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Functional mapping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719844/phosphate-functionalized-4-4-armchair-cnts-as-novel-drug-delivery-systems-for-alendronate-and-etidronate-anti-osteoporosis-drugs
#1
Zahra Nikfar, Zahra Shariatinia
The ability of (4,4)-armchair CNT and its three phosphate functionalized forms (CNT-nH2PO4, n=1-3) were evaluated as novel drug delivery systems (DDSs) for the two commercially well-known anti-osteoporosis drugs namely alendronate (AL) and etidronate (ET). For this purpose, the DFT calculations were accomplished at both B3LYP and B3PW91 levels using 6-31g(d) basis set. The binding energy was increased by increasing number of H2PO4 moieties attached on the CNT with the most negative binding energy was measured for the carrier containing three phosphate groups...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719508/is-the-organisation-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-low-back-pain-related-to-pain-movement-and-or-sensation
#2
Edith Elgueta-Cancino, Siobhan Schabrun, Paul Hodges
Primary motor cortex (M1) organisation differs between individuals with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP), in parallel with motor and sensory impairments. This study investigated whether movement behaviour and tactile/pain sensation are related to M1 organisation in CLBP. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to map the M1 representation of the erector spinae and multifidus muscles in 20 participants with and without CLBP. Cortical organisation was quantified by: map volume; center of gravity (CoG); number of peaks; and primary and secondary peak location...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718954/power-profiles-in-multifocal-contact-lenses-with-variable-multifocal-zone
#3
Daniel Monsálvez-Romín, Alberto Domínguez-Vicent, Santiago García-Lázaro, José J Esteve-Taboada, Alejandro Cerviño
BACKGROUND: The power profile of multifocal contact lenses has been demonstrated to report important information that could be used during the fitting process. The aim of this work is to describe the power profile of a recent set of gas permeable multifocal contact lenses as a function of the pupil radius. METHODS: The measured multifocal contact lenses have a centre-distance design, and are available with five distance-vision diameters (XS, S, M, L and XL) and two different additions: Type A (up to +2...
July 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718888/assessing-lung-function-using-contrast-enhanced-dual-energy-computed-tomography-for-potential-applications-in-radiation-therapy
#4
Andréanne Lapointe, Houda Bahig, Danis Blais, Hugo Bouchard, Édith Filion, Jean-François Carrier, Stéphane Bedwani
PURPOSE: There is an increasing interest in the evaluation of lung function from physiological images in radiation therapy treatment planning to reduce the extent of post-radiation toxicities. The purpose of this work is to retrieve reliable functional information from contrast-enhanced dualenergy computed tomography (DECT) for new applications in radiation therapy. The functional information obtained by DECT is also compared with other methods using single energy CT (SECT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with CT...
July 18, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718505/immunogenomic-approaches-to-understand-the-function-of-immune-disease-variants
#5
REVIEW
Dafni Anna Glinos, Blagoje Soskic, Gosia Trynka
Mapping hundreds of genetic variants through genome wide association studies provided an opportunity to gain insights into the pathobiology of immune mediated diseases. However, since most of the disease variants fall outside the gene coding sequences, thereby implicating gene expression regulation as the causal mechanism, the functional interpretation of the exact role of the associated variants remains to be determined. Despite these challenges, integration of disease associated variants with large scale genomic maps of cell type specific gene regulation both at chromatin and transcript levels deliver examples of functionally prioritised causal variants and genes...
July 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718466/exploring-viscosity-polarity-and-temperature-sensitivity-of-bodipy-based-molecular-rotors
#6
Aurimas Vyšniauskas, Ismael López-Duarte, Nicolas Duchemin, Thanh-Truc Vu, Yilei Wu, Ekaterina M Budynina, Yulia A Volkova, Eduardo Peña Cabrera, Diana E Ramírez-Ornelas, Marina K Kuimova
Microviscosity is a key parameter controlling the rate of diffusion and reactions on the microscale. One of the most convenient tools for measuring microviscosity is by fluorescent viscosity sensors termed 'molecular rotors'. BODIPY-based molecular rotors in particular proved extremely useful in combination with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, for providing quantitative viscosity maps of living cells as well as measuring dynamic changes in viscosity over time. In this work, we investigate several new BODIPY-based molecular rotors with the aim of improving on the current viscosity sensing capabilities and understanding how the structure of the fluorophore is related to its function...
July 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717235/protein-protein-binding-selectivity-and-network-topology-constrain-global-and-local-properties-of-interface-binding-networks
#7
David O Holland, Benjamin H Shapiro, Pei Xue, Margaret E Johnson
Protein-protein interactions networks (PPINs) are known to share a highly conserved structure across all organisms. What is poorly understood, however, is the structure of the child interface interaction networks (IINs), which map the binding sites proteins use for each interaction. In this study we analyze four independently constructed IINs from yeast and humans and find a conserved structure of these networks with a unique topology distinct from the parent PPIN. Using an IIN sampling algorithm and a fitness function trained on the manually curated PPINs, we show that IIN topology can be mostly explained as a balance between limits on interface diversity and a need for physico-chemical binding complementarity...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717196/trib1-is-a-positive-regulator-of-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-4-alpha
#8
Sébastien Soubeyrand, Amy Martinuk, Ruth McPherson
The TRIB1 locus has been linked to both cardiovascular disease and hepatic steatosis. Recent efforts have revealed TRIB1 to be a major regulator of liver function, largely, but not exclusively, via CEBPA degradation. We recently uncovered a functional interaction between TRIB1 and HNF4A, another key regulator of hepatic function, whose molecular underpinnings remained to be clarified. Here we have extended these findings. In hepatoma models, HNF4A levels were found to depend on TRIB1, independently of its impact on CEBPA...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717076/increase-in-the-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-following-waon-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-a-pilot-study
#9
Takao Munemoto, Yuji Soejima, Akinori Masuda, Yoshiaki Nakabeppu, Chuwa Tei
Objective Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder, with no consensus on therapeutic options. However, Waon therapy has been reported to be an effective treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after Waon therapy in CFS patients and to investigate the correlation between such changes and the therapeutic efficacy of Waon therapy. Methods Eleven patients (2 men and 9 women, mean age 27 years old) diagnosed with CFS participated in the study...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716966/hierarchically-organized-medial-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-loops-selectively-control-task-and-response-selection
#10
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task-level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well-known inter-dependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716921/toll-ligand-sp%C3%A3-tzle3-controls-melanization-in-the-stripe-pattern-formation-in-caterpillars
#11
Yûsuke KonDo, Shinichi Yoda, Takayuki Mizoguchi, Toshiya Ando, Junichi Yamaguchi, Kimiko Yamamoto, Yutaka Banno, Haruhiko Fujiwara
A stripe pattern is an aposematic or camouflage coloration often observed among various caterpillars. However, how this ecologically important pattern is formed is largely unknown. The silkworm dominant mutant Zebra (Ze) has a black stripe in the anterior margin of each dorsal segment. Here, fine linkage mapping of 3,135 larvae revealed a 63-kbp region responsible for the Ze locus, which contained three candidate genes, including the Toll ligand gene spätzle3 (spz-3). Both electroporation-mediated ectopic expression and RNAi analyses showed that, among candidate genes, only processed spz-3 induced melanin pigmentation and that Toll-8 was the candidate receptor gene of spz-3 This Toll ligand/receptor set is also involved in melanization of other mutant Striped (p(S) ), which has broader stripes...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716715/functional-parcellation-using-time-courses-of-instantaneous-connectivity
#12
REVIEW
Erik S B van Oort, Maarten Mennes, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Vinod J Kumar, Nestor I Zaragoza Jimenez, Wolfgang Grodd, Christian F Doeller, Christian F Beckmann
Functional neuroimaging studies have led to understanding the brain as a collection of spatially segregated functional networks. It is thought that each of these networks is in turn composed of a set of distinct sub-regions that together support each network's function. Considering the sub-regions to be an essential part of the brain's functional architecture, several strategies have been put forward that aim at identifying the functional sub-units of the brain by means of functional parcellations. Current parcellation strategies typically employ a bottom-up strategy, creating a parcellation by clustering smaller units...
July 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716714/functional-density-and-edge-maps-characterizing-functional-architecture-in-individuals-and-improving-cross-subject-registration
#13
Tong Tong, Iman Aganj, Tian Ge, Jonathan R Polimeni, Bruce Fischl
Population-level inferences and individual-level analyses are two important aspects in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Extracting reliable and informative features from fMRI data that capture biologically meaningful inter-subject variation is critical for aligning and comparing functional networks across subjects, and connecting the properties of functional brain organization with variations in behavior, cognition and genetics. In this study, we derive two new measures, which we term functional density map and edge map, and demonstrate their usefulness in characterizing the function of individual brains...
July 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716681/mri-magic-angle-effect-in-femorotibial-cartilages-of-the-red-kangaroo
#14
Tonima S Ali, Namal Thibbotuwawa, YuanTong Gu, Konstantin I Momot
OBJECTIVE: Kangaroo knee cartilages are robust tissues that can support knee flexion and endure high levels of compressive stress. This study aimed to develop a detailed understanding of the collagen architecture in kangaroo knee cartilages and thus obtain insights into the biophysical basis of their function. DESIGN: Cylindrical/square plugs from femoral and tibial hyaline cartilage and tibial fibrocartilage were excised from the knees of three adult red kangaroos...
July 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716433/unmyelinated-peripheral-nerves-can-be-stimulated-in%C3%A2-vitro-using-pulsed-ultrasound
#15
Christopher J Wright, Seyyed R Haqshenas, John Rothwell, Nader Saffari
Appreciation for the medical and research potential of ultrasound neuromodulation is growing rapidly, with potential applications in non-invasive treatment of neurodegenerative disease and functional brain mapping spurring recent progress. However, little progress has been made in our understanding of the ultrasound-tissue interaction. The current study tackles this issue by measuring compound action potentials (CAPs) from an ex vivo crab walking leg nerve bundle and analysing the acoustic nature of successful stimuli using a passive cavitation detector (PCD)...
July 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716408/molecular-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-vigna-mungo-map-kinase-associated-with-mungbean-yellow-mosaic-india-virus-infection-and-deciphering-its-role-in-restricting-the-virus-multiplication
#16
Anju Patel, Nrisingha Dey, Shubho Chaudhuri, Amita Pal
Yellow Mosaic Disease caused by the begomovirus Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV) severely affects many economically important legumes. Recent investigations in Vigna mungo - MYMIV incompatible interaction identified a MAPK homolog in the defense signaling pathway. An important branch of immunity involves phosphorylation by evolutionary conserved Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) that transduce signals of pathogen invasion to downstream molecules leading to diverse immune responses. However, most of the knowledge of MAPKs is derived from model crops, and functions of these versatile kinases are little explored in legumes...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716297/on-the-relative-merits-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-pre-surgical-brain-mapping-new-tools-in-ablative-epilepsy-surgery
#17
Andrew C Papanicolaou, Roozbeh Rezaie, Shalini Narayana, Asim F Choudhri, Abbas-Babajani-Feremi, Frederick A Boop, James W Wheless
Cortical Stimulation Mapping (CSM) and the Wada procedure have long been considered the gold standard for localizing motor and language-related cortical areas and for determining the language and memory-dominant hemisphere, respectively. In recent years, however, non-invasive methods such as magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have emerged as promising alternatives to the aforementioned procedures, particularly in cases where the invasive localization of eloquent cortex has proven to be challenging...
July 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716125/mercury-alters-endogenous-phosphorylation-profiles-of-syk-in-murine-b-cells
#18
Joseph A Caruso, Nicholas Carruthers, Namhee Shin, Randal Gill, Paul M Stemmer, Allen Rosenspire
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence and animal models suggest that exposure to low and non-neurotoxic concentrations of mercury may contribute to idiosyncratic autoimmune disease. Since defects in function and signaling in B cells are often associated with autoimmunity, we investigated whether mercury exposure might alter B cell responsiveness to self-antigens by interfering with B cell receptor (BCR) signal transduction. In this study we determined the effects of mercury on the protein tyrosine kinase SYK, a critical protein involved in regulation of the BCR signaling pathway...
July 17, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716047/protocol-adherence-for-continuously-titrated-interventions-in-randomized-trials-an-overview-of-the-current-methodology-and-case-study
#19
F Lauzier, N K Adhikari, A Seely, K K Y Koo, E P Belley-Côté, K E A Burns, D J Cook, F D'Aragon, B Rochwerg, M E Kho, S J W Oczkowksi, E H Duan, M O Meade, A G Day, F Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: The standard definition for protocol adherence is the proportion of all scheduled doses that are delivered. In clinical research, this definition has several limitations when evaluating protocol adherence in trials that study interventions requiring continuous titration. DISCUSSION: Building upon a specific case study, we analyzed a recent trial of a continuously titrated intervention to assess the impact of different definitions of protocol deviations on the interpretation of protocol adherence...
July 17, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#20
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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