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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715961/genetics-and-epigenetics-of-mating-type-determination-in-paramecium-and-tetrahymena
#1
Eduardo Orias, Deepankar Pratap Singh, Eric Meyer
While sex is an ancient and highly conserved eukaryotic invention, self-incompatibility systems such as mating types or sexes appear to be derived limitations that show considerable evolutionary plasticity. Within a single class of ciliates, Paramecium and Tetrahymena species have long been known to present a wide variety of mating type numbers and modes of inheritance, but only recently have the genes involved been identified. Although similar transmembrane proteins mediate self/nonself recognition in both ciliates, the mechanisms of mating type determination differ widely, ranging from Mendelian systems to developmental nuclear differentiation, either stochastic or maternally inherited...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702015/inhibition-of-the-rumen-ciliate-entodinium-caudatum-by-antibiotics
#2
Tansol Park, Tea Meulia, Jeffrey L Firkins, Zhongtang Yu
Axenic cultures of free-living aerobic ciliates, such as Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium aurelia, have been established and routinely used in laboratory research, greatly facilitating, or enabling characterization of their metabolism, physiology, and ecology. Ruminal protozoa are anaerobic ciliates, and they play important roles in feed digestion and fermentation. Although, repeatedly attempted, no laboratory-maintainable axenic culture of ruminal ciliates has been established. When axenic ciliate cultures are developed, antibiotics are required to eliminate the accompanying bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692189/diversification-of-hp1-like-chromo-domain-proteins-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#3
Emily A Wiley, Scott Horrell, Alyssa Yoshino, Cara Schornak, Claire Bagnani, Douglas Chalker
Proteins that possess a chromo domain are well known for their roles in heterochromatin assembly and maintenance. The Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) family, with a chromo domain and carboxy-terminal chromo shadow domain, targets heterochromatin through interaction with histone H3 methylated on lysine 9 (H3K9me2/3). The structural and functional diversity of these proteins observed in both fission yeast and metazoans correlate with chromatin specialization. To expand these studies, we examined chromo domain proteins in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, which has functionally diverse and developmentally-regulated heterochromatin domains...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685161/behavioral-effects-of-a-chemorepellent-receptor-knockout-mutation-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#4
Dianxiong Zou, Todd M Hennessey
A conditioned supernatant from Tetrahymena thermophila contains a powerful chemorepellent for wild-type cells, and a gene called G37 is required for this response. This is the first genomic identification of a chemorepellent receptor in any eukaryotic unicellular organism. This conditioned supernatant factor (CSF) is small (<1 kDa), and its repellent effect is resistant to boiling, protease treatment, and nuclease digestion. External BAPTA eliminated the CSF response, suggesting that Ca(2+) entry is required for the classical avoiding reactions (AR) used for chemorepulsion...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673471/unusual-features-of-non-dividing-somatic-macronuclei-in-the-ciliate-class-karyorelictea
#5
REVIEW
Ying Yan, Anna J Rogers, Feng Gao, Laura A Katz
Genome structure and nuclear organization have been intensely studied in model ciliates such as Tetrahymena and Paramecium, yet few studies have focused on nuclear features of other ciliate clades including the class Karyorelictea. In most ciliates, both the somatic macronuclei and germline micronuclei divide during cell division and macronuclear development only occurs after conjugation. However, the macronuclei of Karyorelictea are non-dividing (i.e. Div-) and develop anew from micronuclei during each asexual division...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661023/copper-induced-topology-switching-and-thrombin-inhibition-with-telomeric-dna-g-quadruplexes
#6
David Maximilian Engelhard, Julia Nowack, Guido H Clever
The topological diversity of DNA G-quadruplexes may play a crucial role in its biological function. Reversible control over a specific folding topology was achieved by the synthesis of a chiral, glycol-based pyridine ligand, and its fourfold incorporation into human telomeric DNA. Square-planar coordination to a CuII ion led to the formation of a highly stabilizing intramolecular metal-base tetrad, thus substituting one G-tetrad in the parent unimolecular G-quadruplex, as characterized by UV-Vis and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation experiments (ΔTm = +23 °C)...
June 29, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641232/on-the-aquatic-toxicity-of-substituted-phenols-to-chlorella-vulgaris-qstr-with-an-extended-novel-data-set-and-interspecies-models
#7
Gulcin Tugcu, M Doğa Ertürk, Melek Türker Saçan
This study provides for the first time the 96-h toxicity of 16 nitro- and methyl- substituted phenols to Chlorella vulgaris. Enabling the circulation of new ecotoxicity data has expanded the previously reported toxicity data set of 30 phenols to C. vulgaris by our laboratory. In this respect, high quality, single source algal toxicity data, generated in the same laboratory according to a REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of CHemicals) compatible endpoint, provided a sound basis to explore quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR), which can be used for regulatory purposes...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621664/post-meiotic-dna-double-strand-breaks-occur-in-tetrahymena-and-require-topoisomerase-ii-and-spo11
#8
Takahiko Akematsu, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Jyoti Garg, Jeffrey S Fillingham, Ronald E Pearlman, Josef Loidl
Based on observations of markers for DNA lesions, such as phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and open DNA ends, it has been suggested that post-meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (PM-DSBs) enable chromatin remodeling during animal spermiogenesis. However, the existence of PM-DSBs is unconfirmed, and the mechanism responsible for their formation is unclear. Here, we report the first direct observation of programmed PM-DSBs via the electrophoretic separation of DSB-generated DNA fragments in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila...
June 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595932/characterization-of-ciliate-diversity-in-bromeliad-tank-waters-from-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest
#9
Taiz L L Simão, Adriana Giongo Borges, Kelsey A Gano, Austin G Davis-Richardson, Christopher T Brown, Jennie R Fagen, Eric W Triplett, Raquel Dias, Claudio A Mondin, Renata M da Silva, Eduardo Eizirik, Laura R P Utz
Bromeliads are a diverse group of plants that includes many species whose individuals are capable of retaining water, forming habitats called phytotelmata. These habitats harbor a diversity of organisms including prokaryotes, unicellular eukaryotes, metazoans, and fungi. Among single-celled eukaryotic organisms, ciliates are generally the most abundant. In the present study, we used Illumina DNA sequencing to survey the eukaryotic communities, especially ciliates, inhabiting the tanks of the bromeliads Aechmea gamosepala and Vriesea platynema in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594294/ceo2-nanoparticles-alter-the-outcome-of-species-interactions
#10
Cheng Peng, Ying Chen, Zhichao Pu, Qing Zhao, Xin Tong, Yongsheng Chen, Lin Jiang
Despite considerable research on the environmental impacts of nanomaterials, we know little about how they influence interactions between species. Here, we investigated the acute (12 d) and chronic (64 d) toxicities of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) and bulk particles (0 ∼ 200 mg/L) to three ciliated protist species (Loxocephalus sp., Paramecium aurelia, and Tetrahymena pyriformis) in single-, bi-, and multispecies microcosms. The results show that CeO2 NPs strongly affected the interactions between ciliated protozoan species...
June 8, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562242/ift-trains-in-different-stages-of-assembly-queue-at-the-ciliary-base-for-consecutive-release-into-the-cilium
#11
Jenna L Wingfield, Ilaria Mengoni, Heather Bomberger, Yu-Yang Jiang, Jonathon D Walsh, Jason M Brown, Tyler Picariello, Deborah A Cochran, Bing Zhu, Junmin Pan, Jonathan Eggenschwiler, Jacek Gaertig, George B Witman, Peter Kner, Karl Lechtreck
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) trains, multimegadalton assemblies of IFT proteins and motors, traffic proteins in cilia. To study how trains assemble, we employed fluorescence protein-tagged IFT proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. IFT-A and motor proteins are recruited from the cell body to the basal body pool, assembled into trains, move through the cilium, and disperse back into the cell body. In contrast to this 'open' system, IFT-B proteins from retrograde trains reenter the pool and a portion is reused directly in anterograde trains indicating a 'semi-open' system...
May 31, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559213/phylogenomic-analysis-of-integral-diiron-membrane-histidine-motif-containing-enzymes-in-ciliates-provides-insights-into-their-function-and-evolutionary-relationships
#12
Nicolas G Cid, María L Sanchez Granel, María G Montes, María E Elguero, Clara B Nudel, Alejandro D Nusblat
The Integral Membrane Histidine Motif-containing Enzymes (IMHME) are a class of binuclear non-heme iron proteins widely distributed among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are characterized by a conserved tripartite motif consisting of eight to ten histidine residues. Their known function is the activation of the dioxygen moiety to serve as efficient catalysts for reactions of hydroxylation, desaturation or reduction. To date most studies on IMHME were carried out in metazoan, phototrophic or parasitic organisms, whereas genome-wide analysis in heterotrophic free living protozoa, such as the Ciliophora phylum, has not been undertaken...
May 27, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556398/heterodimerization-of-group-i-ribozymes-enabling-exon-recombination-through-a-pair-of-cooperative-trans-splicing-reactions
#13
Takahiro Tanaka, Yusuke Hirata, Yuto Tominaga, Hiroyuki Furuta, Shigeyoshi Matsumura, Yoshiya Ikawa
Group I self-splicing (GI) ribozymes are attractive tools for biotechnology and synthetic biology. Several trans-splicing and related reactions have been developed based on GI ribozymes to recombine their target mRNA sequences. By combining trans-splicing systems with rational modular engineering of GI ribozymes, more complex editing of target RNA sequences could be achieved. In this study, we developed a cooperative trans-splicing system based on dimeric GI ribozymes derived from the Tetrahymena group I intron ribozyme through rational modular engineering...
May 29, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509379/microbial-eukaryotes-that-lack-sterols
#14
Kiyotaka Takishita, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Goro Tanifuji, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Katsunori Fujikura, Andrew J Roger
It is widely held that sterols are key cyclic triterpenoid lipids in eukaryotic cell membranes and are synthesized through oxygen-dependent multienzyme pathways. However, there are known exceptions-ciliated protozoans, such as Tetrahymena, along with diverse low-oxygen-adapted eukaryotes produce, instead of sterols, the cyclic triterpenoid lipid tetrahymanol that does not require molecular oxygen for its biosynthesis. Here, we report that a number of anaerobic microbial eukaryotes (protists) utilize neither sterols nor tetrahymanol in their membranes...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467816/prediction-of-the-aquatic-toxicity-of-aromatic-compounds-to-tetrahymena-pyriformis-through-support-vector-regression
#15
Qiang Su, Wencong Lu, Dongshu Du, Fuxue Chen, Bing Niu, Kuo-Chen Chou
Toxicity evaluation is an extremely important process during drug development. It is usually initiated by experiments on animals, which is time-consuming and costly. To speed up such a process, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study was performed to develop a computational model for correlating the structures of 581 aromatic compounds with their aquatic toxicity to tetrahymena pyriformis. A set of 68 molecular descriptors derived solely from the structures of the aromatic compounds were calculated based on Gaussian 03, HyperChem 7...
April 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413159/the-hippo-pathway-maintains-the-equatorial-division-plane-in-the-ciliate-tetrahymena
#16
Yu-Yang Jiang, Wolfgang Maier, Ralf Baumeister, Gregory Minevich, Ewa Joachimiak, Zheng Ruan, Natarajan Kannan, Diamond Clarke, Joseph Frankel, Jacek Gaertig
The mechanisms that govern pattern formation within the cell are poorly understood. Ciliates carry on their surface an elaborate pattern of cortical organelles that are arranged along the anteroposterior and circumferential axes by largely unknown mechanisms. Ciliates divide by tandem duplication: the cortex of the predivision cell is remodeled into two similarly sized and complete daughters. In the conditional cdaI-1 mutant of Tetrahymena thermophila, the division plane migrates from its initially correct equatorial position toward the cell's anterior, resulting in unequal cell division, and defects in nuclear divisions and cytokinesis...
June 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402567/nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay-in-tetrahymena-is-ejc-independent-and-requires-a-protozoa-specific-nuclease
#17
Miao Tian, Wentao Yang, Jing Zhang, Huai Dang, Xingyi Lu, Chengjie Fu, Wei Miao
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is essential for removing premature termination codon-containing transcripts from cells. Studying the NMD pathway in model organisms can help to elucidate the NMD mechanism in humans and improve our understanding of how this biologically important process has evolved. Ciliates are among the earliest branching eukaryotes; their NMD mechanism is poorly understood and may be primordial. We demonstrate that highly conserved Upf proteins (Upf1a, Upf2 and Upf3) are involved in the NMD pathway of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila...
April 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398483/function-of-nuclear-membrane-proteins-in-shaping-the-nuclear-envelope-integrity-during-closed-mitosis
#18
Hui-Ju Yang, Masaaki Iwamoto, Yasushi Hiraoka, Tokuko Haraguchi
The nuclear envelope (NE) not only protects the genome from being directly accessed by detrimental agents but also regulates genome organization. Breaches in NE integrity threaten genome stability and impede cellular function. Nonetheless, the NE constantly remodels, and NE integrity is endangered in dividing or differentiating cells. Specifically, in unicellular eukaryotes undergoing closed mitosis, the NE expands instead of breaking down during chromosome segregation. The newly assembling nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) penetrate the existing NE in interphase...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386019/compositionally-distinct-nuclear-pore-complexes-of-functionally-distinct-dimorphic-nuclei-in-the-ciliate-tetrahymena
#19
Masaaki Iwamoto, Hiroko Osakada, Chie Mori, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Koji Nagao, Chikashi Obuse, Yasushi Hiraoka, Tokuko Haraguchi
The nuclear pore complex (NPC), a gateway for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, is composed of ∼30 different proteins called nucleoporins. It remains unknown whether the NPCs within a species are homogeneous or vary depending on the cell type or physiological condition. Here, we present evidence for compositionally distinct NPCs that form within a single cell in a binucleated ciliate. In Tetrahymena thermophila, each cell contains both a transcriptionally active macronucleus (MAC) and a germline micronucleus (MIC)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381425/an-endosomal-syntaxin-and-the-ap-3-complex-are-required-for-formation-and-maturation-of-candidate-lysosome-related-secretory-organelles-mucocysts-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#20
Harsimran Kaur, Daniela Sparvoli, Hiroko Osakada, Masaaki Iwamoto, Tokuko Haraguchi, Aaron P Turkewitz
The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila synthesizes large secretory vesicles called mucocysts. Mucocyst biosynthesis shares features with dense core granules (DCGs) in animal cells, including proteolytic processing of cargo proteins during maturation. However, other molecular features have suggested relatedness to lysosome-related organelles (LROs). LROs, which include diverse organelles in animals, are formed via convergence of secretory and endocytic trafficking. Here we analyzed Tetrahymena syntaxin 7-like 1 (Stx7l1p), a Qa-SNARE whose homologues in other lineages are linked with vacuoles/LROs...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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