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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926743/antecedents-of-new-onset-major-depressive-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-at-high-familial-risk
#1
Frances Rice, Ruth Sellers, Gemma Hammerton, Olga Eyre, Rhys Bevan-Jones, Ajay K Thapar, Stephan Collishaw, Gordon T Harold, Anita Thapar
Importance: Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in individuals at high familial risk of depression and is associated with poor long-term mental health, social, and educational outcomes. Objectives: To examine the developmental pathways that lead to first-episode adolescent-onset MDD (incident cases) in those at high familial risk and to postulate a theoretically informed model that enables simultaneous testing of different pathways to incident adolescent-onset MDD composed of contributions from familial/genetic and social risk factors, as well as effects via specific clinical antecedents...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925172/effect-of-early-intervention-in-infants-at-very-high-risk-of-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Mijna Hadders-Algra, Anke G Boxum, Tjitske Hielkema, Elisa G Hamer
AIM: First, to systematically review the evidence on the effect of intervention applied during the first postnatal year in infants with or at very high risk of cerebral palsy (CP) on child and family outcome. Second, to assess whether type and dosing of intervention modify the effect of intervention. METHOD: Relevant literature was identified by searching the PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL databases. Selection criteria included infants younger than 12 months corrected age with or at very high risk of CP...
December 7, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924668/parenting-of-children-with-down-syndrome-compared-to-fragile-x-syndrome
#3
Audra Sterling, Steven F Warren
Children with Down syndrome (DS) and fragile X syndrome (FXS) struggle with language development. Parenting variables, such as responsiveness to children's communication attempts (Maternal Responsivity), and techniques used to support and teach appropriate behavior (Behavior Management) are known to have a significant impact on early child development. We examined these two aspects of parenting style via coded, videotaped parent-child interactions in two groups of participants matched on child age (2-5 years) and child expressive language level: mothers of children with DS and mothers of children with FXS...
December 7, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924477/assessing-anti-mir-pharmacology-with-mirna-polysome-shift-assay
#4
John R Androsavich
Target engagement measurements are critical for evaluating developmental drug candidates and their pharmacological activity. microRNA (miRNA) Polysome Shift Assay enables measurement of anti-miR drug target engagement (i.e. extent of miRNA inhibition) without the need to pre-identify or pre-validate downstream miRNA-regulated genes. This makes it useful for assessing anti-miR activity in target tissues or cells where biology of the inhibited miRNAs may not be well understood. In addition, miRNA Polysome Shift Assay can be multiplexed to assess inhibition of multiple miRNAs by a single anti-miR, thus guiding drug optimization for enhancing or avoiding these activities as desired...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923089/correlations-between-ratings-on-the-resident-annual-evaluation-summary-and-the-internal-medicine-milestones-and-association-with-abim-certification-examination-scores-among-us-internal-medicine-residents-2013-2014
#5
Karen E Hauer, Jonathan Vandergrift, Brian Hess, Rebecca S Lipner, Eric S Holmboe, Sarah Hood, William Iobst, Stanley J Hamstra, Furman S McDonald
Importance: US internal medicine residency programs are now required to rate residents using milestones. Evidence of validity of milestone ratings is needed. Objective: To compare ratings of internal medicine residents using the pre-2015 resident annual evaluation summary (RAES), a nondevelopmental rating scale, with developmental milestone ratings. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study of US internal medicine residency programs in the 2013-2014 academic year, including 21 284 internal medicine residents (7048 postgraduate-year 1 [PGY-1], 7233 PGY-2, and 7003 PGY-3)...
December 6, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922856/health-profiles-and-associated-service-use-among-adults-with-hiv-and-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities
#6
Yona Lunsky, Anna Durbin, Hilary K Brown, Symron Bansal, Marina Heifetz, Tony Antoniou
OBJECTIVE (S): Due to the commonly held notion that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have low risk of HIV acquisition, we compared the prevalence of HIV infection among people with and without IDD. We also examined health status and health service use among the HIV-infected group. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study using linked administrative health and social services databases. METHODS: We compared HIV prevalence between Ontario adults with IDD (n=64,008) and a 20% random sample of Ontario adults without IDD...
December 5, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922501/an-overview-of-congenital-myopathies
#7
Jean K Mah, Jeffrey T Joseph
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article uses a case-based approach to highlight the clinical features as well as recent advances in molecular genetics, muscle imaging, and pathophysiology of the congenital myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Congenital myopathies refer to a heterogeneous group of genetic neuromuscular disorders characterized by early-onset muscle weakness, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Congenital myopathies are further classified into core myopathies, centronuclear myopathies, nemaline myopathies, and congenital fiber-type disproportion based on the key pathologic features found in muscle biopsies...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921445/risk-of-neonatal-and-childhood-morbidity-among-preterm-infants-exposed-to-marijuana
#8
Sarah K Dotters-Katz, Marcela C Smid, Tracy A Manuck, Torri D Metz
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding the neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants exposed to marijuana (MJ) in-utero, particularly among preterm infants. We hypothesized that MJ-exposed preterm infants would have worse neonatal and childhood developmental outcomes compared to MJ-unexposed infants. METHODS: Secondary analysis of multicenter randomized-controlled trial of antenatal magnesium sulfate for prevention of cerebral palsy was conducted. Singleton non-anomalous infants delivered <35 weeks exposed to MJ in-utero were compared to MJ-unexposed...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#9
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920269/same-care-different-populations-return-to-learn-practices-following-concussion-in-primary-and-secondary-schools
#10
Laura S Blackwell, Anna F Robinson, Mark R Proctor, Alex M Taylor
The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of Massachusetts school nurses examining return-to-learn practices for children recovering from concussion in prekindergarten through high school. Regardless of school setting, all students received academic accommodations to support learning during recovery. School nurses perceived less benefit to prolonged cognitive rest (>4 days) for high school students relative to students in elementary school, but provided academic accommodations to them for comparatively longer periods of time (10-14 days vs 6-10 days)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919701/evaluation-of-the-neurotoxic-effects-of-chronic-embryonic-exposure-with-inorganic-mercury-on-motor-and-anxiety-like-responses-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#11
Noraini Abu Bakar, Nurul Syafida Asma' Mohd Sata, Nurul Farhana Ramlan, Wan Norhamidah Wan Ibrahim, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Mohammad Noor Amal Azmai
Chronic exposure to mercury (Hg) can lead to cumulative impairments in motor and cognitive functions including alteration in anxiety responses. Although several risk factors have been identified in recent year, little is known about the environmental factors that either due exposure toward low level of inorganic mercury that may led to the developmental disorders. The present study investigated the effects of embryonic exposure of mercury chloride on motor function and anxiety-like behavior. The embryo exposed to 6 different concentrations of HgCl2 (7...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919016/age-at-menarche-and-risk-of-developing-migraine-or-non-migraine-headaches-by-young-adulthood-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Nasim Maleki, Tobias Kurth, Alison E Field
IMPORTANCE: Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling primary headache disorder that is two to three times more prevalent in young women. Among females, there is a steep increase in incidence from puberty to young adulthood, but the mechanisms for the increase are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if age of menarche is a risk factor for developing migraine headache vs. non-migraine headache by young adulthood. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study, The Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), of adolescents who have been followed since 1996, when they were nine, to 14 years of age...
November 8, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918914/transformation-of-jaw-muscle-satellite-cells-to-cardiomyocytes
#13
Randall S Daughters, Susan A Keirstead, Jonathan M W Slack
In the embryo a population of progenitor cells known as the second heart field forms not just parts of the heart but also the jaw muscles of the head. Here we show that it is possible to take skeletal muscle satellite cells from jaw muscles of the adult mouse and to direct their differentiation to become heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). This is done by exposing the cells to extracellular factors similar to those which heart progenitors would experience during normal embryonic development. By contrast, cardiac differentiation does not occur at all from satellite cells isolated from trunk and limb muscles, which originate from the somites of the embryo...
December 2, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917704/parent-child-interaction-in-motor-speech-therapy
#14
Aravind Kumar Namasivayam, Vibhuti Jethava, Margit Pukonen, Anna Huynh, Debra Goshulak, Robert Kroll, Pascal van Lieshout
PURPOSE: This study measures the reliability and sensitivity of a modified Parent-Child Interaction Observation scale (PCIOs) used to monitor the quality of parent-child interaction. The scale is part of a home-training program employed with direct motor speech intervention for children with speech sound disorders. METHOD: Eighty-four preschool age children with speech sound disorders were provided either high- (2×/week/10 weeks) or low-intensity (1×/week/10 weeks) motor speech intervention...
December 5, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917307/clinical-and-cost-impact-analysis-of-a-novel-prognostic-test-for-early-detection-of-preterm-birth
#15
Aaron B Caughey, John A F Zupancic, James M Greenberg, Susan S Garfield, Stephen F Thung, Jay D Iams
Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impact to the U.S. health care system by adopting a novel test that identifies women at risk for spontaneous preterm birth. Methods A decision-analytic model was developed to assess clinical and cost outcomes over a 1-year period. The use of a prognostic test to predict spontaneous preterm birth in a hypothetical population of women reflective of the U.S. population (predictive arm) was compared with the current baseline rate of spontaneous preterm birth and associated infant morbidity and mortality (baseline care arm)...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916884/a-broad-consideration-of-risk-factors-in-pediatric-chronic-pain-where-to-go-from-here
#16
REVIEW
Hannah N McKillop, Gerard A Banez
Pediatric chronic pain is a significant problem associated with substantial functional impairment. A variety of risk factors have been found to be associated with chronic pain in youth. The greatest amount of evidence appears to support that temperament, anxiety, depression, subjective experience of stress, passive coping strategies, sleep problems, other somatic-related problems, and parent and/or family factors are important variables. However, a great deal of this research focuses on a single risk factor or on multiple risk factors in isolation...
November 30, 2016: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916491/gene-expression-profiling-to-identify-the-toxicities-and-potentially-relevant-human-disease-outcomes-associated-with-environmental-heavy-metal-exposure
#17
Hesham M Korashy, Ibraheem M Attafi, Konrad S Famulski, Saleh A Bakheet, Mohammed M Hafez, Abdulaziz M S Alsaad, Abdul Rahman M Al-Ghadeer
Heavy metals are the most commonly encountered toxic substances that increase susceptibility to various diseases after prolonged exposure. We have previously shown that healthy volunteers living near a mining area had significant contamination with heavy metals associated with significant changes in the expression of some detoxifying genes, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and DNA repair genes. However, alterations of most of the molecular target genes associated with diseases are still unknown. Thus, the aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the gene expression profile and (b) identify the toxicities and potentially relevant human disease outcomes associated with long-term human exposure to environmental heavy metals in mining area using microarray analysis...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915436/bone-marrow-produces-sufficient-alloreactive-natural-killer-nk-cells-in-vivo-to-cure-mice-from-subcutaneously-and-intravascularly-injected-4t1-breast-cancer
#18
Michel van Gelder, Ariane Vanclée, Catharina H M J van Elssen, Pierre Hupperets, Lotte Wieten, Gerard M Bos
PURPOSE: Administration of 5 million alloreactive natural killer (NK) cells after low-dose chemo-irradiation cured mice of 4T1 breast cancer, supposedly dose dependent. We now explored the efficacy of bone marrow as alternative in vivo source of NK cells for anti-breast cancer treatment, as methods for in vitro clinical scale NK cell expansion are still in developmental phases. METHODS: Progression-free survival (PFS) after treatment with different doses of spleen-derived alloreactive NK cells to 4T1-bearing Balb/c mice was measured to determine a dose-response relation...
December 3, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913289/damage-repair-and-regeneration-in-insect-cuticle-the-story-so-far-and-possibilities-for-the-future
#19
REVIEW
Eoin Parle, Jan-Henning Dirks, David Taylor
The exoskeleton of an insect can contain countless specializations across an individual, across developmental stages, and across the class Insecta. Hence, the exoskeleton's building material cuticle must perform a vast variety of functions. Cuticle displays a wide range of material properties which are determined by several known factors: the amount and orientation of the chitin fibres, the constituents and degree of cross-linking and hydration of the protein matrix, the relative amounts of exo- and endocuticle, and the shape of the structures themselves...
November 29, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913098/succinyl-coa-synthetase-sucla2-deficiency-in-two-siblings-with-impaired-activity-of-other-mitochondrial-oxidative-enzymes-in-skeletal-muscle-without-mitochondrial-dna-depletion
#20
Xiaoping Huang, Jirair K Bedoyan, Didem Demirbas, David J Harris, Alexander Miron, Simone Edelheit, George Grahame, Suzanne D DeBrosse, Lee-Jun Wong, Charles L Hoppel, Douglas S Kerr, Irina Anselm, Gerard T Berry
Mutations in SUCLA2 result in succinyl-CoA ligase (ATP-forming) or succinyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) (A-SCS) deficiency, a mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle disorder. The phenotype associated with this gene defect is largely encephalomyopathy. We describe two siblings compound heterozygous for SUCLA2 mutations, c.985A>G (p.M329V) and c.920C>T (p.A307V), with parents confirmed as carriers of each mutation. We developed a new LC-MS/MS based enzyme assay to demonstrate the decreased SCS activity in the siblings with this unique genotype...
November 12, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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