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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102838/autophagy-dysregulation-in-danon-disease
#1
Anna Chiara Nascimbeni, Marina Fanin, Corrado Angelini, Marco Sandri
The autophagy-lysosome system is critical for muscle homeostasis and defects in lysosomal function result in a number of inherited muscle diseases, generally referred to as autophagic vacuolar myopathies (AVMs). Among them, Danon Disease (DD) and glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) are due to primary lysosomal protein defects. DD is characterized by mutations in the lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) gene. The DD mouse model suggests that inefficient lysosome biogenesis/maturation and impairment of autophagosome-lysosome fusion contribute to the pathogenesis of muscle wasting...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102299/systemic-regulation-of-l-carnitine-in-nutritional-metabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#2
Jia-Min Li, Ling-Yu Li, Xun Qin, Li-Jun Ning, Dong-Liang Lu, Dong-Liang Li, Mei-Ling Zhang, Xin Wang, Zhen-Yu Du
Excess fat accumulation has been observed widely in farmed fish; therefore, efficient lipid-lowering factors have obtained high attention in the current fish nutrition studies. Dietary L-carnitine can increase fatty acid β-oxidation in mammals, but has produced contradictory results in different fish species. To date, the mechanisms of metabolic regulation of L-carnitine in fish have not been fully determined. The present study used zebrafish to investigate the systemic regulation of nutrient metabolism by dietary L-carnitine supplementation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101169/role-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-wnt-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-and-wnt-ca-2-pathways-in-cisplatin-induced-chemoresistance-in-ovarian-cancer
#3
Lu Huang, Ye Jin, Shujun Feng, Yuqing Zou, Sainan Xu, Shuang Qiu, Ling Li, Jianhua Zheng
The aim of the present study was to explore the expression of Wnt signaling proteins β-catenin, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in ovarian cancer cells, and assess the correlation between this expression and cisplatin-induced chemoresistance. SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cells and SKOV3/DDP (cisplatin resistant) cells were treated with cisplatin in the absence or presence of a Wnt signaling activator (CHIR-99021, glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor) or inhibitor (XAV-939, tankyrase inhibitor)...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100567/mecp2-regulated-glycogenes-contribute-to-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#4
Yannan Qin, Lingyu Zhao, Xiaofei Wang, Dongdong Tong, Christopher Hoover, Fei Wu, Yingxun Liu, Lumin Wang, Liying Liu, Lei Ni, Tusheng Song, Chen Huang
Aberrant glycogene and glycan expression is intimately associated with carcinogenesis, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer (GC); however the regulatory mechanisms for glycogenes in GC cells remain unclear. Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) regulates genes by binding to methylated promoters, and in our previous work we found that it is overexpressed in GC cell lines and tissues, functioning as an oncogene. In this study we detected the expression of 212 glycogenes in MeCP2 silenced GC cells versus control using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Microarray and mining the data through bioinformatic analysis...
January 18, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100512/postexercise-repletion-of-muscle-energy-stores-with-fructose-or-glucose-in-mixed-meals
#5
Robin Rosset, Virgile Lecoultre, Léonie Egli, Jérémy Cros, Ayse Sila Dokumaci, Karin Zwygart, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis, Philippe Schneiter, Luc Tappy
BACKGROUND: Postexercise nutrition is paramount to the restoration of muscle energy stores by providing carbohydrate and fat as precursors of glycogen and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) synthesis. Compared with glucose, fructose ingestion results in lower postprandial glucose and higher lactate and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that these differences in substrate concentration would be associated with a different partition of energy stored as IMCLs or glycogen postexercise...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100303/ethanol-glycogen-and-glucosylglycerol-represent-competing-carbon-pools-in-ethanol-producing-cells-of-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-under-high-salt-conditions
#6
Nadin Pade, Stefan Mikkat, Martin Hagemann
Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic microorganisms, which are increasingly being used as microbial cell factories to produce for example ethanol directly from solar energy and CO2. Here we analyzed the effects of different salt concentrations on an ethanol-producing strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that over-expresses the pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) from Zymomonas mobilis and the native alcohol dehydrogenase (adhA). Moderate salinities of 2% NaCl had no negative impact on ethanol production, whereas the addition of 4% NaCl resulted in significantly decreased ethanol yields compared to low salt conditions...
January 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099940/characteristics-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-usage-in-ischemic-heart-disease-patients-among-type-2-diabetes-and-their-protection-against-hydrogen-peroxide-mediated-apoptosis-in-h9c2-cardiomyoblasts
#7
Fuu-Jen Tsai, Tsung-Jung Ho, Chi-Fung Cheng, Yi-Tzone Shiao, Wen-Kuei Chien, Jin-Hua Chen, Xiang Liu, Hsinyi Tsang, Ting-Hsu Lin, Chiu-Chu Liao, Shao-Mei Huang, Ju-Pi Li, Cheng-Wen Lin, Jaung-Geng Lin, Yu-Ching Lan, Yu-Huei Liu, Chien-Hui Hung, Jung-Chun Lin, Chih-Chien Lin, Chih-Ho Lai, Wen-Miin Liang, Ying-Ju Lin
Evidence for long-term use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an adjuvant treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains limited. This study aimed to assess the frequency of use, utilization patterns, and therapeutic effects of adjuvant CHM for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in patients with T2D in Taiwan. We identified 4620 IHD patients with T2D. After matching for age, gender, and insulin use, 988 subjects each were allocated to a CHM group and a non-CHM group. There were no differences in baseline characteristics except for comorbidities...
January 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099358/the-gender-specific-association-of-rs334558-in-gsk3%C3%AE-with-major-depressive-disorder
#8
Sha Liu, Le Wang, Ning Sun, Chunxia Yang, Zhifen Liu, Xinrong Li, Xiaohua Cao, Yong Xu, Kerang Zhang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric illnesses with a heritability ranging from 40% to 50%. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs334558 on the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) gene has been identified as a genetic risk loci associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, results from replication studies examining the association between rs334558 and MDD remain inconsistent.In the present study, first, we conducted a meta-analysis of the association between rs334558 and MDD by combining 5 available case-control samples totaling 2311 cases and 2535 controls...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098243/vanillic-acid-attenuates-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-oxidative-stress-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#9
Faiz Ul Amin, Shahid Ali Shah, Myeong Ok Kim
Increasing evidence demonstrates that β-amyloid (Aβ) elicits oxidative stress, which contributes to the pathogenesis and disease progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aims of the present study were to determine and explore the antioxidant nature and potential mechanism of vanillic acid (VA) in Aβ1-42-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation mediated cognitive impairment in mice. An intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ1-42 into the mouse brain triggered increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, neuroinflammation, synaptic deficits, memory impairment, and neurodegeneration...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096054/glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia-mice-with-less-than-2-of-normal-hepatic-glucose-6-phosphatase-%C3%AE-activity-restored-are-at-risk-of-developing-hepatic-tumors
#10
Goo-Young Kim, Young Mok Lee, Joon Hyun Kwon, Jun-Ho Cho, Chi-Jiunn Pan, Matthew F Starost, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia), characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and chronic risk of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and carcinoma (HCC), is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC). We have previously shown that G6pc-/- mice receiving gene transfer mediated by rAAV-G6PC, a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing G6Pase-α, and expressing 3-63% of normal hepatic G6Pase-α activity maintain glucose homeostasis and do not develop HCA/HCC. However, the threshold of hepatic G6Pase-α activity required to prevent tumor formation remained unknown...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094799/activation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-via-gsk3-inhibitors-direct-differentiation-of-human-adipose-stem-cells-into-functional-hepatocytes
#11
Jieqiong Huang, Xinyue Guo, Weihong Li, Haiyan Zhang
The generation of hepatocytes that are derived from human adipose stem cells (hASCs) represents an alternative to human hepatocytes for individualized therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications. However, the mechanisms facilitating hepatocyte differentiation from hASCs are not well understood. Here, we show that upon exposure to glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitors alone, the expression of definitive endoderm specific genes GATA4, FOXA2, and SOX17 in hASCs significantly increased in a manner with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093310/effects-of-glucose-and-insulin-administration-on-glucose-transporter-expression-in-the-north-pacific-spiny-dogfish-squalus-suckleyi
#12
Courtney A Deck, W Gary Anderson, Patrick J Walsh
Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) are a primarily carnivorous group of fish, consuming few carbohydrates. Further, they tend to exhibit delayed responses to glucose and insulin administration in vivo relative to mammals, leading to a presumption of glucose-intolerance. To investigate the glucoregulatory capabilities of the spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi), plasma glucose concentration, muscle and liver glycogen content, and glucose transporter (glut1 and 4) mRNA levels were measured following intra-arterial administration of bovine insulin (10 ng kg(-1)) or an approximate doubling of fasting plasma glucose concentration...
January 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092845/cinnamaldehyde-potentially-attenuates-gestational-hyperglycemia-in-rats-through-modulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress
#13
Ahmed A Hosni, A Adel Abdel-Moneim, Eman S Abdel-Reheim, Samah M Mohamed, Hamdi Helmy
Cinnamon has a history of use for medicinal purposes and its major benefits have been linked to cinnamaldehyde. The present study aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic action of cinnamaldehyde against fatty-sucrosed diet/streptozotocin (FSD/STZ)-rat model of gestational diabetes. Female albino rats were divided into three groups. Group I fed with normal diet (ND) while group II and III were fed with FSD for eight weeks (five weeks pre-gestational and three weeks gestational). Rats of group III were administered with a daily oral dose of 20mg/kg cinnamaldehyde one week before mating onward...
January 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090146/rapid-weight-loss-in-the-context-of-ramadan-observance-recommendations-for-judokas
#14
REVIEW
A Aloui, H Chtourou, W Briki, M Tabben, A Chaouachi, N Souissi, R J Shephard, K Chamari
Judo is a weight-classified combat sport, and many athletes seek to compete at the lightest possible weight category to gain an advantage from competing against shorter/smaller, and supposedly weaker opponents. To achieve a desired weight, most judokas opt for rapid weight loss techniques. Short-duration maximal efforts are not greatly affected by "making weight", but prolonged and/or repeated exercise is significantly impaired. Negative effects on mood, ratings of perceived exertion, and cognitive function are also reported...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081383/inhibiting-effect-of-lithium-chloride-on-endotoxin-induced-uveitis-in-rats
#15
Shuo Yang, Shuo Yu, Xinli Liu, Jinyi Yu, Xiaosheng Zhang, Hong Lu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of lithium chloride in endotoxin-induced uveitis. METHODS: A total of 200 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group; EIU group; LiCl-treated control group; and LiCl-treated lipopolysaccharide group. Clinical score, slit-lamp photography, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were used to determine the degree of inflammatory reaction. Level of glycogen synthase kinase3-beta and nuclear factor-kappa B p65 in iris-ciliary body was examined by western blot and RT-PCR...
January 12, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077463/novel-method-for-detection-of-glycogen-in-cells
#16
Alexander V Skurat, Dyann Segvich, Anna A DePaoli-Roach, Peter J Roach
Glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, functions as an energy reserve in many living organisms. Abnormalities in glycogen metabolism, usually excessive accumulation, can be caused genetically, most often through mutation of the enzymes directly involved in synthesis and degradation of the polymer leading to a variety of glycogen storage diseases (GSDs). Microscopic visualization of glycogen deposits in cells and tissues is important for the study of normal glycogen metabolism as well as diagnosis of GSDs...
January 10, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077400/differential-expression-of-hedgehog-and-snail-in-cutaneous-fibrosing-disorders-implications-for-targeted-inhibition
#17
Amrita Goyal, Katy R Linskey, Jonathan Kay, Lyn M Duncan, Rosalynn M Nazarian
OBJECTIVES: To examine Hedgehog signaling in cutaneous fibrosing disorders for which effective approved therapies are lacking, expand our knowledge of pathophysiology, and explore the rationale for targeted inhibition. METHODS: Stain intensity and percentage of cells staining for Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Indian hedgehog (Ihh), Patched (Ptch), glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3-β), β-catenin, and Snail were evaluated in human skin biopsy specimens of keloid, hypertrophic scar (Hscar), scleroderma, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), scar, and normal skin using a tissue microarray...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076824/discovery-of-new-nanomolar-inhibitors-of-gpa-extension-of-2-oxo-1-2-dihydropyridinyl-3-yl-amide-based-gpa-inhibitors
#18
Wendy A Loughlin, Ian D Jenkins, N David Karis, Peter C Healy
Glycogen Phosphorylase (GP) is a functionally active dimeric enzyme, which is a target for inhibition of the conversion of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate. In this study we report the design and synthesis of 14 new pyridone derivatives, and seek to extend the SAR analysis of these compounds. The SAR revealed the minor influence of the amide group, importance of the pyridone ring both spatially around the pyridine ring and for possible π-stacking, and confirmed a preference for inclusion of 3,4-dichlorobenzyl moieties, as bookends to the pyridone scaffold...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073836/ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-activate-cell-signaling-in-response-to-glutamate-in-schwann-cells
#19
Wendy M Campana, Elisabetta Mantuano, Pardis Azmoon, Kenneth Henry, Michael A Banki, John H Kim, Donald P Pizzo, Steven L Gonias
In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) demonstrate surveillance activity, detecting injury and undergoing trans-differentiation to support repair. SC receptors that detect peripheral nervous system injury remain incompletely understood. We used RT-PCR to profile ionotropic glutamate receptor expression in cultured SCs. We identified subunits required for assembly of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors (NMDA-R), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, and kainate receptors...
January 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071742/core-transcription-factors-micrornas-and-small-molecules-drive-transdifferentiation-of-human-fibroblasts-towards-the-cardiac-cell-lineage
#20
Nicolas Christoforou, Syandan Chakraborty, Robert D Kirkton, Andrew F Adler, Russell C Addis, Kam W Leong
Transdifferentiation has been described as a novel method for converting human fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells. Such an approach can produce differentiated cells to study physiology or pathophysiology, examine drug interactions or toxicities, and engineer cardiac tissues. Here we describe the transdifferentiation of human dermal fibroblasts towards the cardiac cell lineage via the induced expression of transcription factors GATA4, TBX5, MEF2C, MYOCD, NKX2-5, and delivery of microRNAs miR-1 and miR-133a...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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