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Diabetic renal involvment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025406/impact-of-empagliflozin-on-subclinical-left-ventricular-dysfunctions-and-on-the-mechanisms-involved-in-myocardial-disease-progression-in-type-2-diabetes-rationale-and-design-of-the-empa-heart-trial
#1
Andrea Natali, Lorenzo Nesti, Iacopo Fabiani, Enrico Calogero, Vitantonio Di Bello
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes patients. Unlike the other hypoglycemic drugs, SGLT2 inhibitors have shown potential benefits for reducing cardiovascular death and risk factors, aside from lowering plasma glucose levels. With this study we aim at determining whether the treatment with empagliflozin is associated with an improvement in LV functions in diabetic patients with asymptomatic LV dysfunction against Sitagliptin, which is presumably neutral on myocardial function...
October 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021363/novel-and-unexpected-functions-of-sglts
#2
REVIEW
Ernest M Wright, Chiara Ghezzi, Donald D F Loo
It has been 30 years since the intestinal sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 was cloned, and, in the intervening years, there have been many advances that have influenced physiology and medicine. Among the first was that SGLT1 is the founding member of the human gene family SLC5, containing 11 diverse transporters and a glucose sensor. Equally surprising was that SGLTs are members of a structural family of cotransporters and exchangers in different gene families. This led to the conclusion that these proteins operate by a mechanism where transport involves the opening and closing of external and internal gates...
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018299/provision-of-medication-therapy-management-by-pharmacists-to-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-federally-qualified-health-center
#3
Uche Anadu Ndefo, Aisha Morris Moultry, Portia N Davis, Raven Askew
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus is a complex condition for which pharmacists are well suited to improve patient outcomes by delivering medication therapy management (MTM) services. When diabetes is well controlled, patients can avoid its long-term complications, such as cardiovascular and renal diseases. This article describes an MTM pilot program that was implemented at a federally qualified health center (FQHC). METHODS: This program was implemented at three clinics involving patients with uncontrolled diabetes, defined as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) greater than 8%...
October 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993191/the-anti-aging-protein-klotho-is-induced-by-gaba-therapy-and-exerts-protective-and-stimulatory-effects-on-pancreatic-beta-cells
#4
Gérald J Prud'homme, Yelena Glinka, Merve Kurt, Wenjuan Liu, Qinghua Wang
Systemic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) therapy prevents or ameliorates type 1 diabetes (T1D), by suppressing autoimmune responses and stimulating pancreatic beta cells. In beta cells, it increases insulin secretion, prevents apoptosis, and induces regeneration. It is unclear how GABA mediates these effects. We hypothesized that Klotho is involved. It is a multi-functional protein expressed in the kidneys, brain, pancreatic beta cells, other tissues, and is cell-bound or soluble. Klotho knockout mice display accelerated aging, and in humans Klotho circulating levels decline with age, renal disease and diabetes...
October 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992172/points-to-consider-in-renal-involvement-in-systemic-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Felice Galluccio, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Daniel E Furst, Dinesh Khanna, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
This article discusses points to consider when undertaking a clinical trial to test therapy for renal involvement in SSc, not including scleroderma renal crisis. Double-blind, randomized controlled trials vs placebo or standard background therapy should be strongly considered. Inclusion criteria should consider a pre-specified range of renal functions or stratification of renal function. Gender and age limitations are probably not necessary. Concomitant medications including vasodilators, immunosuppressants and endothelin receptor antagonists and confounding illnesses such as diabetes, kidney stones, hypertension and heart failure need to be considered...
September 1, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978803/involvement-of-the-metabolic-sensor-gpr81-in-cardiovascular-control
#6
Kristina Wallenius, Pia Thalén, Jan-Arne Björkman, Petra Johannesson, John Wiseman, Gerhard Böttcher, Ola Fjellström, Nicholas D Oakes
GPR81 is a receptor for the metabolic intermediate lactate with an established role in regulating adipocyte lipolysis. Potentially novel GPR81 agonists were identified that suppressed fasting plasma free fatty acid levels in rodents and in addition improved insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance and diabetes. Unexpectedly, the agonists simultaneously induced hypertension in rodents, including wild-type, but not GPR81-deficient mice. Detailed cardiovascular studies in anesthetized dogs showed that the pressor effect was associated with heterogenous effects on vascular resistance among the measured tissues: increasing in the kidney while remaining unchanged in hindlimb and heart...
October 5, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974087/the-pathological-role-of-the-ubiquitination-pathway-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#7
Paola Pontrelli, Annarita Oranger, Mariagrazia Barozzino, Francesca Conserva, Massimo Papale, Loreto Gesualdo
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a chronic complication of type 2 diabetes and is the most frequent form of chronic kidney disease that can lead to end-stage renal disease. Different pathways, involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis and cell death, are responsible for the pathogenesis of DN and regulate the progression of the disease. Ubiquitination is a fundamental pathway in intracellular signaling whose role is emerging in the regulation of molecular processes responsible for several human diseases...
October 3, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974086/renal-disease-in-patients-with-celiac-disease-a-review
#8
Boonphiphop Boonpheng, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Karn Wijarnpreecha
Celiac disease, an inflammatory disease of small bowel caused by sensitivity to dietary gluten and related protein, affects approximately 0.5-1% of the population in the Western world. Extraintestinal symptoms and associated diseases are increasingly recognized including diabetes mellitus type 1, thyroid disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and ataxia. There have also been a number of reports of various types of renal involvement in patients with celiac disease including diabetes nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome related to malabsorption, oxalate nephropathy, and associations of celiac disease with chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease...
October 3, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962193/doxazosin-attenuates-renal-matrix-remodeling-mediated-by-anti-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptor-antibody-in-a-rat-model-of-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Lin-Shuang Zhao, Yan-Yan Lin, Yi Liu, Chun-Yan Xu, Ye Liu, Wei-Wei Bai, Xue-Ying Tan, De-Zhong Li, Jin-Ling Xu
Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Recent studies suggest that immunological mechanisms have a key role in the pathogenesis of DM, therefore these mechanisms may be important targets for diabetes therapy. The present study evaluated the effects of anti-α1-adrenergic receptor antibody (α1-R Ab) mediation and doxazosin treatment in a rat model of DM. It was observed that levels of 24-h urinary protein, serum creatinine and transforming growth factor-β1 in DM were significantly increased after α1-R Ab mediation (all P<0...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956324/treatment-with-allopurinol-is-associated-with-lower-risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-gout-a-retrospective-analysis-of-a-nested-cohort
#10
Fernando Perez-Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Gout is characterized by recurrent episodes of acute inflammation of joint structures, called gout flares, and flares are commonly treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The objective of the study was to evaluate risk factors associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) attributed to NSAIDs in a cohort of patients who were exposed to NSAIDs to treat gout flares prior to urate-lowering therapy. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a nested cohort of 983 gout patients in whom general variables (age, gender, renal function, ethanol intake, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, vascular events, diuretic use) and also variables related to gout and severity of gout (serum urate levels, number for flares per year, presence of tophi, joint distribution, X-ray involvement, previous urate-lowering therapy) were available for analysis...
September 27, 2017: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956034/metabolomics-reveal-mitochondrial-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-disorders-that-contribute-to-the-development-of-dkd-in-t2dm-patients
#11
Ling Li, Chengshi Wang, Hongliu Yang, Shuyun Liu, Yanrong Lu, Ping Fu, Jingping Liu
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of ESRD; however, early intervention can greatly prevent the progression of DKD; thus, sensitive biomarkers for DKD are still required. This study was aimed at the identification of potential biomarkers and revelation of underlying pathways in DKD patients by non-targeted metabolomics. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze urine obtained from the control and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and DKD patients, and the renal histological changes in DKD patients were assessed...
September 28, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955442/multicystic-dysplastic-kidney-a-new-association-of-wolcott-rallison-syndrome
#12
Asma Deeb, Faisal Al-Zidgali, Bibian N Ofoegbu
Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (WRS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the EIF2AK3 gene. It is characterized by permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus, skeletal dysplasia, liver impairment, neutropenia and renal dysfunction. Liver is the most commonly affected organ and liver failure is the commonest cause of death in this syndrome. The EIF2AK3 gene encodes a transmembrane protein PERK, which is important for the cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The absence of PERK activity reduces the ER's abilities to deal with stress, leading to cell death by apoptosis...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954992/nonconcordant-regulation-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-complexes-in-the-kidneys-of-5-6-nephrectomized-mice
#13
Yukie Nakashita, Tomoya Sano, Hiroaki Yoshioka, Tomoki Shimada, Ryotaro Hori, Makoto Usami, Yasuhiro Hamada
Hyperglycemia induces nonconcordant regulation of renal mitochondrial respiratory complexes, increases oxidative stress, and causes diabetic nephropathy. Hypertension is a complication associated with diabetes and involves glomerular hyperfiltration, the effects of which on mitochondrial respiratory complexes are not well understood. To investigate the effect of glomerular hyperfiltration on renal mitochondrial respiratory complexes, we used the 5/6 nephrectomized BKS. Cg-Dock7(m)+/+Lepr(db)/J, Dock7(m)+/+Lepr(db) mice (db/m-5/6Nx mice) as a model for glomerular hyperfiltration...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954981/pharmacological-approach-for-drug-repositioning-against-cardiorenal-diseases
#14
Yoshito Zamami, Masaki Imanishi, Kenshi Takechi, Keisuke Ishizawa
New applications of approved clinically used drugs are being discovered. Drug repositioning is a proposed strategy for developing these drugs as therapeutic agents for different diseases. Currently, approximately 2000 drugs are used in Japan. However, the compound targets and pathways involved in the pharmacological actions of 70-80% of these drugs have not been adequately clarified. Pharmacological examination of approved drugs is an important task in drug repositioning and vital for improving drug development efficiency...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951332/involvement-of-glucose-regulated-protein-78-and-spliced-x-box-binding-protein-1-in-the-protective-effect-of-gliclazide-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#15
Ying-Wen Zhang, Xiuping Wang, Xiaodan Ren, Manling Zhang
AIMS: To testing whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Investigated the effect of gliclazide, an oral antihyperglycemic agent, in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy and the underlying mechanism related to the ER stress response. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were divided into six groups. Diabetic nephropathy was induced in 30 rats with a streptozotocin (STZ) injection and high fat diet, which were then treated with saline, gliclazide or 4-PBA...
May 4, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943588/cardiac-calcified-amorphous-tumors-in-a-patient-with-hemodialysis-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#16
Satoshi Yoshimura, Hiroaki Kawano, Takako Minami, Akira Tsuneto, Tomoo Nakata, Seiji Koga, Satoshi Ikeda, Tomayoshi Hayashi, Koji Maemura
Calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) is a rare, non-neoplastic tumor involving calcium deposition in amorphous materials. Although its etiology is unknown, cases have frequently been reported in patients with hemodialysis for chronic kidney disease. We herein describe a case of cardiac CAT in a 64-year-old woman who had been on hemodialysis for diabetic nephropathy for 20 years, and the findings of the present patient, in association with the findings of previous case reports, suggest that end-stage renal disease seems to play an important role in the onset of CAT, especially in CAT formation at the mitral annulus, which appears to differ from CAT occurring at other sites...
September 25, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939941/kidney-involvement-in-psoriasis-a-case-control-study-from-china
#17
Fang Ren, Min Zhang, Liying Hao, Hong Sang
PURPOSE: Kidney involvement secondary to psoriasis is still a controversial issue. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of urinary abnormalities in psoriasis patients and to find out whether the abnormality is related to the severity of psoriasis. METHODS: Ninety-seven psoriasis patients (62 females, 35 males, mean age 35.74 ± 13.45 years) and ninety-six age- and gender-matched control subjects (58 males, 38 females, mean age 35.82 ± 13.48 years) without hypertension or diabetes were enrolled in this study...
September 22, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935026/marginal-structural-model-to-evaluate-the-joint-effect-of-socioeconomic-exposures-on-the-risk-of-developing-end-stage-renal-disease-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-longitudinal-study-based-on-data-from-the-swedish-childhood-diabetes-study-group
#18
Laura Pazzagli, Anna Möllsten, Ingeborg Waernbaum
PURPOSE: Diabetic nephropathy is a severe complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D) that may lead to renal failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) demanding dialysis and transplantation. The etiology of diabetic nephropathy is multifactorial and both genes and environmental and life style-related factors are involved. In this study, we investigate the effect of the socioeconomic exposures, unemployment and receiving income support, on the development of ESRD in T1D patients, using a marginal structural model (MSM) in comparison with standard logistic regression models...
August 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935003/spontaneous-infection-caused-by-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-kk-a-y-mice
#19
Tetsufumi Koga, Wataru Aoki, Miki Fujii, Kiyoshi Satou, Yoshinori Ikeda
During 2006 through 2012, spontaneous group B Streptococcus infections were reported in 22 female KK-Ay mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The affected mice were 5 to 27 wk old, and the cases involved various body sites, including cases of submandibular, caudal, and lumbar abscesses (n =18) or led to torticollis (n = 2), hydrocephalus (n = 1), or moribund clinical signs (n = 1). At necropsy, the mouse with hydrocephalus also demonstrated retained exudate in the uterus, and the moribund mouse showed renal inflammation...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930524/hypertension-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#20
Ivan Tasic, Dragan Lovic
Hypertension has  a central role in cardiometabolic disease and is usually associated with  metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Hyperinsulinemia may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk through its promotion of hypertension, which is possibly a result of chronic enhancement of sympathetic nervous system activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, modulating cation transport, or inducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
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