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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351877/rest-a-master-transcriptional-regulator-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jee-Yeon Hwang, R Suzanne Zukin
The restrictive element-1 silencing transcription factor)/NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencing factor (NRSF) is a transcriptional repressor which acts via epigenetic remodeling to silence target genes. Emerging evidence indicates that REST is a master transcriptional regulator of neuron-specific genes not only in neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, but also in differentiated neurons during the critical period in postnatal brain development, where it plays a role in fine-tuning of genes involved in synaptic plasticity, and in normal aging, where it promotes neuroprotection by repressing genes involved in oxidative stress and β-amyloid toxicity...
January 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351565/sumo-targeting-of-a-stress-tolerant-ulp1-sumo-protease
#2
Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Danny Rosenberg, Likhitha Kolla, Reuben Levy-Myers, Rui Yin, Jonathan L McMurry, Oliver Kerscher
SUMO proteases of the SENP/Ulp family are master regulators of both sumoylation and desumoylation and regulate SUMO homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. SUMO conjugates rapidly increase in response to cellular stress, including nutrient starvation, hypoxia, osmotic stress, DNA damage, heat shock, and other proteotoxic stressors. Nevertheless, little is known about the regulation and targeting of SUMO proteases during stress. To this end we have undertaken a detailed comparison of the SUMO-binding activity of the budding yeast protein Ulp1 (ScUlp1) and its ortholog in the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, KmUlp1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351499/graduate-speech-language-pathology-students-initial-self-perceptions-of-skills-critical-for-interprofessional-practice
#3
Courtney Karasinski, Janine L Schmedding-Bartley
Interprofessional collaborative practice is critical for quality service delivery. Given the limited research on speech-language pathology (SLP) students' interprofessional knowledge and skills, this investigation assessed graduate SLP students' self-perceived interprofessional competence and their perceptions of roles of other professionals. Fifty-eight SLP students completed two validated surveys at the beginning of the first or second semester of graduate school. Collectively, the students rated themselves positively on communication, teamwork, attitudes toward interprofessional learning, and professional relationships...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351307/doxycycline-modulates-vegf-a-expression-failure-of-doxycycline-inducible-lentivirus-shrna-vector-to-knockdown-vegf-a-expression-in-transgenic-mice
#4
Mari Merentie, Riina Rissanen, Line Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Jenni Huusko, Erika Gurzeler, Mikko P Turunen, Lari Holappa, Petri Mäkinen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is the master regulator of angiogenesis, vascular permeability and growth. However, its role in mature blood vessels is still not well understood. To better understand the role of VEGF-A in the adult vasculature, we generated a VEGF-A knockdown mouse model carrying a doxycycline (dox)-regulatable short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transgene, which silences VEGF-A. The aim was to find the critical level of VEGF-A reduction for vascular well-being in vivo. In vitro, the dox-inducible lentiviral shRNA vector decreased VEGF-A expression efficiently and dose-dependently in mouse endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350975/master-the-fundamentals-before-getting-creative-and-fancy
#5
Patrick K Lynch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350974/use-of-simulation-based-training-to-aid-in-implementing-complex-health-technology
#6
Veffa Devers
Clinicians are adult learners in a complex environment that historically does not invest in training in a way that is conducive to these types of learners. Adult learners are independent, self-directed, and goal oriented. In today's fast-paced clinical setting, a practical need exists for nurses and clinicians to master the technology they use on a daily basis, especially as medical devices have become more interconnected and complex. As hospitals look to embrace new technologies, medical device companies must provide clinical end-user training...
January 2018: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350398/use-of-computational-functional-genomics-in-drug-discovery-and-repurposing-for-analgesic-indications
#7
Jörn Lötsch, Dario Kringel
The novel research area of functional genomics investigates biochemical, cellular, or physiological properties of gene products with the goal of understanding the relationship between the genome and the phenotype. These developments have made analgesic drug research a data-rich discipline mastered only by making use of parallel developments in computer science, including the establishment of knowledge bases, mining methods for big data, machine-learning, and artificial intelligence, (Table ) which will be exemplarily introduced in the following...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349996/-to-implement-minimally-invasive-endoscopic-spinal-surgery-proactively-and-safely-by-mastering-multiple-techniques
#8
Bao-Shan Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349635/the-diving-reflex-and-asphyxia-working-across-species-in-physiological-ecology
#9
Joel B Hagen
Beginning in the mid-1930s the comparative physiologists Laurence Irving and Per Fredrik (Pete) Scholander pioneered the study of diving mammals, particularly harbor seals. Although resting on earlier work dating back to the late nineteenth century, their research was distinctive in several ways. In contrast to medically oriented physiology, the approaches of Irving and Scholander were strongly influenced by natural history, zoology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Diving mammals, they argued, shared the cardiopulmonary physiology of terrestrial mammals, but evolution had modified these basic adaptive processes in extreme ways...
January 18, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349543/saving-robots-improves-laparoscopic-performance-transfer-of-skills-from-a-serious-game-to-a-virtual-reality-simulator
#10
Wouter M IJgosse, Harry van Goor, Jan-Maarten Luursema
BACKGROUND: Residents find it hard to commit to structural laparoscopic skills training. Serious gaming has been proposed as a solution on the premise that it is effective and more motivating than traditional simulation. We establish construct validity for the laparoscopic serious game Underground by comparing laparoscopic simulator performance for a control group and an Underground training group. METHODS: A four-session laparoscopic basic skills course is part of the medical master students surgical internship at the Radboud University Medical Centre...
January 18, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348617/neuronal-lysosomal-dysfunction-releases-exosomes-harboring-app-c-terminal-fragments-and-unique-lipid-signatures
#11
André M Miranda, Zofia M Lasiecka, Yimeng Xu, Jessi Neufeld, Sanjid Shahriar, Sabrina Simoes, Robin B Chan, Tiago Gil Oliveira, Scott A Small, Gilbert Di Paolo
Defects in endolysosomal and autophagic functions are increasingly viewed as key pathological features of neurodegenerative disorders. A master regulator of these functions is phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P), a phospholipid synthesized primarily by class III PI 3-kinase Vps34. Here we report that disruption of neuronal Vps34 function in vitro and in vivo impairs autophagy, lysosomal degradation as well as lipid metabolism, causing endolysosomal membrane damage. PI3P deficiency also promotes secretion of unique exosomes enriched for undigested lysosomal substrates, including amyloid precursor protein C-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs), specific sphingolipids, and the phospholipid bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP), which normally resides in the internal vesicles of endolysosomes...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348527/the-human-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-antagonist-dicyclomine-targets-signal-transduction-genes-and-inhibits-the-virulence-factors-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-albicans
#12
Awad Ali, Ashwini Jadhav, Priyanka Jangid, Rajendra Patil, Amruta Shelar, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
Dicyclomine is a human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist used for the treatment of abdominal cramps. We are reporting here that dicyclomine can inhibit the in vitro growth and virulence factors of the human pathogen Candida albicans very effectively. Dicyclomine inhibited adhesion, early biofilm, mature biofilm, and planktonic growth. Yeast to hyphal form transition of C. albicans in various inducer media such as serum, proline, glucose, and N-acetylglucosamine was inhibited. Dicyclomine also could kill C...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347797/relaxation-thermalization-and-markovian-dynamics-of-two-spins-coupled-to-a-spin-bath
#13
H De Raedt, F Jin, M I Katsnelson, K Michielsen
It is shown that by fitting a Markovian quantum master equation to the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of a system of two spin-1/2 particles interacting with a bath of up to 34 spin-1/2 particles, the former can describe the dynamics of the two-spin system rather well. The fitting procedure that yields this Markovian quantum master equation accounts for all non-Markovian effects in as much the general structure of this equation allows and yields a description that is incompatible with the Lindblad equation...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347742/exact-solution-of-the-hidden-markov-processes
#14
David B Saakian
We write a master equation for the distributions related to hidden Markov processes (HMPs) and solve it using a functional equation. Thus the solution of HMPs is mapped exactly to the solution of the functional equation. For a general case the latter can be solved only numerically. We derive an exact expression for the entropy of HMPs. Our expression for the entropy is an alternative to the ones given before by the solution of integral equations. The exact solution is possible because actually the model can be considered as a generalized random walk on a one-dimensional strip...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347696/stochastic-dynamics-of-genetic-broadcasting-networks
#15
Davit A Potoyan, Peter G Wolynes
The complex genetic programs of eukaryotic cells are often regulated by key transcription factors occupying or clearing out of a large number of genomic locations. Orchestrating the residence times of these factors is therefore important for the well organized functioning of a large network. The classic models of genetic switches sidestep this timing issue by assuming the binding of transcription factors to be governed entirely by thermodynamic protein-DNA affinities. Here we show that relying on passive thermodynamics and random release times can lead to a "time-scale crisis" for master genes that broadcast their signals to a large number of binding sites...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347686/geometric-phaselike-effects-in-a-quantum-heat-engine
#16
Sajal Kumar Giri, Himangshu Prabal Goswami
By periodically driving the temperature of reservoirs in a quantum heat engine, geometric or Pancharatnam-Berry phaselike (PBp) effects in the thermodynamics can be observed. The PBp can be identified from a generating function (GF) method within an adiabatic quantum Markovian master equation formalism. The GF is shown not to lead to a standard open quantum system's fluctuation theorem in the presence of phase-different modulations with an inapplicability in the use of large deviation theory. Effect of quantum coherences in optimizing the flux is nullified due to PBp contributions...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347681/computation-of-the-asymptotic-states-of-modulated-open-quantum-systems-with-a-numerically-exact-realization-of-the-quantum-trajectory-method
#17
V Volokitin, A Liniov, I Meyerov, M Hartmann, M Ivanchenko, P Hänggi, S Denisov
Quantum systems out of equilibrium are presently a subject of active research, both in theoretical and experimental domains. In this work, we consider time-periodically modulated quantum systems that are in contact with a stationary environment. Within the framework of a quantum master equation, the asymptotic states of such systems are described by time-periodic density operators. Resolution of these operators constitutes a nontrivial computational task. Approaches based on spectral and iterative methods are restricted to systems with the dimension of the hosting Hilbert space dimH=N≲300, while the direct long-time numerical integration of the master equation becomes increasingly problematic for N≳400, especially when the coupling to the environment is weak...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347650/kinetics-and-thermodynamics-of-a-driven-open-quantum-system
#18
Juzar Thingna, Felipe Barra, Massimiliano Esposito
Redfield theory provides a closed kinetic description of a quantum system in weak contact with a very dense reservoir. Landau-Zener theory does the same for a time-dependent driven system in contact with a sparse reservoir. Using a simple model, we analyze the validity of these two theories by comparing their predictions with exact numerical results. We show that despite their a priori different range of validity, these two descriptions can give rise to an identical quantum master equation. Both theories can be used for a nonequilibrium thermodynamic description, which we show is consistent with exact thermodynamic identities evaluated in the full system-reservoir space...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347629/perturbative-dynamics-of-open-quantum-systems-by-renormalization-group-method
#19
Shingo Kukita
We analyze perturbative dynamics of a composite system consisting of a quantum mechanical system and an environment by the renormalization group (RG) method. The solution obtained from the RG method has no secular terms and approximates the exact solution for a long time interval. Moreover, the RG method causes a reduction of the dynamics of the composite system under some assumptions. We show that this reduced dynamics is closely related to a quantum master equation for the quantum mechanical system. We compare this dynamics with the exact dynamics in an exactly solvable spin-boson model...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347590/emergent-l%C3%A3-vy-behavior-in-single-cell-stochastic-gene-expression
#20
Chen Jia, Michael Q Zhang, Hong Qian
Single-cell gene expression is inherently stochastic; its emergent behavior can be defined in terms of the chemical master equation describing the evolution of the mRNA and protein copy numbers as the latter tends to infinity. We establish two types of "macroscopic limits": the Kurtz limit is consistent with the classical chemical kinetics, while the Lévy limit provides a theoretical foundation for an empirical equation proposed in N. Friedman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168302 (2006)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
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