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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715674/the-presence-of-licit-and-illicit-drugs-in-police-stations-and-their-implications-for-workplace-drug-testing
#1
Gregory S Doran, Ralph Deans, Carlo De Filippis, Chris Kostakis, Julia A Howitt
The presence of licit and illicit drug residues on surfaces was studied in 10 police stations and a central drug evidence store in New South Wales, Australia, with the results compared to similar surfaces in four public buildings (to establish a community baseline). The results of almost 850 workplace surface swabs were also compared to the outcome of drug analysis in urine and hair samples volunteered by police officers. Surfaces were swabbed with alcohol and the swabs were extracted and analysed by LC-MS/MS...
July 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715290/trainees-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-towards-caring-for-the-substance-exposed-mother-infant-dyad
#2
Davida M Schiff, Barry Zuckerman, Elisha M Wachman, Megan Bair-Merritt
BACKGROUND: As rates of substance use disorder during pregnancy rise, pediatric trainees are increasingly caring for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of trainees caring for substance-exposed newborns and their families, comparing differences by level and type of training, and personal experience with addiction or trauma. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of medical students, pediatric, medicine/pediatrics and family medicine residents in 2015-2106...
July 17, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715162/designation-of-alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile-apaan-a-precursor-chemical-used-in-the-illicit-manufacture-of-phenylacetone-methamphetamine-and-amphetamine-as-a-list-i-chemical-final-rule
#3
(no author information available yet)
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing the designation of the chemical alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN) and its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers, as a list I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The DEA proposed control of APAAN, due to its use in clandestine laboratories to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substances phenylacetone (also known as phenyl-2-propanone or P2P), methamphetamine, and amphetamine. This rulemaking finalizes, without change, the control of APAAN as a list I chemical...
July 14, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713877/the-impact-of-limited-housing-opportunities-on-formerly-incarcerated-people-in-the-context-of-addiction-recovery
#4
Dina Chavira, Leonard Jason
BACKGROUND: Formerly incarcerated individuals with substance use disorders encounter numerous obstacles following incarceration that threaten their sobriety. Obtaining safe and stable housing is a notoriously difficult task resulting in precarious housing that can increase the likelihood of relapse. The current study examined the relationship between substance use and 11 housing settings in a sample of 211 formerly incarcerated individuals with a history of substance abuse to identify the housing characteristics with the highest risk of use...
2017: J Addict Behav Ther
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710967/illicit-drug-use-is-increasing-among-non-medical-users-of-prescription-drugs-results-from-population-based-surveys-2002-2014
#5
Karoliina Karjalainen, Tomi Lintonen, Pekka Hakkarainen
BACKGROUND: Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is known to be associated with illicit drug use, but less is known about how illicit drug use has changed in NMUPD. We examined (1) the changes in illicit drug use among Finnish non-medical users of prescription drugs during the 2000s and (2) whether the trends of illicit drug use differ by non-medical use of prescription drugs in the general population. METHODS: Data were derived from population-based (aged 15-69) Drug Surveys conducted in Finland in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014...
July 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705744/the-relationship-between-ocular-trauma-and-substance-abuse-in-emergency-department-patients
#6
Sylvia L Chang, Vaama Patel, John Giltner, Richard Lee, Catherine A Marco
INTRODUCTION: Eye injury is the second most common cause of visual impairment and a leading cause of monocular blindness in the United States. There are approximately 6 million ED visits related to drug use annually, including misuse or abuse of pharmaceuticals and illicit drug use. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between ocular trauma and substance abuse among emergency department patients and to assess that relationship with demographic factors, including age and gender...
July 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704116/popular-views-on-addictions-and-on-prospects-for-recovery-in-poland
#7
Justyna I Klingemann, Harald Klingemann, Jacek Moskalewicz
BACKGROUND: Popular views of addictive substances and behaviors constitute an important research topic because these views have an impact upon the functioning of treatment systems and societal responses to substance use disorders. METHODS: The analysis is based on a random sample of N = 1000 telephone interviews collected in Poland in 2013. Questionnaire measures targeted such issues as the perceived risks of addictions and beliefs about potential recovery from various types of addictions...
July 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700825/chemical-visualization-of-sweat-pores-in-fingerprints-using-go-enhanced-tof-sims
#8
Lesi Cai, Mengchan Xia, Zhaoying Wang, Ya-Bin Zhao, Zhanping Li, Sichun Zhang, Xinrong Zhang
Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used in imaging of small molecules (< 500 Da) in fingerprints, such as gunshot residues and illicit drugs. However, identifying and mapping relatively high mass molecules are quite difficult owing to insufficient ion yield of their molecular ions. In this report, Graphene oxide(GO)-enhanced TOF-SIMS was used to detect and image relatively high mass molecules such as poison, alkaloids (> 600 Da) and controlled drugs, antibiotics (> 700 Da) in fingerprints...
July 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699844/khat-use-is-associated-with-tobacco-alcohol-and-illicit-drug-use-a-cross-sectional-examination-in-the-united-states
#9
Motohiro Nakajima, Kalkidan Molla, Brook Belachew, Abduselam Mohammed, Abdikadir Hassan, Jerome Kroll, Mustafa al'Absi
No study has systematically examined khat (Catha edulis) use and its linkages with other substance use in the United States. This study provides novel findings related to the associations of khat with other substance use among immigrants in metropolitan areas of Minnesota where large East African communities reside. Using a convenience sampling, a total of 261 individuals completed a brief face-to-face interview during which demographic information and substance use were assessed. The proportion of lifetime and current use were 30% and 6...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699480/adulteration-practices-of-psychoactive-illicit-drugs-an-updated-review
#10
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Manuela Pellegrini, Adele Minutillo, Roberta Pacifici, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Zaami
BACKGROUND: It is well known that powdery drugs such as cocaine and heroin are frequently adulterated or diluted predominantly to obtain more doses and to increase the drug dealer's profits, but also to enhance, to modify or to oppose drug effects. METHODS: The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the recent scientific literature on medicines as well as on new psychoactive substances, used as cutting agents (i.e. pharmacologically active adulterants) and on the related adverse health effects on consumers, possibly due to the synergistic effect of the adulterants laced with substances of abuse, which represent a matter of great concern because of the frequent fatalities...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697809/comparison-of-hcv-viral-load-and-its-genotype-distributions-in-hcv-mono-and-hiv-hcv-co-infected-illicit-drug-users
#11
Marzieh Jamalidoust, Mandana Namayandeh, Mohsen Moghadami, Mazyar Ziyaeyan
BACKGROUND: Because of shared modes of transmission, patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are often co-infected with other types of hepatitis viruses and/or HIV. We studied HCV viral load and its genotype patterns among HCV mono- and HCV/HIV co-infected Illicit Drug Users in Fars province-Iran. METHODS: Totally, 580 HCV seropositive IDUs referred to Prof. Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz, Iran, without receiving any anti-HCV treatment, were enrolled...
July 11, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692859/an-experimental-study-addressing-the-use-of-geoforensic-analysis-for-the-exploitation-of-improvised-explosive-devices-ieds
#12
Beth Wilks, Ruth M Morgan, Neil L Rose
The use of geoforensic analysis in criminal investigations is continuing to develop, with the diversification of analytical techniques, many of which are semi-automated, facilitating prompt analysis of large sample sets at a relatively low cost. Whilst micro-scale geoforensic analysis has been shown to assist criminal investigations including homicide (Concheri et al., 2011 [1]), wildlife crime (Morgan et al., 2006 [2]), illicit drug distribution (Stanley, 1992 [3]), and burglary (Mildenhall, 2006 [4]), its application to the pressing international security threat posed by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is yet to be considered...
July 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690668/white-opioids-pharmaceutical-race-and-the-war-on-drugs-that-wasn-t
#13
Julie Netherland, Helena Hansen
The US 'War on Drugs' has had a profound role in reinforcing racial hierarchies. Although Black Americans are no more likely than Whites to use illicit drugs, they are 6-10 times more likely to be incarcerated for drug offenses. Meanwhile, a very different system for responding to the drug use of Whites has emerged. This article uses the recent history of White opioids - the synthetic opiates such as OxyContin(®) that gained notoriety starting in the 1990s in connection with epidemic prescription medication abuse among White, suburban and rural Americans and Suboxone(®) that came on the market as an addiction treatment in the 2000s - to show how American drug policy is racialized, using the lesser known lens of decriminalized White drugs...
June 2017: BioSocieties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687187/naloxone-for-heroin-prescription-opioid-and-illicitly-made-fentanyl-overdoses-challenges-and-innovations-responding-to-a-dynamic-epidemic
#14
Nadia Fairbairn, Phillip O Coffin, Alexander Y Walley
Community-based overdose prevention programs first emerged in the 1990's and are now the leading public health intervention for overdose. Key elements of these programs are overdose education and naloxone distribution to people who use opioids and their social networks. We review the evolution of naloxone programming through the heroin overdose era of the 1990's, the prescription opioid era of the 2000's, and the current overdose crisis stemming from the synthetic opioid era of illicitly manufactured fentanyl and its analogues in the 2010's...
July 4, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686986/illicit-drug-consumption-in-school-populations-measured-by-wastewater-analysis
#15
Ettore Zuccato, Emma Gracia-Lor, Nikolaos I Rousis, Alberto Parabiaghi, Ivan Senta, Francesco Riva, Sara Castiglioni
BACKGROUND: Analysis of student consumption of illicit drugs (ID) by school population surveys (SPS) provides information useful for prevention, but the results may be influenced by subjective factors. We explored wastewater (WW) analysis to improve the information. METHODS: We used WW analysis to measure ID consumption in eight secondary schools in Italy in 2010-13 (students aged 15-19). Samples were collected from the sewage pipes of the schools during lessons for one week each year...
June 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686142/care-and-supportive-measures-in-school-aged-children-with-prenatal-substance-exposure
#16
Lisbeth B Sandtorv, Siren Haugland, Irene Elgen
AIMS: Prenatal exposure to substances, including alcohol, opiates, and a number of illicit drugs, may have a negative impact on fetal development. Studies have shown that substance exposure can influence a child's neurodevelopment and the need for care and supportive measures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the care status and the level of supportive measures in school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol and other substances. METHODS: This study included children aged between 6 and 14 years who were referred to Haukeland University Hospital in Norway with developmental impairment and a history of prenatal substance exposure...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684103/late-hepatitis-b-and-c-diagnosis-in-relation-to-disease-decompensation-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-development
#17
Hasina Samji, Amanda Yu, Margot Kuo, Maryam Alavi, Ryan Woods, Maria Alvarez, Gregory J Dore, Mark Tyndall, Mel Krajden, Naveed Z Janjua
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We measured the timing of HBV and HCV diagnoses relative to detection of decompensated cirrhosis (DC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as an indicator of late hepatitis diagnosis. METHODS: HBV and HCV diagnoses were defined relative to the diagnosis of DC or HCC such that HBV/HCV diagnoses within two years prior, at the time of or after HCC or DC diagnosis were considered late. We performed multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with late HBV/HCV diagnoses among those with DC or HCC...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681463/confirmation-of-recent-heroin-abuse-accepting-the-challenge
#18
REVIEW
Alexandra Maas, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Confirmation or exclusion of recent heroin consumption is still one of the major challenges for forensic and clinical toxicologists. A great variety of biomarkers is available for heroin abuse confirmation, including various opium alkaloids (e.g. morphine, codeine), street heroin impurities (e.g. 6-acetylcodeine (6-AC), noscapine, papaverine) as well as associated metabolites (e.g. 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), morphine glucuronides). Though, the presence of most of these biomarkers cannot solely be attributed to a previous heroin administration but can, among other things, also be due to consumption of poppy seed products ('poppy seed defense'), opium preparations or specific medications, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679460/serratia-marcescens-bacteremia-nosocomial-cluster-following-narcotic-diversion
#19
Leah M Schuppener, Aurora E Pop-Vicas, Erin G Brooks, Megan N Duster, Christopher J Crnich, Alana K Sterkel, Aaron P Webb, Nasia Safdar
OBJECTIVE To describe the investigation and control of a cluster of Serratia marcescens bacteremia in a 505-bed tertiary-care center. METHODS Cluster cases were defined as all patients with S. marcescens bacteremia between March 2 and April 7, 2014, who were found to have identical or related blood isolates determined by molecular typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Cases were compared using bivariate analysis with controls admitted at the same time and to the same service as the cases, in a 4:1 ratio...
July 6, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678649/do-painkillers-serve-as-hillbilly-heroin-for-rural-adults-with-high-levels-of-psychosocial-stress
#20
Pamela Black, Helen M Hendy
Nonmedical use of painkillers has increased in recent years, with some authors suggesting that painkillers serve as "hillbilly heroin": a drug chosen by rural adults to cope with psychosocial stresses in their lives. The present study compared rural and urban adults for their reported use of 5 drugs during the past year (painkillers, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin) and for associations between these 5 drugs and their reported psychosocial stressors. This study conducted secondary analyses of anonymous survey data provided by the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health with responses from 8,699 rural and 18,481 urban adults...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
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