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Fructose malabsorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672432/pros-and-cons-while-looking-through-an-asian-window-on-the-rome-iv-criteria-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-pros
#1
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal
A decade after Rome III, in 2016, Rome IV criteria were published. There are major differences between Rome IV and the earlier iteration, some of which are in line with Asian viewpoints. The clinical applicability of the Rome IV criteria of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asian perspective is reviewed here. Instead of considering functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) to be largely psychogenic, Rome IV suggested the importance of the gut over brain ("disorders of gut-brain interaction" not "brain-gut interaction")...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508559/two-weeks-of-repetitive-gut-challenge-reduces-exercise-associated-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-malabsorption
#2
Atlanta Miall, Anthony Khoo, Christopher Rauch, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Peter R Gibson, Ricardo J S Costa
Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms are a common feature of endurance running, and may be exacerbated by and (or) limit the ability to tolerate carbohydrate intake during exercise. The study aimed to determine whether two weeks of repetitive gut-challenge during running can reduce exercise associated gastrointestinal symptoms and carbohydrate malabsorption. Endurance runners (n= 18) performed an initial gut-challenge trial (GC1) comprising 2 h running exercise at 60% VO2max (steady state) whilst consuming a formulated gel-disc containing 30 g carbohydrates (2:1 glucose-fructose, 10% w/v) every 20 min, followed by a 1 h running effort bout...
May 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457529/fructose-malabsorption-in-people-with-and-without-gout-a-case-control-study
#3
Caitlin Batt, Niamh Fanning, Jill Drake, Christopher Frampton, Richard B Gearry, Lisa K Stamp
BACKGROUND: Higher fructose intake has been associated with hyperuricaemia and gout. Some individuals malabsorb fructose in the small intestine. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of fructose malabsorption and the effects of gout and fructose malabsorption on serum urate in people with and without gout. METHODS: A total of 100 people with gout (cases) were age and gender matched with one control without gout. After a low fructose diet, fructose malabsorption was measured using a hydrogen and methane breath test with a 35g fructose load...
March 22, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420945/controversies-and-recent-developments-of-the-low-fodmap-diet
#4
Peta Hill, Jane G Muir, Peter R Gibson
The low-fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a 2-phased intervention, with strict reduction of all slowly absorbed or indigestible short-chain carbohydrates (ie, FODMAPs) followed by reintroduction of specific FODMAPs according to tolerance. The efficacy of the elimination phase of the FODMAP diet is well established, but the success of maintaining this diet has been shown in only a few observational studies. How the efficacy of the low-FODMAP diet compares with that of other therapies has received limited attention, but recent studies have shown this diet to be comparable or superior to diets that address eating style and choice of food as well as to gut hypnotherapy...
January 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344797/poor-reproducibility-of-breath-hydrogen-testing-implications-for-its-application-in-functional-bowel-disorders
#5
Chu K Yao, Caroline J Tuck, Jacqueline S Barrett, Kim Ek Canale, Hamish L Philpott, Peter R Gibson
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding the reproducibility of lactulose and fructose breath testing for clinical application in functional bowel disorders. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of lactulose and fructose breath hydrogen testing and assess symptom response to fructose testing. METHODS: Results were analysed from 21 patients with functional bowel disorder with lactulose breath tests and 30 with fructose breath tests who completed another test >2 weeks later...
March 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323273/hydrogen-and-methane-based-breath-testing-in-gastrointestinal-disorders-the-north-american-consensus
#6
Ali Rezaie, Michelle Buresi, Anthony Lembo, Henry Lin, Richard McCallum, Satish Rao, Max Schmulson, Miguel Valdovinos, Salam Zakko, Mark Pimentel
OBJECTIVES: Breath tests (BTs) are important for the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion syndromes and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). However, standardization is lacking regarding indications for testing, test methodology and interpretation of results. A consensus meeting of experts was convened to develop guidelines for clinicians and research. METHODS: Pre-meeting survey questions encompassing five domains; indications, preparation, performance, interpretation of results, and knowledge gaps, were sent to 17 clinician-scientists, and 10 attended a live meeting...
May 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271632/the-role-of-insufficient-copper-in-lipid-synthesis-and-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Austin Morrell, Savannah Tallino, Lei Yu, Jason L Burkhead
The essential transition metal copper is important in lipid metabolism, redox balance, iron mobilization, and many other critical processes in eukaryotic organisms. Genetic diseases where copper homeostasis is disrupted, including Menkes disease and Wilson disease, indicate the importance of copper balance to human health. The severe consequences of insufficient copper supply are illustrated by Menkes disease, caused by mutation in the X-linked ATP7A gene encoding a protein that transports copper from intestinal epithelia into the bloodstream and across the blood-brain barrier...
April 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244675/the-clinical-value-of-breath-hydrogen-testing
#8
REVIEW
Chu K Yao, Caroline J Tuck
Breath hydrogen testing for assessing the presence of carbohydrate malabsorption is frequently applied to refine dietary restrictions on a low fermentable carbohydrate (FODMAP) diet. Its application has also been extended for the detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Recently, several caveats of its methodology and interpretation have emerged. A review of the evidence surrounding its application in the management of patients with a functional bowel disorder was performed. Studies were examined to assess limitations of testing methodology, interpretation of results, reproducibility, and how this relates to clinical symptoms...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241431/the-role-of-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-in-intestinal-and-hepatic-fructose-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
Katsumi Iizuka
Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption...
February 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177715/gut-training-the-impact-of-two-weeks-repetitive-gut-challenge-during-exercise-on-gastrointestinal-status-glucose-availability-fuel-kinetics-and-running-performance
#10
Ricardo J S Costa, Atlanta Miall, Anthony Khoo, Christopher Rauch, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Peter Gibson
Due to gastrointestinal tract adaptability, the study aimed to determine the impact of gut-training protocol over 2 weeks on gastrointestinal status, blood glucose availability, fuel kinetics, and running performance. Endurance runners (n = 25) performed a gut-challenge trial (GC1), consisting of 2 h running exercise at 60% V̇O2max whilst consuming gel-discs containing 30 g carbohydrates (2:1 glucose/fructose, 10% w/v) every 20 min and a 1 h distance test. Participants were then randomly assigned to a carbohydrate gel-disc (CHO-S), carbohydrate food (CHO-F), or placebo (PLA) gut-training group for 2 weeks of repetitive gut-challenge intervention...
May 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774805/-fructose-and-fructose-intolerance
#11
György Miklós Buzás
Although fructose was discovered in 1794, it was realised in recent decades only that its malabsorption can lead to intestinal symptoms while its excessive consumption induces metabolic disturbances. Fructose is a monosaccharide found naturally in most fruits and vegetables. Dietary intake of fructose has gradually increased in the past decades, especially because of the consumption of high fructose corn syrup. With its 16.4 kg/year consumption, Hungary ranks secondly after the United States. Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine by facilitated transport mediated by glucose transporter proteins-2 and -5, and arrives in the liver cells...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600184/adding-glucose-to-food-and-solutions-to-enhance-fructose-absorption-is-not-effective-in-preventing-fructose-induced-functional-gastrointestinal-symptoms-randomised-controlled-trials-in-patients-with-fructose-malabsorption
#12
C J Tuck, L A Ross, P R Gibson, J S Barrett, J G Muir
BACKGROUND: In healthy individuals, the absorption of fructose in excess of glucose in solution is enhanced by the addition of glucose. The present study aimed to assess the effects of glucose addition to fructose or fructans on absorption patterns and genesis of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with functional bowel disorders. METHODS: Randomised, blinded, cross-over studies were performed in healthy subjects and functional bowel disorder patients with fructose malabsorption...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392639/nuclear-transit-study-in-children-with-chronic-faecal-soiling-after-hirschsprung-disease-hscr-surgery-has-revealed-a-group-with-rapid-proximal-colonic-treatment-and-possible-adverse-reactions-to-food
#13
Lefteris Stathopoulos, Sebastian K King, Bridget R Southwell, John M Hutson
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Long-term problems with faecal incontinence occur in up to 50 % of patients after pull-through for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). The cause often remains unknown, leading to empirical treatments. Using nuclear transit study, we found some patients surprisingly had rapid proximal colonic transit, suspicious of occult diarrhoea. We aimed to assess whether these patients had unrecognized adverse reactions to food. METHODS: Patients (n = 10, all males, 9...
August 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357093/no-differential-effect-of-beverages-sweetened-with-fructose-high-fructose-corn-syrup-or-glucose-on-systemic-or-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-normal-weight-to-obese-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jessica N Kuzma, Gail Cromer, Derek K Hagman, Kara L Breymeyer, Christian L Roth, Karen E Foster-Schubert, Sarah E Holte, David S Weigle, Mario Kratz
BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight...
August 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355647/dietary-carbohydrates-and-childhood-functional-abdominal-pain
#15
Bruno P Chumpitazi, Robert J Shulman
Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) affect a large number of children throughout the world. Carbohydrates (which provide the majority of calories consumed in the Western diet) have been implicated both as culprits for the etiology of symptoms and as potential therapeutic agents (e.g., fiber) in childhood FGIDs. In this review, we detail how carbohydrate malabsorption may cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., bloating) via the physiologic effects of both increased osmotic activity and increased gas production from bacterial fermentation...
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254047/lactose-and-fructose-intolerance-in-turkish-children-with-chronic-abdominal-pain
#16
Ozlem Yuce, Ayhan Gazi Kalayci, Atakan Comba, Esra Eren, Gonul Caltepe
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of lactose and fructose intolerance in children with chronic abdominal pain. METHODS: Hydrogen breath tests were done to detect lactose and fructose malabsorption in 86 children with chronic abdominal pain (44 irritable bowel syndrome, 24 functional abdominal pain and 17 functional abdominal pain syndrome as per Rome III criteria) presenting to a Pediatric Gastroentreology department. RESULTS: 14 (16...
May 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215624/-food-allergy-and-intolerance-distinction-definitions-and-delimitation
#17
REVIEW
Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Anja Waßmann-Otto, Hubert Mönnikes
Immunologically mediated hypersensitivity to foods is defined as food allergy, mainly due to immunglobulins of class E (IgE) triggering immediate reactions (type I hypersensitivity) with possible involvement of mucosa, skin, airways, intestinal tract, and the vascular system. Primary food allergy is based on (early) IgE sensitization against animal (e. g., cow's milk, hen's eggs) or plant proteins (e. g. peanut, hazelnut or wheat). In the case of secondary food allergies, IgE against pollen proteins (e...
June 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215094/lactase-non-persistence-genotyping-comparison-of-two-real-time-pcr-assays-and-assessment-of-concomitant-fructose-sorbitol-malabsorption-rates
#18
Dietmar Enko, Verena Pollheimer, Stefan Németh, Helene Pühringer, Robert Stolba, Gabriele Halwachs-Baumann, Gernot Kriegshäuser
BACKGROUND: Genetic testing is a standard technique for the diagnosis of primary adult-type hypolactasia, also referred to as lactase non-persistence. The aim of this study was to compare the lactase gene (LCT) C/T-13910 polymorphism genotyping results of two commercially available real-time (RT)-PCR assays in patients referred to our outpatient clinic for primary lactose malabsorption testing. Furthermore, concomitant conditions of fructose/sorbitol malabsorption were assessed. METHODS: Samples obtained from 100 patients were tested in parallel using the LCT T-13910C ToolSet for Light Cycler (Roche, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) and the LCT-13910C>T RealFast Assay (ViennaLab Diagnostics GmbH, Vienna, Austria)...
2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188621/-food-intolerances-caused-by-enzyme-defects-and-carbohydrate-malassimiliations-lactose-intolerance-and-co
#19
REVIEW
Christiane Schäfer
Apart from allergic conditions, carbohydrate malassimiliations (sugar metabolism disorders) are classified within the group of food intolerances. These dose-dependent, yet non-immunological reactions require gastroenterological or internal diagnosis following nutritional therapy. Intolerances to carbohydrates such as lactose (milk sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar) in addition to sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol etc.) have been gaining increasing attention in recent decades as they are the cause of a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms...
June 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099247/corticotropin-releasing-factor-increases-ascending-colon-volume-after-a-fructose-test-meal-in-healthy-humans-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kathryn A Murray, Ching Lam, Sumra Rehman, Luca Marciani, Carolyn Costigan, Caroline L Hoad, Melanie R Lingaya, Rawinder Banwait, Stephen J Bawden, Penny A Gowland, Robin C Spiller
BACKGROUND: Poorly absorbed fermentable carbohydrates can provoke irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms by escaping absorption in the small bowel and being rapidly fermented in the colon in some susceptible subjects. IBS patients often are anxious and stressed, and stress accelerates small bowel transit, which may exacerbate malabsorption. OBJECTIVE: In this study we investigated the effect of an intravenous injection of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on fructose malabsorption and the resulting volume of water in the small bowel...
May 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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