a-former-methamphetamine-drug-laboratory-victoria-australia-2015
#20
Jackie Wright, Michaela E Kenneally, John W Edwards, G Stewart Walker
The manufacture of methamphetamine in clandestine drug laboratories occurs in various locations, including residential houses and apartments. Unlike the controlled manufacture of chemicals and drugs, clandestine manufacture results in the uncontrolled storage, use, generation, and disposal of a wide range of chemicals and the deposit of methamphetamine drug residues on indoor surfaces (1). These residues have been found at high levels on porous and nonporous surfaces and have been shown to persist for months to years (1)...
January 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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