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Exercise Science

Helton O Campos, Lucas R Drummond, Quezia T Rodrigues, Frederico S M Machado, Washington Pires, Samuel P Wanner, Cândido C Coimbra
Nitrate (NO3 -) is an ergogenic nutritional supplement that is widely used to improve physical performance. However, the effectiveness of NO3 - supplementation has not been systematically investigated in individuals with different physical fitness levels. The present study analysed whether different fitness levels (non-athletes v. athletes or classification of performance levels), duration of the test used to measure performance (short v. long duration) and the test protocol (time trials v. open-ended tests v...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Ronaldo Valdir Briani, Amanda Schenatto Ferreira, Marcella Ferraz Pazzinatto, Evangelos Pappas, Danilo De Oliveira Silva, Fábio Mícolis de Azevedo
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence of primary outcomes from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of treatment strategies on quality of life (QoL) or psychosocial factors in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Web of Science were searched from inception to November 2017...
March 16, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Joel T Fuller, Michael C Hartland, Luke T Maloney, Kade Davison
OBJECTIVE: To systematically appraise and summarise meta-analyses investigating the effect of exercise compared with a control condition on health outcomes in cancer survivors. DESIGN: Umbrella review of intervention systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases were searched using a predefined search strategy. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Eligible meta-analyses compared health outcomes between cancer survivors participating in an exercise intervention and a control condition...
March 16, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
James A Betts, Javier T Gonzalez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Saadet Ufuk Yurdalan, Begüm Ünlü, Mine Seyyah, Batuhan Şenyıldız, Yunus Kubilay Çetin, Menekşe Çimen
BACKGROUND: Burns can cause life-threatening injuries and severe limitations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the structured home-based exercise program on depression status and quality of life in burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out in the Wound and Burn Treatment Department of University of Health Sciences, Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul. Thirty burn patients voluntarily participated in this study...
March 10, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Christian Maurer, Jonathan Baré, Jolanta Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Alice Crawford, Paul W Eslinger, Petra Seibert, Blake Orr, Anne Philipp, Ole Ross, Sylvia Generoso, Pascal Achim, Michael Schoeppner, Alain Malo, Anders Ringbom, Olivier Saunier, Denis Quèlo, Anne Mathieu, Yuichi Kijima, Ariel Stein, Tianfeng Chai, Fong Ngan, Susan J Leadbetter, Pieter De Meutter, Andy Delcloo, Rich Britton, Ashley Davies, Lee G Glascoe, Donald D Lucas, Matthew D Simpson, Phil Vogt, Martin Kalinowski, Theodore W Bowyer
After performing a first multi-model exercise in 2015 a comprehensive and technically more demanding atmospheric transport modelling challenge was organized in 2016. Release data were provided by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization radiopharmaceutical facility in Sydney (Australia) for a one month period. Measured samples for the same time frame were gathered from six International Monitoring System stations in the Southern Hemisphere with distances to the source ranging between 680 (Melbourne) and about 17,000 km (Tristan da Cunha)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Bryan D Loy, Michelle H Cameron, Patrick J O'Connor
Persistent fatigue is a common problem (∼20-45% of U.S. population), with higher prevalence and severity in people with medical conditions such as cancer, depression, fibromyalgia, heart failure, sleep apnea and multiple sclerosis. There are few FDA-approved treatments for fatigue and great disagreement on how to measure fatigue, with over 250 instruments used in research. Many instruments define fatigue as "a lack of energy", thus viewing energy and fatigue states as opposites on a single bipolar continuum...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Justine Dol, Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Gail Tomblin Murphy, Megan Aston, Douglas McMillan, Brianna Richardson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to evaluate the impact of the Helping Babies Survive program on neonatal outcomes and healthcare provider knowledge and skills. INTRODUCTION: The Helping Babies Survive program consists of three modules: Helping Babies Breathe, Essential Care for Every Baby, and Essential Care for Small Babies. It was developed to reduce preventable newborn deaths through skill-based learning using simulation, learning exercises, and peer-to-peer training of healthcare providers in low-resource areas...
March 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
George A Bray, William E Heisel, Ashkan Afshin, Michael D Jensen, William H Dietz, Michael Long, Robert F Kushner, Stephen R Daniels, Thomas A Wadden, Adam G Tsai, Frank B Hu, John M Jakicic, Donna H Ryan, Bruce M Wolfe, Thomas H Inge
The prevalence of obesity, measured by body mass index, has risen to unacceptable levels in both men and women in the United States and worldwide with resultant hazardous health implications. Genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors influence the development of obesity, and both the general public and health professionals stigmatize those who suffer from the disease. Obesity is associated with and contributes to a shortened life span, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, gout, osteoarthritis, and hepatobiliary disease, among others...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Marie Hutchinson, Neil Wendt, Stuart Trevor Smith
The 2011 Productivity Commission report, Caring for Older Australians, observed that as the number of older Australians rises and the demand for aged care services increases, there will be a commensurate increase in demand for a well-trained aged care workforce. One of the significant issues impacting upon the ability of the aged services sector to respond to a growing number of older adults is to attract and retain sufficient numbers of staff. A number of factors are acknowledged to contribute to a failure of the aged care sector to attract and retain workers including: poor sector reputation, poor working conditions, including high client-staff ratios, a lack of career paths and professional development opportunities and low rates of remuneration...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Tamaya Van Criekinge, Steven Truijen, Chelsea Verbruggen, Lotte Van de Venis, Wim Saeys
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review to examine the effect of static or dynamic trunk training compared to standard care or control therapy on muscle activity and muscle thickness of the trunk and lower limb muscles in stroke survivors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review was registered on PROSPERO (no: CRD42017063771) and was written according to the PRISMA guidelines. The search strategy included studies from the first indexed article until September 2017 and was performed in the electronical databases PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Ovid Medline and PEDro...
March 5, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
S T Bittar, P S Pfeiffer, H H Santos, M S Cirilo-Sousa
This study analysed the effect of low-intensity (LI) exercises with blood flow restriction (BFR) on bone metabolism compared with high-intensity (HI) exercises without BFR. The following databases were searched using the keywords therapeutic occlusion training OR BFR training OR vascular occlusion training OR KAATSU training OR ischaemia training AND osteogenesis OR bone biomarkers OR bone metabolic marker OR bone mass OR bone turnover OR osteoporosis OR osteopenia: PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Science Direct, Cochrane and Google Scholar...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Nicholas Ravanelli, William Casasola, Timothy English, Kate M Edwards, Ollie Jay
OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women are advised to avoid heat stress (eg, excessive exercise and/or heat exposure) due to the risk of teratogenicity associated with maternal hyperthermia; defined as a core temperature (Tcore ) ≥39.0°C. However, guidelines are ambiguous in terms of critical combinations of climate and activity to avoid and may therefore unnecessarily discourage physical activity during pregnancy. Thus, the primary aim was to assess Tcore elevations with different characteristics defining exercise and passive heat stress (intensity, mode, ambient conditions, duration) during pregnancy relative to the critical maternal Tcore of ≥39...
March 1, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Franciele Cascaes da Silva, Rodrigo da Rosa Iop, Laiana Cândido de Oliveira, Alice Mathea Boll, José Gustavo Souza de Alvarenga, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres Filho, Lídia Mara Aguiar Bezerra de Melo, André Junqueira Xavier, Rudney da Silva
BACKGROUND: Given the relative importance of cognitive impairment, there was considerable interest in identifying the cognitive profile of PD patients, in order to ensure specific and appropriate therapeutic interventions. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of physical exercise programs on cognitive function in PD patients, compared with the control group. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Cochrane, Scopus, PEDro and Web of Science (last searched in September 2016)...
2018: PloS One
Santiago Suniaga, Tim Rolvien, Annika Vom Scheidt, Imke A K Fiedler, Hrishikesh A Bale, Ann Huysseune, P Eckhard Witten, Michael Amling, Björn Busse
Exercise promotes gain in bone mass through adaptive responses of the vertebrate skeleton. This mechanism counteracts age- and disease-related skeletal degradation, but remains to be fully understood. In life sciences, zebrafish emerged as a vertebrate model that can provide new insights into the complex mechanisms governing bone quality. To test the hypothesis that musculoskeletal exercise induces bone adaptation in adult zebrafish and to characterize bone reorganization, animals were subjected to increased physical exercise for four weeks in a swim tunnel experiment...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew J Moore, Jane C Richardson, Miriam Bernard, Julius Sim
Medical science and other sources, such as the media, increasingly inform the general public's understanding of disease. There is often discordance between this understanding and the diagnostic interpretations of health care practitioners (HCPs). In this paper - based on a supra-analysis of qualitative interview data from two studies of joint pain, including osteoarthritis - we investigate how people imagine and make sense of the pathophysiology of their illness, and how these understandings may affect self-management behavior...
February 26, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Dipendra Raj Pandeya, Ajay Rajbhandari, Manoj Nepal, Ezeldine K Abdalhabib, Mahesh Bhatta, Sudha Sen Malla, Laxmi Upadhyay, Mohammed H Saiem Al Dahr
Significant efforts have been made to study cancer at the biochemical and cellular level and identify factors associated with progression. The aim of this hospital based randomized comparative study at the Nepalese Army Institute of Health science hospital was to assess factors in 52 people diagnosed with different types of cancer and 56 normal control persons. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL)...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Shuxiang Li, Han Sun, Xiaomin Luo, Kun Wang, Guofeng Wu, Jian Zhou, Peng Wang, Xiaoliang Sun
BACKGROUND: The argument on the recommended rehabilitation protocol following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains to be resolved. So this meta-analysis was presented to evaluate the differences of clinical effects between the 2 distinct rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE were systematically searched. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to July 25, 2017, comparing early passive motion (EPM) versus delayed passive motion (DPM) rehabilitation protocols following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were identified...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
R M S Gutierrez, N A Ricci, Q R S Gomes, D L Oliveira, R S Pires
Acrobatic exercise is considered a complex motor activity and may promote motor learning and neuroplasticity. The objective of this systematic review was to verify possible plastic brain changes induced by acrobatic exercise in non-lesioned rat and mouse through the analysis of experimental studies. Manual and electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science databases, without restriction to language or publication date. Synaptogenesis and neurogenesis were selected as the primary outcomes...
February 26, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Kengo Ishihara, Hirokazu Taniguchi
Endurance exercise performance has been used as a representative index in experimental animal models in the field of health sciences, exercise physiology, comparative physiology, food function or nutritional physiology. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fatmax (the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation) as an additional index of endurance exercise performance that can be measured during running at submaximal exercise intensity in mice. We measured both Fatmax and Vo2 peak of trained ICR mice that voluntary exercised for 8 weeks and compared them with a sedentary group of mice at multiple inclinations of 20, 30, 40, and 50° on a treadmill...
2018: PloS One
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