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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909245/heterochromatin-aggregation-during-dna-elimination-in-tetrahymena-is-facilitated-by-a-prion-like-protein
#1
Kensuke Kataoka, Kazufumi Mochizuki
Regulated aggregations of prion and prion-like proteins play physiological roles in various biological processes. However, their structural roles in the nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we show that the prion-like protein Jub6p is involved in the regulation of chromatin structure in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila Jub6p forms SDS-resistant aggregates when it is ectopically expressed in vegetative cells and binds to RNA in vitro. Jub6p is a heterochromatin component and is important for the formation of heterochromatin bodies during the process of programmed DNA elimination...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905833/non-conventional-expression-systems-for-the-production-of-vaccine-proteins-and-immunotherapeutic-molecules
#2
Isabelle Legastelois, Sophie Buffin, Isabelle Peubez, Charlotte Mignon, Régis Sodoyer, Bettina Werle
The increasing demand for recombinant vaccine antigens or immunotherapeutic molecules calls into question the universality of current protein expression systems. Vaccine production can require relatively low amounts of expressed materials, but represents an extremely diverse category consisting of different target antigens with marked structural differences. In contrast, monoclonal antibodies, by definition share key molecular characteristics and require a production system capable of very large outputs, which drives the quest for highly efficient and cost-effective systems...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904881/sfr1-a-tetrahymena-thermophila-sfi1-repeat-protein-modulates-the-production-of-cortical-row-basal-bodies
#3
Westley Heydeck, Alexander J Stemm-Wolf, Janin Knop, Christina C Poh, Mark Winey
Basal bodies are essential microtubule-based structures that template, anchor, and orient cilia at the cell surface. Cilia act primarily in the generation of directional fluid flow and sensory reception, both of which are utilized for a broad spectrum of cellular processes. Although basal bodies contribute to vital cell functions, the molecular contributors of their assembly and maintenance are poorly understood. Previous studies of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila revealed important roles for two centrin family members in basal body assembly, separation of new basal bodies, and stability...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899638/structure-and-folding-of-the-tetrahymena-telomerase-rna-pseudoknot
#4
Darian D Cash, Juli Feigon
Telomerase maintains telomere length at the ends of linear chromosomes using an integral telomerase RNA (TER) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). An essential part of TER is the template/pseudoknot domain (t/PK) which includes the template, for adding telomeric repeats, template boundary element (TBE), and pseudoknot, enclosed in a circle by stem 1. The Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme catalytic core (p65-TER-TERT) was recently modeled in our 9 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy map by fitting protein and TER domains, including a solution NMR structure of the Tetrahymena pseudoknot...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895115/shared-subunits-of-tetrahymena-telomerase-holoenzyme-and-replication-protein-a-have-different-functions-in-different-cellular-complexes
#5
Heather E Upton, Henry Chan, Juli Feigon, Kathleen Collins
In most eukaryotes, telomere maintenance relies on telomeric repeat synthesis by a reverse transcriptase named telomerase. To synthesize telomeric repeats, the catalytic subunit telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) uses the RNA subunit (TER) as a template. In the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila,the telomerase holoenzyme consists of TER, TERT, and eight additional proteins including the telomeric-repeat single-stranded DNA binding protein Teb1 and its heterotrimer partners Teb2 and Teb3. Teb1 is paralogous to the large subunit of the general single-stranded DNA binding heterotrimer Replication Protein A (RPA)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892853/structure-of-the-germline-genome-of-tetrahymenathermophila-and-relationship-to-the-massively-rearranged-somatic-genome
#6
Eileen P Hamilton, Aurélie Kapusta, Piroska E Huvos, Shelby L Bidwell, Nikhat Zafar, Haibao Tang, Michalis Hadjithomas, Vivek Krishnakumar, Jonathan H Badger, Elisabet V Caler, Carsten Russ, Qiandong Zeng, Lin Fan, Joshua Z Levin, Terrance Shea, Sarah K Young, Ryan Hegarty, Riza Daza, Sharvari Gujja, Jennifer R Wortman, Bruce W Birren, Chad Nusbaum, Jainy Thomas, Clayton M Carey, Ellen J Pritham, Cédric Feschotte, Tomoko Noto, Kazufumi Mochizuki, Romeo Papazyan, Sean D Taverna, Paul H Dear, Donna M Cassidy-Hanley, Jie Xiong, Wei Miao, Eduardo Orias, Robert S Coyne
The germline genome of the binucleated ciliate Tetrahymenathermophila undergoes programmed chromosome breakage and massive DNA elimination to generate the somatic genome. Here we present a complete sequence assembly of the germline genome and analyze multiple features of its structure and its relationship to the somatic genome, shedding light on the mechanisms of genome rearrangement as well as the evolutionary history of this remarkable germline/soma differentiation. Our results strengthen the notion that a complex, dynamic, and ongoing interplay between mobile DNA elements and the host genome have shaped Tetrahymena chromosome structure, locally and globally...
November 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892792/e2fl1-is-a-meiosis-specific-transcription-factor-in-the-protist-tetrahymena-thermophila
#7
Jing Zhang, Miao Tian, Guan-Xiong Yan, Anura Shodhan, Wei Miao
Members of the E2F family of transcription factors have been reported to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication, and DNA repair in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, E2FL1, a meiosis-specific E2F transcription factor gene, was identified in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Loss of this gene resulted in meiotic arrest prior to anaphase I. The cytological experiments revealed that the meiotic homologous pairing was not affected in the absence of E2FL1, but the paired homologous chromosomes did not separate and assumed a peculiar tandem arrangement...
November 28, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869660/use-of-a-fluorescent-aptamer-rna-as-an-exonic-sequence-to-analyze-self-splicing-ability-of-agroup-i-intron-from-structured-rnas
#8
Airi Furukawa, Takahiro Tanaka, Hiroyuki Furuta, Shigeyoshi Matsumura, Yoshiya Ikawa
Group I self-splicing intron constitutes an important class of functional RNA molecules that can promote chemical transformation. Although the fundamental mechanism of the auto-excision from its precursor RNA has been established, convenient assay systems for its splicing activity are still useful for a further understanding of its detailed mechanism and of its application. Because some host RNA sequences, to which group I introns inserted form stable three-dimensional (3D) structures, the effects of the 3D structures of exonic elements on the splicing efficiency of group I introns are important but not a fully investigated issue...
November 17, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866614/in-vivo-synthesis-of-nano-selenium-by-tetrahymena-thermophila-sb210
#9
Yin-Hua Cui, Ling-Li Li, Nan-Qing Zhou, Jing-Hua Liu, Qing Huang, Hui-Juan Wang, Jie Tian, Han-Qing Yu
Nano-selenium has a great potential to be used in chemical, biological, medical and environmental fields. Biological methods for nano-selenium synthesis have attracted wide interests, because they can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure without complicated equipments. In this work, a protozoa, Tetrahymena thermophila (T. thermophila) SB210, was used to in vivo synthesize nano-selenium. The biosynthesized nano-selenium was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy...
December 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825025/modification-of-polychlorinated-phenols-and-evaluation-of-their-toxicity-biodegradation-and-bioconcentration-using-three-dimensional-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-models
#10
Lidan Tong, Lixin Guo, Xiaojun Lv, Yu Li
Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models were established by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). Experimental toxicity data in Poecilia reticulata (pLC50) and physico-chemical properties for 12 polychlorinated phenols were used as dependent and as independent variables, respectively. Among the 12 polychlorinated phenols, nine were randomly selected and used as a training set to construct the 3D-QSAR models through the SYBYL-X software to predict the pLC50 values of the remaining 8 polychlorinated phenols congeners, and the other three polychlorinated phenols were used as a test set to evaluate the 3D-QSAR models (the training set and test set were arranged randomly, shuffled 60 times)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806059/programmed-minichromosome-elimination-as-a-mechanism-for-somatic-genome-reduction-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#11
Chih-Yi Gabriela Lin, I-Ting Lin, Meng-Chao Yao
The maintenance of chromosome integrity is crucial for genetic stability. However, programmed chromosome fragmentations are known to occur in many organisms, and in the ciliate Tetrahymena the five germline chromosomes are fragmented into hundreds of minichromosomes during somatic nuclear differentiation. Here, we showed that there are different fates of these minichromosomes after chromosome breakage. Among the 326 somatic minichromosomes identified using genomic data, 50 are selectively eliminated from the mature somatic genome...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793833/drh1-a-p68-related-rna-helicase-is-required-for-chromosome-breakage-in-tetrahymena
#12
Stephen L McDaniel, Erica Zweifel, Peter K W Harris, Meng-Chao Yao, Eric S Cole, Douglas L Chalker
The p68 DEAD box helicases comprise a widely conserved protein family involved in a large range of biological processes including transcription, splicing, and translation. The genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila encodes two p68-like helicases, DRH1 and LIA2 We show that DRH1 is essential for growth and completion of development. In growing cells, Drh1p is excluded from the nucleus and accumulates near cortical basal bodies. In contrast, during sexual reproduction, this protein localizes to meiotic micronuclei, initially in punctate foci in regions where centromeres and telomeres are known to reside and later in post-zygotic differentiating somatic macronuclei...
October 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766953/impaired-telomere-maintenance-in-alazami-syndrome-patients-with-larp7-deficiency
#13
Brody Holohan, Wanil Kim, Tsung-Po Lai, Hirotoshi Hoshiyama, Ning Zhang, Anas M Alazami, Woodring E Wright, M Stephen Meyn, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Jerry W Shay
BACKGROUND: Loss of function in genes required for telomere maintenance result in disorders known as telomeropathies, which are characterized by a pattern of symptoms including generalized and specific lymphocytopenias as well as very short telomere length and disease anticipation. METHODS: Because human LARP7 is the most likely ortholog of the Tetrahymena p65 protein, which is required for telomerase activity in that organism, we investigated the effects of LARP7 silencing in human cells as well as in two distinct families with Alazami syndrome (loss of function of LARP7)...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761696/histone-methyltransferase-txr1-is-required-for-both-h3-and-h3-3-lysine-27-methylation-in-the-well-known-ciliated-protist-tetrahymena-thermophila
#14
Xiaolu Zhao, Yuanyuan Wang, Yurui Wang, Yifan Liu, Shan Gao
DNA replication elongation is tightly controlled by histone-modifying enzymes. Our previous studies showed that the histone methytransferase TXR1 (Tetrahymena Trithorax related protein 1) specifically catalyzes H3K27 monomethylation and affects DNA replication elongation in Tetrahymena thermophila. In this study, we investigated whether TXR1 has a substrate preference to the canonical H3 over the replacement variant H3.3. We demonstrated by histone mutagenesis that K27Q mutation in H3.3 further aggravated the replication stress phenotype of K27Q mutation in canonical H3, supporting H3...
October 17, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726198/regulation-of-katanin-activity-in-the-ciliate-tetrahymena-thermophila
#15
Ewa Waclawek, Ewa Joachimiak, Malgorzata Hanna Hall, Hanna Fabczak, Dorota Wloga
Katanin is a microtubule severing protein that functions as a heterodimer composed of an AAA domain catalytic subunit, p60, and a regulatory subunit, a WD40 repeat protein, p80. Katanin-dependent severing of microtubules is important for proper execution of key cellular activities including cell division, migration, and differentiation. Published data obtained in Caenorhabditis elegans, Xenopus and mammals indicate that katanin is regulated at multiple levels including transcription, posttranslational modifications (of both katanin and microtubules) and degradation...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718572/amino-acid-specific-effects-on-rna-tertiary-interactions-single-molecule-kinetic-and-thermodynamic-studies
#16
Abhigyan Sengupta, Hsuan-Lei Sung, David J Nesbitt
In light of the current models for an early RNA-based universe, the potential influence of simple amino acids on tertiary folding of ribozymal RNA into biochemically competent structures is speculated to be of significant evolutionary importance. In the present work, the folding-unfolding kinetics of a ubiquitous tertiary interaction motif, the GAAA tetraloop-tetraloop receptor (TL-TLR), is investigated by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy in the presence of natural amino acids both with (e...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696651/an-evolutionary-balance-conservation-vs-innovation-in-ciliate-membrane-trafficking
#17
REVIEW
Sabrice Guerrier, Helmut Plattner, Elisabeth Richardson, Joel B Dacks, Aaron P Turkewitz
As most of eukaryotic diversity lies in single-celled protists, they represent unique opportunities to ask questions about the balance of conservation and innovation in cell biological features. Among free-living protists the ciliates offer ease of culturing, a rich array of experimental approaches, and versatile molecular tools, particularly in Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia. These attributes have been exploited by researchers to analyze a wealth of cellular structures in these large and complex cells...
October 3, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679474/hlarp7-c-terminal-domain-contains-an-xrrm-that-binds-the-3-hairpin-of-7sk-rna
#18
Catherine D Eichhorn, Rahul Chug, Juli Feigon
The 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) sequesters and inactivates the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), an essential eukaryotic mRNA transcription factor. The human La-related protein group 7 (hLARP7) is a constitutive component of the 7SK snRNP and localizes to the 3' terminus of the 7SK long noncoding RNA. hLARP7, and in particular its C-terminal domain (CTD), is essential for 7SK RNA stability and assembly with P-TEFb. The hLARP7 N-terminal La module binds and protects the 3' end from degradation, but the structural and functional role of its CTD is unclear...
November 16, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668720/prediction-of-acute-toxicity-of-phenol-derivatives-using-multiple-linear-regression-approach-for-tetrahymena-pyriformis-contaminant-identification-in-a-median-size-database
#19
Karel Dieguez-Santana, Hai Pham-The, Pedro J Villegas-Aguilar, Huong Le-Thi-Thu, Juan A Castillo-Garit, Gerardo M Casañola-Martin
In this article, the modeling of inhibitory grown activity against Tetrahymena pyriformis is described. The 0-2D Dragon descriptors based on structural aspects to gain some knowledge of factors influencing aquatic toxicity are mainly used. Besides, it is done by some enlarged data of phenol derivatives described for the first time and composed of 358 chemicals. It overcomes the previous datasets with about one hundred compounds. Moreover, the results of the model evaluation by the parameters in the training, prediction and validation give adequate results comparable with those of the previous works...
December 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666582/introducing-the-concept-of-biocatalysis-in-the-classroom-the-conversion-of-cholesterol-to-provitamin-d3
#20
Belén M De Luca, Clara B Nudel, Rodrigo H Gonzalez, Alejandro D Nusblat
Biocatalysis is a fundamental concept in biotechnology. The topic integrates knowledge of several disciplines; therefore, it was included in the course "design and optimization of biological systems" which is offered in the biochemistry curricula. We selected the ciliate tetrahymena as an example of a eukaryotic system with potential for the biotransformation of sterol metabolites of industrial interest; in particular, we focused on the conversion of cholesterol to provitamin D3. The students work with wild type and recombinant strains and learn how sterol pathways could be modified to obtain diverse sterol moieties...
September 26, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
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