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Diabetic renal involvment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453877/significance-of-mitochondria-on-cardiometabolic-syndromes
#1
REVIEW
Nair Anupama, G Sindhu, K G Raghu
Metabolic syndromes (MS) are a cluster of disorders like obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS), a branch of MS, is a group of diseases affecting cardiovascular, renal, metabolic, prothrombotic and inflammatory abnormalities due to defects in energy metabolism. Since the emergence of molecular biology and the discovery of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA defect in the 1980s, research advances has revealed a number of common human disease involving mitochondrial dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450114/flavonoid-rich-extract-of-chromolaena-odorata-modulate-circulating-glp-1-in-wistar-rats-computational-evaluation-of-tgr5-involvement
#2
Olaposi Idowu Omotuyi, Oyekanmi Nash, Olumide Kayode Inyang, Joyce Ogidigo, Ojochenemi Enejoh, Okiemute Okpalefe, Tsuyoshi Hamada
Chromolaena odorata is a major bio-resource in folkloric treatment of diabetes. In the present study, its anti-diabetic component and underlying mechanism were investigated. A library containing 140 phytocompounds previously characterized from C. odorata was generated and docked (Autodock Vina) into homology models of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4, Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 (TGR5), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor, renal sodium dependent glucose transporter (SGLUT)-1/2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins 1&2...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446740/role-of-immune-cells-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#3
Xiaoqian Yang, Shan Mou
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is currently the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Traditionally, DKD is considered a disease which has nothing to do with the immune system, and the pathogenesis is mainly characterized to be metabolic disturbance. Recent growing evidence indicates immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms in the development and progression of DKD. This overview of macrophages, dendritic cells, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, neutrophils and mast cells is closely involved in the pathologic process of DKD, with more emphasis on the leucocyte accumulation and related molecular mechanisms...
February 13, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446734/cx3cl1-cx3cr1-axis-as-the-therapeutic-potential-in-renal-diseases-friend-or-foe
#4
Quan Zhuang, Ke Cheng, Yingzi Ming
The fractalkine receptor chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1) and its highly selective ligand CX3CL1 mediate chemotaxis and adhesion of immune cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of numerous inflammatory disorders and malignancies. The CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis has recently drawn attention as a potential therapeutic target because it is involved in the ontogeny, homeostatic migration, or colonization of renal phagocytes. We performed a Medline/PubMed search to detect recently published studies that explored the relationship between the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis and renal diseases and disorders, including diabetic nephropathy, renal allograft rejection, infectious renal diseases, IgA nephropathy, fibrotic kidney disease, lupus nephritis and glomerulonephritis, acute kidney injury and renal carcinoma...
February 13, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446731/vitamin-d-receptor-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-kidney-diseases
#5
Shikun Yang, Aimei Li, JianWen Wang, Jun Liu, Yachun Han, Wei Zhang, Yan Chun Li, Hao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Kidney disease is a serious problem that adversely affects human health, but critical knowledge is lacking on how to effectively treat established chronic kidney disease. Mounting evidence from animal and clinical studies has suggested that vitamin D receptor (VDR) activation has beneficial effects on various renal diseases. METHOD: A structured search of published research literature regarding VDR structure and function, VDR in various renal diseases (e...
February 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444469/mangiferin-prevents-diabetic-nephropathy-progression-and-protects-podocyte-function-via-autophagy-in-diabetic-rat-glomeruli
#6
Xiaodan Wang, Lihui Gao, Hua Lin, Jingling Song, Jinwen Wang, Yumin Yin, Jianghu Zhao, Xiangwei Xu, Zhenkun Li, Ling Li
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most severe microangiopathies of diabetes mellitus and is a leading cause of end stage renal disease. Numerous studies suggest that podocyte injury contributes to progressive proteinuria. Podocytes are highly specialized, terminally differentiated cells that are unable to proliferate, autophagy plays a key role in maintaining the structure and function of podocytes. Autophagy impairment is involved in the pathogenesis of podocyte loss, which leads to massive proteinuria in DN...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433676/bioactive-phytochemicals-that-regulate-the-cellular-processes-involved-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#7
REVIEW
Amna Parveen, Mirim Jin, Sun Yeou Kim
BACKGROUND: Owing to the multiple causative factors, the current advances in medication for diabetic nephropathy (DN) do not appear to have improved therapies for patients. Furthermore, use of multiple synthetic medications has shown various adverse effects and ultimately leads to deterioration of the condition. Medicinal plants and their bioactive constituents are considered to be safer and more effective than synthetic medicines against various chronic diseases. Therefore, the use of natural products in the management of DN has been suggested...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432373/contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-stemi-patients-with-and-without-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Tarun Jain, Sunay Shah, Jainil Shah, Gordon Jacobsen, Akshay Khandelwal
INTRODUCTION: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with adverse outcomes; however, there are scarce data comparing clinical outcomes of post-PCI CIN in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to assess the incidence, clinical predictors, and short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of post-PCI CIN in STEMI patients with and without CKD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study involving 554 patients who underwent PCI for STEMI from February 2010 to November 2013...
March 2018: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421776/association-between-matrix-metalloproteinase-3-activity-and-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-albuminuria-status-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Mina Amanzadeh, Ali Mota, Nosratollah Zarghami, Sima Abedi-Azar, Sina Abroon, Naghmeh Akbarian, Aynaz Mihanfar, Mohammad Rahmati-Yamchi
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic nephropathy is pictured as matrix accumulation and thickening of glomerular basal membrane. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are major proteases involved in extracellular matrix degradation. Moreover, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) primarily regulates plasmin dependent proteolysis. It plays a role in renal fibrosis causing extracellular matrix accumulation through inhibition of plasmin-dependent extracellular matrix degradation. This study investigated PAI-1 serum level and MMP-3 activity and their correlation with glomerular filtration rate in patients with diabetes mellitus...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420143/complications-of-intravitreous-injections-in-patients-with-diabetes
#10
Aditi Gupta, Jennifer K Sun, Paolo S Silva
Intravitreous injections are presently the second most frequently performed ophthalmic procedure and the most common vitreoretinal procedure. In diabetic patients, intravitreous injections are frequently performed for the treatment of center-involved diabetic macular edema, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, or other co-existing retinal vascular disease. Diabetic patients may be at higher risk of adverse events compared to non-diabetic individuals, given frequent systemic comorbidities, such as cardiovascular and renal disease and increased susceptibility to infection...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410351/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-cardio-metabolic-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Ishan Lakhani, Mengqi Gong, Wing Tak Wong, George Bazoukis, Konstantinos Lampropoulos, Sunny Hei Wong, William K K Wu, Martin C S Wong, Kwok-Leung Ong, Tong Liu, Gary Tse
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 is a signalling protein involved in cell differentiation, morphogenesis, proliferation and metabolism. Recent studies have associated increased levels of FGF21 in the development of cardiovascular diseases, whereas others have reported no significant associations. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the its value in predicting the risk of cardio-metabolic disorders and mortality. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched until 5th September 2017 for studies that evaluated the roles of FGF21 levels in cardio-metabolic disorders...
February 1, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398132/markers-of-early-progressive-renal-decline-in-type%C3%A2-2%C3%A2-diabetes-suggest-different-implications-for%C3%A2-etiological-studies-and-prognostic-tests%C3%A2-development
#12
Natalia Nowak, Jan Skupien, Adam M Smiles, Masayuki Yamanouchi, Monika A Niewczas, Andrzej T Galecki, Kevin L Duffin, Matthew D Breyer, Nick Pullen, Joseph V Bonventre, Andrzej S Krolewski
To identify determinants of early progressive renal decline in type 2 diabetes a range of markers was studied in 1032 patients enrolled into the 2nd Joslin Kidney Study. eGFR slopes estimated from serial measurements of serum creatinine during 5-12 years of follow-up were used to define early renal decline. At enrollment, all patients had normal eGFR, 58% had normoalbuminuria and 42% had albuminuria. Early renal decline developed in 6% and in 18% patients, respectively. As determinants, we examined baseline values of clinical characteristics, circulating markers: TNFR1, KIM-1, and FGF23, and urinary markers: albumin, KIM-1, NGAL, MCP-1, EGF (all normalized to urinary creatinine) and the ratio of EGF to MCP-1...
February 2, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397070/microrna-181a-downregulates-deptor-for-tgf%C3%AE-induced-glomerular-mesangial-cell-hypertrophy-and-matrix-protein-expression
#13
Soumya Maity, Amit Bera, Nandini Ghosh-Choudhury, Falguni Das, Balakuntalam S Kasinath, Goutam Ghosh Choudhury
TGFβ contributes to mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein increase in various kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy. Deptor is an mTOR-interacting protein and suppresses mTORC1 and mTORC2 activities. We have recently shown that TGFβ-induced inhibition of deptor increases the mTOR activity. The mechanism by which TGFβ regulates deptor expression is not known. Here we identify deptor as a target of the microRNA-181a. We show that in mesangial cells, TGFβ increases the expression of miR-181a to downregulate deptor...
January 31, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393043/new-determinants-for-gallstone-disease
#14
Daniel Mønsted Shabanzadeh
Gallstone disease is highly prevalent in Denmark and other countries of northern Europe, and cholecystectomy for the treatment of clinical gallstone disease is one the most frequently performed surgical procedures. Research efforts for the identification of mechanisms involved in gallstone formation have a long history and the most established include bile cholesterol saturation, gallbladder motor function, and the enterohepatic circulation of secondary bile salts produced by fecal microbiota. A small number of determinants that are believed to affect these mechanisms have been identified until now...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387348/age-induced-neuronal-cell-death-is-enhanced-in-g2019s-lrrk2-mutation-with-increased-rage-expression
#15
Hyun Jin Cho, Chengsong Xie, Huaibin Cai
Background: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations represent the most common genetic cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Especially, LRRK2 G2019S missense mutation has been identified as the most prevalent genetic cause in the late-onset PD. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are produced in high amounts in diabetes and diverse aging-related disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and neurological disease. AGEs trigger intracellular signaling pathway associated with oxidative stress and inflammation as well as cell death...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385703/cera-attenuates-kidney-fibrogenesis-in-the-db-db-mouse-by-influencing-the-renal-myofibroblast-generation
#16
Christin Fischer, Natalie Deininger, Gunter Wolf, Ivonne Loeffler
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a pivotal pathophysiological process in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Multiple profibrotic factors and cell types, including transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and interstitial myofibroblasts, respectively, are responsible for the accumulation of extracellular matrix in the kidney. Matrix-producing myofibroblasts can originate from different sources and different mechanisms are involved in the activation process of the myofibroblasts in the fibrotic kidney...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372448/new-therapeutic-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-hyperkalemia-in-patients-treated-with-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-inhibitors
#17
Juan Tamargo, Ricardo Caballero, Eva Delpón
Hyperkalemia (serum potassium > 5.5 mEq/L) is a common clinical problem in patients with chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes, and heart failure. It can result from increased K+ intake, impaired distribution between intracellular and extracellular spaces, and most frequently, decreased renal excretion. Patients at the highest risk of hyperkalemia are treated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASIs) as they improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes and are strongly recommended in clinical guidelines...
January 25, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367621/optineurin-mediated-mitophagy-protects-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-against-accelerated-senescence-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#18
Kehong Chen, Huanzi Dai, Junjie Yuan, Jia Chen, Lirong Lin, Weiwei Zhang, Limin Wang, Jianguo Zhang, Kailong Li, Yani He
Premature senescence is a key process in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Premature senescence of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) in DN may result from the accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Mitophagy is the principal process that eliminates damaged mitochondria through PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)-mediated recruitment of optineurin (OPTN) to mitochondria. We aimed to examine the involvement of OPTN in mitophagy regulation of cellular senescence in RTEC in the context of DN. In vitro, the expression of senescence markers P16, P21, DcR2, SA-β-gal, SAHF, and insufficient mitophagic degradation marker (mitochondrial P62) in mouse RTECs increased after culture in 30 mM high-glucose (HG) conditions for 48 h...
January 24, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362846/roles-of-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-human-diseases-from-diabetes-to-cancers-and-infection
#19
REVIEW
Udom Lao-On, Paul V Attwood, Sarawut Jitrapakdee
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC), an anaplerotic enzyme, plays an essential role in various cellular metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, de novo fatty acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis, and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Deregulation of PC expression or activity has long been known to be associated with metabolic syndrome in several rodent models. Accumulating data in the past decade clearly showed that deregulation of PC expression is associated with type 2 diabetes in humans, while targeted inhibition of PC expression in a mouse model reduced adiposity and improved insulin sensitivity in diet-induced type 2 diabetes...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344506/micrornas-in-renal-diseases-a-potential-novel-therapeutic-target
#20
Federica Petrillo, Anna Iervolino, Miriam Zacchia, Adelina Simeoni, Cristina Masella, Giovanna Capolongo, Alessandra Perna, Giovambattista Capasso, Francesco Trepiccione
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short noncoding RNAs that play important roles in posttranscriptional gene regulation. miRNAs inhibit target gene expression by blocking protein translation or by inducing mRNA degradation and therefore have the potential to modulate physiological and pathological processes. Summary: In the kidney, miRNAs play a role in the organogenesis and in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including renal carcinoma, diabetic nephropathy, cystogenesis, and glomerulopathies...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
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