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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216593/biomethylation-and-volatilization-of-arsenic-by-model-protozoan-tetrahymena-pyriformis-under-different-phosphate-regimes
#1
Xixiang Yin, Lihong Wang, Zhanchao Zhang, Guolan Fan, Jianjun Liu, Kaizhen Sun, Guo-Xin Sun
Tetrahymena pyriformis, a freshwater protozoan, is common in aquatic systems. Arsenic detoxification through biotransformation by T. pyriformis is important but poorly understood. Arsenic metabolic pathways (including cellular accumulation, effluxion, biomethylation, and volatilization) of T. pyriformis were investigated at various phosphate concentrations. The total intracellular As concentration increased markedly as the external phosphate concentration decreased. The highest concentration was 168.8 mg·kg(-1) dry weight, after exposure to As(V) for 20 h...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212786/interplay-between-microbial-trait-dynamics-and-population-dynamics-revealed-by-the-combination-of-laboratory-experiment-and-computational-approaches
#2
Kenta Suzuki, Yuji Yamauchi, Takehito Yoshida
Filament formation is a common bacterial defense mechanism and possibly has a broad impact on microbial community dynamics. In order to examine the impact of filament formation on population dynamics, we developed an experimental system with a filamentous bacterium Flectobacillus sp. MWH38 and a ciliate predator Tetrahymena pyriformis. In this system, the effective defense of Flectobacillus resulted in the extinction of Tetrahymena by allowing almost no population growth. The result of a kairomone experiment suggested the existence of chemical signals for filament formation...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190732/the-macronuclear-genome-of-stentor-coeruleus-reveals-tiny-introns-in-a-giant-cell
#3
Mark M Slabodnick, J Graham Ruby, Sarah B Reiff, Estienne C Swart, Sager Gosai, Sudhakaran Prabakaran, Ewa Witkowska, Graham E Larue, Susan Fisher, Robert M Freeman, Jeremy Gunawardena, William Chu, Naomi A Stover, Brian D Gregory, Mariusz Nowacki, Joseph Derisi, Scott W Roy, Wallace F Marshall, Pranidhi Sood
The giant, single-celled organism Stentor coeruleus has a long history as a model system for studying pattern formation and regeneration in single cells. Stentor [1, 2] is a heterotrichous ciliate distantly related to familiar ciliate models, such as Tetrahymena or Paramecium. The primary distinguishing feature of Stentor is its incredible size: a single cell is 1 mm long. Early developmental biologists, including T.H. Morgan [3], were attracted to the system because of its regenerative abilities-if large portions of a cell are surgically removed, the remnant reorganizes into a normal-looking but smaller cell with correct proportionality [2, 3]...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182957/heteroagglomeration-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-with-clay-mineral-modulates-the-bioavailability-and-toxicity-of-nanoparticle-in-tetrahymena-pyriformis
#4
Govind Sharan Gupta, Violet Aileen Senapati, Alok Dhawan, Rishi Shanker
The extensive use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in cosmetics, sunscreens and healthcare products increases their release in the aquatic environment. The present study explored the possible interaction of ZnO NPs with montmorillonite clay minerals in aqueous conditions. An addition of ZnO NPs on clay suspension significantly (p<0.05) increases the hydrodymic size of clay particles from 1652±90nm to 2158±13nm due to heteroagglomeration. The electrokinetic measurements showed a significant (p<0...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153088/specific-and-efficient-regression-of-cancers-harboring-kras-mutation-by-targeted-rna-replacement
#5
Sung Jin Kim, Ju Hyun Kim, Bitna Yang, Jin-Sook Jeong, Seong-Wook Lee
Mutations in the KRAS gene, which persistently activate RAS function, are most frequently found in many types of human cancers. Here, we proposed and verified a new approach against cancers harboring the KRAS mutation with high cancer selectivity and efficient anti-cancer effects based on targeted RNA replacement. To this end, trans-splicing ribozymes from Tetrahymena group I intron were developed, which can specifically target and reprogram the mutant KRAS G12V transcript to induce therapeutic gene activity in cells...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135687/n-6-methyladenine-dna-modification-in-the-unicellular-eukaryotic-organism-tetrahymena-thermophila
#6
Yuanyuan Wang, Yalan Sheng, Yongqiang Liu, Bo Pan, Jie Huang, Alan Warren, Shan Gao
N(6)-methyladenine DNA (6mA) modification exists in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes in which it plays a crucial role in regulating numerous biological processes. In prokaryotes, 6mA is a marker to distinguish self from foreign DNA. Its role in eukaryotes, however, remains elusive. Ciliates were among the first eukaryotes reported to contain 6mA. In the model organism T. thermophila, cellular localization and features of 6mA have been extensively studied, especially in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) molecules. Here, we summarize the features and potential functions of 6mA in Tetrahymena thermophila and other ciliates, and the major findings and contributions of the Tetrahymena model in studies of 6mA methylation...
December 23, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123910/a-comparative-in-silico-analysis-of-autophagy-proteins-in-ciliates
#7
Erhan Aslan, Nurçin Küçükoğlu, Muhittin Arslanyolu
Autophagy serves as a turnover mechanism for the recycling of redundant and/or damaged macromolecules present in eukaryotic cells to re-use them under starvation conditions via a double-membrane structure known as autophagosome. A set of eukaryotic genes called autophagy-related genes (ATGs) orchestrate this highly elaborative process. The existence of these genes and the role they play in different eukaryotes are well-characterized. However, little is known of their role in some eukaryotes such as ciliates...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119814/structure-of-the-40s-ribosomal-subunit-of-plasmodium-falciparum-by-homology-and-de-novo-modeling
#8
Harrison Ndung'u Mwangi, Peter Wagacha, Peterson Mathenge, Fredrick Sijenyi, Francis Mulaa
Generation of three dimensional structures of macromolecules using in silico structural modeling technologies such as homology and de novo modeling has improved dramatically and increased the speed by which tertiary structures of organisms can be generated. This is especially the case if a homologous crystal structure is already available. High-resolution structures can be rapidly created using only their sequence information as input, a process that has the potential to increase the speed of scientific discovery...
January 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110783/identification-of-novel-virulence-related-genes-in-aeromonas-hydrophila-by-screening-transposon-mutants-in-a-tetrahymena-infection-model
#9
Maoda Pang, Xing Xie, Yuhao Dong, Hechao Du, Nannan Wang, Chengping Lu, Yongjie Liu
Outbreaks of motile Aeromonad septicemia (MAS) in fish caused by sequence type (ST) 251 Aeromonas hydrophila have become a prominent problem for the aquaculture industry. The pathogenesis of A. hydrophila is very complicated, and some virulence factors remain to be identified. In this study, to identify novel virulence-related factors, ST251 A. hydrophila strain NJ-35 was used as the parental strain to construct a mutant library comprising 1030 mutant strains by transposon insertion mutagenesis. Subsequently, 33 virulence-attenuated transposon insertion mutants were identified using Tetrahymena and zebrafish as model hosts in sequence...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100637/a-zip3-like-protein-plays-a-role-in-crossover-formation-in-the-sc-less-meiosis-of-the-protist-tetrahymena
#10
Anura Shodhan, Kensuke Kataoka, Kazufumi Mochizuki, Maria Novatchkova, Josef Loidl
When programmed meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) undergo recombinational repair, genetic crossovers (COs) may be formed. A certain level of these are required for the faithful segregation of chromosomes, but the majority of DSBs are processed toward a safer alternative, namely non-crossovers (NCOs), via non-reciprocal DNA exchange. At the crossroads between these two DSB fates are the Msh4-Msh5 (MutSγ) complex, which stabilizes CO-destined recombination intermediates, and members of the Zip3/RNF212 family of RING finger proteins, which in turn stabilize MutSγ...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096453/programmable-formation-of-catalytic-rna-triangles-and-squares-by-assembling-modular-rna-enzymes
#11
Hiroki Oi, Daisuke Fujita, Yuki Suzuki, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Masayuki Endo, Shigeyoshi Matsumura, Yoshiya Ikawa
RNA is a biopolymer that is attractive for constructing nanoscale objects with complex structures. Three-dimensional (3D) structures of naturally occurring RNAs often have modular architectures. The 3D structure of a group I (GI) ribozyme from Tetrahymena has a typical modular architecture, which can be separated into two structural modules (ΔP5 and P5abc). The fully active ribozyme can be reconstructed by assembling the two separately prepared modules through highly specific and strong assembly between ΔP5 ribozyme and P5abc RNA...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096444/single-molecule-fret-rosetta-reveals-rna-structural-rearrangements-during-human-telomerase-catalysis
#12
Joseph W Parks, Kalli Kappel, Rhiju Das, Michael D Stone
Maintenance of telomeres by telomerase permits continuous proliferation of rapidly dividing cells, including the majority of human cancers. Despite its direct biomedical significance, the architecture of the human telomerase complex remains unknown. Generating homogeneous telomerase samples has presented a significant barrier to developing improved structural models. Here we pair single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurements with Rosetta modeling to map the conformations of the essential telomerase RNA core domain within the active ribonucleoprotein...
February 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087716/the-piggybac-transposon-derived-genes-tpb1-and-tpb6-mediate-essential-transposon-like-excision-during-the-developmental-rearrangement-of-key-genes-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#13
Chao-Yin Cheng, Janet M Young, Chih-Yi Gabriela Lin, Ju-Lan Chao, Harmit S Malik, Meng-Chao Yao
Ciliated protozoans perform extreme forms of programmed somatic DNA rearrangement during development. The model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila removes 34% of its germline micronuclear genome from somatic macronuclei by excising thousands of internal eliminated sequences (IESs), a process that shares features with transposon excision. Indeed, piggyBac transposon-derived genes are necessary for genome-wide IES excision in both Tetrahymena (TPB2 [Tetrahymena piggyBac-like 2] and LIA5) and Paramecium tetraurelia (PiggyMac)...
December 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081509/in-silico-prediction-of-toxicity-of-phenols-to-tetrahymena-pyriformis-by-using-genetic-algorithm-and-decision-tree-based-modeling-approach
#14
Fatemeh Abbasitabar, Vahid Zare-Shahabadi
Risk assessment of chemicals is an important issue in environmental protection; however, there is a huge lack of experimental data for a large number of end-points. The experimental determination of toxicity of chemicals involves high costs and time-consuming process. In silico tools such as quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models, which are constructed on the basis of computational molecular descriptors, can predict missing data for toxic end-points for existing or even not yet synthesized chemicals...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069381/establishment-of-a-mutation-system-in-tetrahymena-outer-arm-dynein-and-p-loop-functions-of-the-alpha-heavy-chain-dyh3p
#15
Masaki Edamatsu
Axonemal dyneins are large AAA+ type motor proteins that exhibit unique motor properties during ciliary beating. This study established a mutation system for Tetrahymena outer arm dynein and characterized four nucleotide-binding loops (P-loops; P1-P4) in the alpha heavy chain (Dyh3p). Macronuclear transformation of the mutant DYH3 genes in DYH3-knockout (KO-DYH3) cells enabled P-loop mutations that abolish the ability of nucleotide binding to be stably maintained in the polyploid genome. This mutation system revealed that the P3 and P4 mutant dyneins rescued lethality in macronuclear KO-DYH3 cells and exhibited normal ciliary localization...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053272/trans-generational-function-of-tetrahymena-piwi-protein-twi8p-at-distinctive-non-coding-rna-loci
#16
Brian M Farley, Kathleen Collins
Trans-generational transmission of genome-regulatory epigenetic information can determine phenotypes in the progeny of sexual reproduction. Sequence specificity of trans-generational regulation derives from small RNAs assembled into Piwi-protein complexes. Known targets of trans-generational regulation are primarily transposons and transposon-derived sequences. Here, we extend the scope of Piwi-mediated trans-generational regulation to include unique non-coding RNA loci. Ciliates such as Tetrahymena have a phenotypically silent germline micronucleus and an expressed somatic macronucleus, which is differentiated anew from a germline genome copy in sexual reproduction...
January 4, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927907/in-memoriam-david-l-nanney-1925-2016-tetrahymena-genetics-founder-and-epigenetics-champion
#17
Eduardo Orias, Joseph Frankel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917301/separation-of-bacteria-protozoa-and-carbon-nanotubes-by-density-gradient-centrifugation
#18
Monika Mortimer, Elijah J Petersen, Bruce A Buchholz, Patricia A Holden
Sustainable production and use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled materials require efficient assessment of CNT environmental hazards, including the potential for CNT bioaccumulation and biomagnification in environmental receptors. Microbes, as abundant organisms responsible for nutrient cycling in soil and water, are important ecological receptors for studying the effects of CNTs. Quantification of CNT association with microbial cells requires efficient separation of CNT-associated cells from individually dispersed CNTs and CNT agglomerates...
2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909245/heterochromatin-aggregation-during-dna-elimination-in-tetrahymena-is-facilitated-by-a-prion-like-protein
#19
Kensuke Kataoka, Kazufumi Mochizuki
Regulated aggregations of prion and prion-like proteins play physiological roles in various biological processes. However, their structural roles in the nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we show that the prion-like protein Jub6p is involved in the regulation of chromatin structure in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila Jub6p forms SDS-resistant aggregates when it is ectopically expressed in vegetative cells and binds to RNA in vitro. Jub6p is a heterochromatin component and is important for the formation of heterochromatin bodies during the process of programmed DNA elimination...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905833/non-conventional-expression-systems-for-the-production-of-vaccine-proteins-and-immunotherapeutic-molecules
#20
Isabelle Legastelois, Sophie Buffin, Isabelle Peubez, Charlotte Mignon, Régis Sodoyer, Bettina Werle
The increasing demand for recombinant vaccine antigens or immunotherapeutic molecules calls into question the universality of current protein expression systems. Vaccine production can require relatively low amounts of expressed materials, but represents an extremely diverse category consisting of different target antigens with marked structural differences. In contrast, monoclonal antibodies, by definition share key molecular characteristics and require a production system capable of very large outputs, which drives the quest for highly efficient and cost-effective systems...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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