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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724254/effects-of-calcium-on-the-performance-bacterial-population-and-microbial-metabolism-of-a-denitrifying-phosphorus-removal-system
#1
Hongliang Dai, Yifeng Wu, Lihong Peng, Zheqin Dai, Xiang Li, Xiwu Lu
A sequencing batch reactor was operated to study the effects of influent Ca(2+) on the efficiency, bacterial population, and microbial metabolism of denitrifying phosphorus removal system. Results showed that high Ca(2+) loading (≥80mg/L) significantly inhibited the performance of simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The abundance of phosphorus removal-related organisms (Dechloromonas and Candidatus Accumulibacter) decreased with increasing Ca(2+) concentration from 20 to 140mg/L, while the abundance of glycogen-accumulating organisms and other bacteria increased...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723843/no-superior-adaptations-to-carbohydrate-periodization-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#2
Kasper Degn Gejl, Line Thams, Mette Hansen, Torben Rokkedal-Lausch, Peter Plomgaard, Lars Nybo, Filip J Larsen, Daniele A Cardinale, Kurt Jensen, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Kristian Vissing, Niels Ørtenblad
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414±2...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723673/energy-metabolism-in-glioblastoma-stem-cells-ppar%C3%AE-a-metabolic-adaptor-to-intratumoral-microenvironment
#3
Alessia Fidoamore, Loredana Cristiano, Chiara Laezza, Renato Galzio, Elisabetta Benedetti, Benedetta Cinque, Andrea Antonosante, Michele d'Angelo, Vanessa Castelli, Maria Grazia Cifone, Rodolfo Ippoliti, Antonio Giordano, Annamaria Cimini
Glioblastoma (GB), the most-common cancer in the adult brain, despite surgery and radio/ chemotherapy, is to date almost incurable. Many hypoxic tumors, including GB, show metabolic reprogramming to sustain uncontrolled proliferation, hypoxic conditions and angiogenesis. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors (PPAR), particularly the α isotype, have been involved in the control of energetic metabolism. Herein, we characterized patient-derived GB neurospheres focusing on their energetic metabolism and PPARα expression...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720901/a-novel-connection-between-the-cell-wall-integrity-and-the-pka-pathways-regulates-cell-wall-stress-response-in-yeast
#4
Raúl García, Enrique Bravo, Sonia Diez-Muñiz, Cesar Nombela, Jose M Rodríguez-Peña, Javier Arroyo
Fungal cells trigger adaptive mechanisms to survive in situations that compromise cell wall integrity. We show here that the global transcriptional response elicited by inhibition of the synthesis of β-1,3-glucan by caspofungin, encompasses a set of genes that are dependent on Slt2, the MAPK of the Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) pathway, and a broad group of genes regulated independently of Slt2. Genes negatively regulated by the cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway were overrepresented in the latter group...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720858/gsk-3%C3%AE-deletion-in-dentate-gyrus-excitatory-neuron-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory
#5
Enjie Liu, Ao-Ji Xie, Qiuzhi Zhou, Mengzhu Li, Shujuan Zhang, Shihong Li, Weijin Wang, Xiaochuan Wang, Qun Wang, Jian-Zhi Wang
Increasing evidence suggests that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) plays a crucial role in neurodegenerative/psychiatric disorders, while pan-neural knockout of GSK-3β also shows detrimental effects. Currently, the function of GSK-3β in specific type of neurons is elusive. Here, we infused AAV-CaMKII-Cre-2A-eGFP into GSK-3β(lox/lox) mice to selectively delete the kinase in excitatory neurons of hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), and studied the effects on cognitive/psychiatric behaviors and the molecular mechanisms...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720699/cellular-trade-offs-and-optimal-resource-allocation-during-cyanobacterial-diurnal-growth
#6
Alexandra-M Reimers, Henning Knoop, Alexander Bockmayr, Ralf Steuer
Cyanobacteria are an integral part of Earth's biogeochemical cycles and a promising resource for the synthesis of renewable bioproducts from atmospheric CO2 Growth and metabolism of cyanobacteria are inherently tied to the diurnal rhythm of light availability. As yet, however, insight into the stoichiometric and energetic constraints of cyanobacterial diurnal growth is limited. Here, we develop a computational framework to investigate the optimal allocation of cellular resources during diurnal phototrophic growth using a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720584/protein-kinase-n2-regulates-amp-kinase-signaling-and-insulin-responsiveness-of-glucose-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#7
Maxwell A Ruby, Isabelle Riedl, Julie Massart, Marcus Åhlin, Juleen R Zierath
Insulin resistance is central to the development of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. As skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, regulation of glucose metabolism in this tissue is of particular importance. While Rho GTPases and many of their affecters influence skeletal muscle metabolism, there is a paucity of information on the protein kinase N (PKN) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. We investigated the impact of PKN2 on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle cells in vitro and mouse tibialis anterior muscle in vivo...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719620/endurance-performance-and-energy-metabolism-during-exercise-in-mice-with-a-muscle-specific-defect-in-the-control-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism
#8
Minjun Xu, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Takuya Ishikawa, Yoshihiro Kadota, Chihaya Terai, Daichi Shindo, Takashi Morioka, Miki Ota, Yukako Morishita, Kengo Ishihara, Yoshiharu Shimomura
It is known that the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in skeletal muscle is suppressed under normal and sedentary conditions but is promoted by exercise. BCAA catabolism in muscle tissues is regulated by the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex, which is inactivated by phosphorylation by BCKA dehydrogenase kinase (BDK). In the present study, we used muscle-specific BDK deficient mice (BDK-mKO mice) to examine the effect of uncontrolled BCAA catabolism on endurance exercise performance and skeletal muscle energy metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718056/aeration-control-strategies-to-stimulate-simultaneous-nitrification-denitrification-via-nitrite-during-the-formation-of-aerobic-granular-sludge
#9
Thomas Dobbeleers, Jolien D'aes, Solange Miele, Michel Caluwé, Veerle Akkermans, Dominique Daens, Luc Geuens, Jan Dries
In this study, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), treating synthetic wastewater (COD/N = 5), was operated in two stages. During stage I, an aeration control strategy based on oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was applied, to accomplish nitrogen removal via nitrite >80%. In stage II, the development of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was examined while two aeration control strategies (OUR and pH slope) maintained the nitrite pathway and optimized the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) performance. Stimulation of slow-growing organisms, (denitrifying) polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (D)PAO and (denitrifying) glycogen-accumulating organisms (D)GAO leads to full granulation (at day 200, SVI10 = 47...
July 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716914/metabolic-profiles-of-exercise-in-patients-with-mcardle-disease-or-mitochondrial-myopathy
#10
Nigel F Delaney, Rohit Sharma, Laura Tadvalkar, Clary B Clish, Ronald G Haller, Vamsi K Mootha
McArdle disease and mitochondrial myopathy impair muscle oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by distinct mechanisms: the former by restricting oxidative substrate availability caused by blocked glycogen breakdown, the latter because of intrinsic respiratory chain defects. We applied metabolic profiling to systematically interrogate these disorders at rest, when muscle symptoms are typically minimal, and with exercise, when symptoms of premature fatigue and potential muscle injury are unmasked. At rest, patients with mitochondrial disease exhibit elevated lactate and reduced uridine; in McArdle disease purine nucleotide metabolites, including xanthine, hypoxanthine, and inosine are elevated...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716393/combine-effect-of-chondroitinase-abc-and-low-level-laser-660nm-on-spinal-cord-injury-model-in-adult-male-rats
#11
Atousa Janzadeh, Arash Sarveazad, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Sima Dameni, Fazel Sahraneshin Samani, Kobra Mokhtarian, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
After spinal cord injury (SCI) there are many recoveries inhibiting factors such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and inflammation. The present study investigated the combinational effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) as anti-inflammatory agent and Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) enzyme as CSPG digesting factor on spinal cord after injury. This study performed on 44 male Wistar rats, spinal cord injury induced by a clip compression injury. Animals received two-weeks treatment of 660nm low level laser (LLL) and intraspinal injection of 1μg ChABC...
July 14, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716262/new-genetic-causes-for-complex-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia
#12
Paulo Victor Sgobbi de Souza, Thiago Bortholin, Renan Braido Dias, Marco Antônio Troccoli Chieia, Stênio Burlin, Fernando George Monteiro Naylor, Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto, Acary Souza Bulle Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) represents a complex and heterogeneous group of rare neurodegenerative disorders that share a common clinical feature of weakness and lower limb spasticity that can occur alone or in combination with a constellation of other neurological or systemic signs and symptoms. Although the core clinical feature of weakness and lower limb spasticity is virtually universal, the genetic heterogeneity is almost uncountable with more than 70 genetic forms described so far...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714566/gsk-3%C3%AE-activation-index-is-a-potential-indicator-for-recurrent-inflammation-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-without-nasal-polyps
#13
Haiyu Hong, Fenghong Chen, Yongkang Qiao, Yan Yan, Rongkai Zhang, Zhe Zhu, Huabin Li, Yunping Fan, Geng Xu
Chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is one of the most common otorhinolaryngologic diseases worldwide. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) was quantitatively evaluated in patients with CRSsNP (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 20). The mRNA levels of GSK-3α and GSK-3β were examined by qPCR, the immunoreactivities of GSK-3β and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, and the protein levels of GSK-3β, phospho-GSK-3β (p-GSK-3β, s9) and NF-κB were examined using Western blot analysis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714501/understanding-the-role-of-tyrosine-in-glycogenin
#14
Ander Camiruaga, Imanol Usabiaga, Aran Insausti, Emilio J Cocinero, Iker León, José A Fernández
We explored the molecular basis of tyrosine as the docking amino acid for the first glucose molecule during the synthesis of glycogen. The IR spectra show that the aromatic ring acts as bait to keep the position where the next glucose unit has to bind clear, by luring non-desirable molecules towards the aromatic ring. Only, α-/β-glucose shows particular affinity for the O3H and O4H moieties.
July 17, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714403/gsk3-inhibitors-in-the-therapeutic-development-of-diabetes-cancer-and-neurodegeneration-past-present-and-future
#15
Mudasir Maqbool, Nasimul Hoda
GSK3 has gained a considerable attention of researchers in the late 1970s as an inevitable drug target to treat diabetes. Furthermore, it was found to have a key role in the development of diseases like cancer and neurodegeneration (ND). A broad spectrum of GSK3 inhibitors have been discovered from time to time in order to curb these diseases. Inhibition of GSK3 by insulin boosts the dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase, hence its activation to convert UDP glucose into glycogen. Lack of insulin and insulin-resistance is supposed to be the cause of type 2 diabetes (Diabetes mellitus)...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713790/preliminary-study-on-physicochemical-and-biochemical-stress-markers-at-poultry-slaughterhouse
#16
Serena Santonicola, Maria Francesca Peruzy, Mariagrazia Girasole, Nicoletta Murru, Maria Luisa Cortesi, Raffaelina Mercogliano
Pre-slaughter stress can result in variations in the glycogen storage and metabolic changes of muscle, responsible for quality poultry meat. Aim of this study was to investigate, as pre-slaughter stress markers and quality meat, physicochemical (pH), biochemical (muscle glycogen content), and chemical (super oxides free radicals) parameters. The carcass quality, as incidence of individual carcass defects, was also evaluated. Twenty broilers were processed with two different electrical stunning: high (250 Hz; 640 mA; 60V) (Lot C or control) and low (150 Hz; 360 mA; 60 V) (Lot A) frequency and intensity, using sinusoidal alternating current...
April 13, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713494/caspase-3-role-and-immunohistochemical-expression-in-assessment-of-apoptosis-as-a-feature-of-h1n1-vaccine-caused-drug-induced-liver-injury-dili
#17
Abir Khalil Mohamed, Mona Magdy
BACKGROUND: Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) changes, occur post exposure to natural or chemical compounds including apoptosis. AIM: To assess the H1N1 vaccine-caused DILI by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. METHODS: This 2014's experimental study was conducted on 70 albino rats. They were given Arepanrix(TM) H1N1 vaccine and were divided into 7 groups; 10 mice each, as control (non-vaccinated), vac2 and vac4 injected with 1(st) and 2(nd) doses of vaccine (suspension only) and euthanized after 3 weeks each, vac5 euthanized 6 weeks after 2(nd) dose, mix2 and mix4 injected with 1(st) and 2(nd) doses of vaccine (mixture of suspension and adjuvant) and euthanized after 3 weeks each, mix5 and euthanized 6 weeks after 2(nd) dose...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713408/transcriptome-analyses-shed-new-insights-into-primary-metabolism-and-regulation-of-blumeria-graminis-f-sp-tritici-during-conidiation
#18
Fan-Song Zeng, Fabrizio Menardo, Min-Feng Xue, Xue-Jiang Zhang, Shuang-Jun Gong, Li-Jun Yang, Wen-Qi Shi, Da-Zhao Yu
Conidia of the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) play a vital role in its survival and rapid dispersal. However, little is known about the genetic basis for its asexual reproduction. To uncover the primary metabolic and regulatory events during conidiation, we sequenced the transcriptome of Bgt epiphytic structures at 3 (vegetative hyphae growth), 4 (foot cells initiation), and 5 (conidiophore erection) days post-inoculation (dpi). RNA-seq analyses identified 556 and 404 (combined 685) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 4 and 5 dpi compared with their expression levels at 3 dpi, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712708/discovery-of-novel-2-3-phenylpiperazin-1-yl-pyrimidin-4-ones-as-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-inhibitors
#19
Yoshihiro Usui, Fumiaki Uehara, Shinsuke Hiki, Kazutoshi Watanabe, Hiroshi Tanaka, Aya Shouda, Satoshi Yokoshima, Keiichi Aritomo, Takashi Adachi, Kenji Fukunaga, Shinji Sunada, Mika Nabeno, Ken-Ichi Saito, Jun-Ichi Eguchi, Keiji Yamagami, Shouichi Asano, Shinji Tanaka, Satoshi Yuki, Narihiko Yoshii, Masatake Fujimura, Takashi Horikawa
We herein describe the results of further evolution of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β inhibitors from our promising compounds containing a 2-phenylmorpholine moiety. Transformation of the morpholine moiety into a piperazine moiety resulted in potent GSK-3β inhibitors. SAR studies focused on the phenyl moiety revealed that a 4-fluoro-2-methoxy group afforded potent inhibitory activity toward GSK-3β. Based on docking studies, new hydrogen bonding between the nitrogen atom of the piperazine moiety and the oxygen atom of the main chain of Gln185 has been indicated, which may contribute to increased activity compared with that of the corresponding phenylmorpholine analogues...
July 5, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712706/discovery-of-novel-2-4-aryl-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl-pyrimidin-4-ones-as-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-inhibitors
#20
Toshiyuki Kohara, Kazuki Nakayama, Kazutoshi Watanabe, Shin-Ichi Kusaka, Daiki Sakai, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kenji Fukunaga, Shinji Sunada, Mika Nabeno, Ken-Ichi Saito, Jun-Ichi Eguchi, Akiko Mori, Shinji Tanaka, Tomoko Bessho, Keiko Takiguchi-Hayashi, Takashi Horikawa
We herein describe the results of further evolution of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β inhibitors from our promising compounds containing a 3-methylmorpholine moiety. Transformation of the morpholine moiety into a piperazine moiety resulted in potent GSK-3β inhibitors. SAR studies focused on the nitrogen atom of the piperazine moiety revealed that a phenyl group afforded potent inhibitory activity toward GSK-3β. Docking studies indicated that the phenyl group on the piperazine nitrogen atom and the methyl group on the piperazine make cation-π and CH-π interactions with GSK-3β respectively...
July 5, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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