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Sucrose breath test

Claudia C Robayo-Torres, Marisela Diaz-Sotomayor, Bruce R Hamaker, Susan S Baker, Bruno P Chumpitazi, Antone R Opekun, Buford L Nichols
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES: Human starch digestion is a multienzyme process involving 6 different enzymes: salivary and pancreatic α-amylase; sucrase and isomaltase (from sucrose-isomaltase [SI]), and maltase and glucoamylase (from maltase-glucoamylase [MGAM]). Together these enzymes cleave starch to smaller molecules ultimately resulting in the absorbable monosaccharide glucose. Approximately 80% of all mucosal maltase activity is accounted for by SI and the reminder by MGAM. Clinical studies suggest that starch may be poorly digested in those with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID)...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Pamela Metten, Jason P Schlumbohm, Lawrence C Huang, Gian D Greenberg, Wyatt R Hack, Stephanie E Spence, John C Crabbe
Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time...
May 2018: Alcohol
Antone R Opekun, Albert M Balesh, Harold T Shelby
Sucrase insufficiency has been observed in children with of functional bowel disorders (FBD) and symptoms of dietary carbohydrate intolerance may be indistinguishable from those of FBD. A two-phase (13)C-sucrose/(13)C-glucose breath test ((13)C-S/GBT) was used to assess sucrase activity because disaccharidase assays are seldom performed in adults. When (13)C-sucrose is hydrolyzed to liberate monosaccharides, oxidation to (13)CO2 is a proportional indicator of sucrase activity. Subsequently, (13)C-glucose oxidation rate was determined after a secondary substrate ingestion (superdose) to adjust for individual habitus effects (Phase II)...
2016: BioMed Research International
Bettina K Wölnerhanssen, Lucian Cajacob, Nino Keller, Alison Doody, Jens F Rehfeld, Juergen Drewe, Ralph Peterli, Christoph Beglinger, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach
With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol have been known for a long time and their beneficial effects on caries prevention and potential health benefits in diabetic patients have been demonstrated in several studies. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from the gut in response to food intake, promote satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Javier T Gonzalez, Cas J Fuchs, Fiona E Smith, Pete E Thelwall, Roy Taylor, Emma J Stevenson, Michael I Trenell, Naomi M Cermak, Luc J C van Loon
The purpose of this study was to define the effect of glucose ingestion compared with sucrose ingestion on liver and muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Fourteen cyclists completed two 3-h bouts of cycling at 50% of peak power output while ingesting either glucose or sucrose at a rate of 1.7 g/min (102 g/h). Four cyclists performed an additional third test for reference in which only water was consumed. We employed (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine liver and muscle glycogen concentrations before and after exercise...
December 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
J W L Puntis, V Zamvar
Congenital sucrase-isomaltase (SI) deficiency is a rare genetic condition characterised by a deficiency in the brush-border SI enzyme, resulting in an inability to metabolise sucrose and starches. Six cases of congenital SI deficiency treated with Sucraid (sacrosidase, a yeast-derived enzyme that facilitates sucrose digestion) are described. Typical presenting symptoms were watery diarrhoea, abdominal pain and bloating, sometimes noticeably worse after ingestion of fruit. Diagnosis is challenging since conventional hydrogen breath testing after an oral sucrose load is impractical in young children, and many laboratories no longer look for maldigested sucrose using faecal sugar chromatography...
September 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Roger Yazbeck, Ruth Lindsay, Catherine A Abbott, Kirsten Benkendorff, Gordon S Howarth
Chemotherapy drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil (5FU), are the standard approach for cancer and are associated with several peripheral toxicities. We previously demonstrated that Muricidae marine molluscs exhibit chemopreventive properties. This study investigated the combined effect of muricid extract derived from Dicathais orbita, with 5FU, on intestinal toxicity in rats. Groups of rats were orally gavaged water, muricid extract, or sunflower oil, with or without 5FU (150 mg/kg). Metabolic data was collected daily and small intestinal brush border enzyme activity was measured by sucrose breath test (SBT)...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Cuong D Tran, Joanna Hawkes, Robin D Graham, Julie L Kitchen, Erin L Symonds, Geoffrey P Davidson, Ross N Butler
A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted in children admitted to hospital with gastroenteritis (≥3 loose stools per day). All were treated for 5 days following admission with either zinc (Zn, 3 mg) or without Zn-fortified rice-based oral rehydration solution (ORS). (13)C-sucrose breath test (SBT) and intestinal permeability (lactulose/rhamnose or L/R ratio) were performed concurrently prior to commencement of ORS with or without Zn and at day 5 post-admission. There was a significant improvement in the SBT results in both the Zn-fortified group, median (5th-95th percentile) 2...
June 2015: Clinical Pediatrics
M Lentze
With the rapid increase in knowledge on the genetic origin of diseases within the gastrointestinal tract the number of congenital diseases, which already manifest during childhood have drastically increased. Due to the large application of molecular genetics the number is steadily increasing. To make the access to these rare diseases fast and efficient the data base of the National Library of Medicine (Online Mendelian Inheritance of Man - OMIN) is a very helpful online tool, with which all these disease entities can be found easily (http://www...
May 2014: Georgian Medical News
Virginie Alexandre, Anne-Marie Davila, Michel Bouchoucha, Claire Bertin, Patrick Even, Christine Lamberto, Daniel Tomé, Robert Benamouzig
BACKGROUND: Lactose malabsorption occurs frequently and the variable consequent intolerance may seriously impair quality of life. No reliable and convenient test method is in routine clinical practice. A recent animal study showed that the respiratory quotient changed significantly after ingestion of sucrose and lactose in naturally lactase-deficient rats. AIMS: This exploratory study evaluated the relevance of monitoring the respiratory quotient after lactose ingestion to detect malabsorption...
September 2013: Digestive and Liver Disease
Hannah R Wardill, Rachel J Gibson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2013: Future Oncology
Suzanne M Abimosleh, Cuong D Tran, Gordon S Howarth
Nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug (NSAID) enteropathy is characterized by small intestinal damage and ulceration. Emu Oil (EO) has previously been reported to reduce intestinal inflammation. Aim. We investigated EO for its potential to attenuate NSAID-enteropathy in rats. Methods. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10/group) were gavaged with Water, Olive Oil (OO), or EO (0.5 mL; days 0-12) and with 0.5 mL Water or the NSAID, Indomethacin (8 mg/kg; days 5-12) daily. Disease activity index (DAI), 13C-sucrose breath test (SBT), organ weights, intestinal damage severity (IDS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assessed...
2013: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Robyn Terry, William H E J van Wettere, Alexandra L Whittaker, Paul J Herde, Gordon S Howarth
The sucrose breath test (SBT) is a simple noninvasive technique used currently to determine intestinal absorptive function in humans and rodents. However, to date, the test has not been adapted for use in swine. During weaning, intestinal sucrase activity in piglets temporarily declines in response to stressors and is commonly used as a marker of the intestinal response to weaning. Here we assessed the sucrose dose needed for using the SBT in piglets. Six randomly allocated piglets were orogastrically gavaged with (13)C-labeled sucrose at a dose of 2 g/kg; breath samples were collected for measurement of (13)CO2 on days 0 (approximately 17 h after weaning), 5, and 10 after weaning...
December 2012: Comparative Medicine
Carly M Burgstad, Laura K Besanko, Adam M Deane, Nam Q Nguyen, Khaschayar Saadat-Gilani, Geoff Davidson, Esther Burt, Anthony Thomas, Richard H Holloway, Marianne J Chapman, Robert J L Fraser
OBJECTIVE: Inadequate nutrition is common in critical illness due in part to gastric stasis. However, recent data suggest that altered small intestinal mucosal function may be a contributing factor. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of critical illness on sucrose absorption, permeability, and mucosal morphology. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Tertiary critical care unit. SUBJECTS: Twenty mechanically ventilated patients (19 men; 52...
May 2013: Critical Care Medicine
Hannah R Wardill, Joanne M Bowen, Rachel J Gibson
Gastrointestinal mucosal toxicity is extremely common following cytotoxic therapies. The alimentary mucosa is particularly susceptible to injury and dysfunction, leading to many debilitating complications. Despite much research, there is currently no single noninvasive biomarker to detect gut injury. Several biomarkers have been investigated in the context of gastrointestinal diseases, which may prove useful in the oncology arena. Identification of a biomarker that is easy to obtain and measure and that accurately identifies mucosal damage would allow for improved patient diagnosis of toxicities and for personalized treatment regimens...
June 2013: Journal of Supportive Oncology
Ker Y Cheah, Susan E P Bastian, Thomas M V Acott, Suzanne M Abimosleh, Kerry A Lymn, Gordon S Howarth
BACKGROUND: Grape seed extract (GSE) constitutes a rich source of procyanidins. GSE has been demonstrated to exert encouraging anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties in experimental settings, although its effects on inflammation of the colon remain undefined. AIM: To determine the effects of GSE in a rat model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) for ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged daily (days 0-10) with GSE (400 mg/kg)...
April 2013: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Fernando Fernández-Bañares
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Relevance of symptom analysis during hydrogen breath test (HBT) for establishing a clinical diagnosis of sugar intolerance is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Evaluation of symptoms developed in response to the ingestion of 50 g lactose could represent a simple screening test to select patients for lactose intolerance testing. Patients who do not develop symptoms do not need to be referred for HBT. In addition, symptoms reported by patients during a negative HBT cannot be at all times attributed to a false-negative test; instead, a 'nocebo' effect is likely to be implicated...
September 2012: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Suzanne M Abimosleh, Ruth J Lindsay, Ross N Butler, Adrian G Cummins, Gordon S Howarth
BACKGROUND: Current treatments for the inflammatory bowel diseases, encompassing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are variably effective. Emu oil, extracted from emu fat, predominantly comprises fatty acids, with purported claims of anti-inflammatory properties. AIM: We evaluated emu oil for its potential to ameliorate dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley Rats were allocated to treatment groups (n = 8)...
April 2012: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Cuong D Tran, Rosa Katsikeros, Nick Manton, Nancy F Krebs, K Michael Hambidge, Ross N Butler, Geoff P Davidson
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is an immunologic enteropathy triggered by the intake of gluten. It is thought that the enteropathy impairs gut function and absorption. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the zinc-absorption capacity and small-bowel integrity in children with CD. DESIGN: Children in whom a diagnosis of CD was considered clinically and either confirmed (n = 16; Marsh score ≥3) or not (n = 22; Marsh score of 0) with a small-bowel biopsy (SBB) were recruited...
October 2011: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Roger Yazbeck, Gordon S Howarth, Luis Borges, Mark S Geier, Cassie L Smith, Geoffrey P Davidson, Ross N Butler
INTRODUCTION: Pre-clinical studies have indicated that palifermin may be an effective treatment modality for intestinal mucositis, a debilitating complication of cancer chemotherapy. We determined whether palifermin was protective in rats with experimentally induced intestinal mucositis and the applicability of the sucrose breath test (SBT) to monitor palifermin for its efficacy as an anti-mucositis agent. RESULTS: SBT values and sucrase activity were reduced in all 5-FU-treated groups compared with untreated controls (p < 0...
September 1, 2011: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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