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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936424/boar-taint-meat-quality-and-fail-rate-in-entire-male-pigs-and-male-pigs-immunized-against-gonadotrophin-releasing-factor-as-related-to-body-weight-and-feeding-regime
#1
K L Moore, B P Mullan, F R Dunshea
The objective of this experiment was to compare the pork quality of entire male pigs and pigs immunized against GnRF (IC males) at both light (64.8kg) and heavy (106kg) liveweights and two feeding regimes (restricted at 2.5 times maintenance and ad libitum). There was no difference in objective measurements (P>0.05) or eating pork quality (P>0.1) between entire male and IC males. Fail rates were reduced by 9.1% and 12% for pork from IC males for quality grade (P=0.007) and re-purchase intention (P=0.001), respectively, compared to pork from entire males...
December 2, 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936208/developmental-stage-muscle-and-genetic-type-modify-muscle-transcriptome-in-pigs-effects-on-gene-expression-and-regulatory-factors-involved-in-growth-and-metabolism
#2
Miriam Ayuso, Almudena Fernández, Yolanda Núñez, Rita Benítez, Beatriz Isabel, Ana I Fernández, Ana I Rey, Antonio González-Bulnes, Juan F Medrano, Ángela Cánovas, Clemente J López-Bote, Cristina Óvilo
Iberian pig production includes purebred (IB) and Duroc-crossbred (IBxDU) pigs, which show important differences in growth, fattening and tissue composition. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of genetic type and muscle (Longissimus dorsi (LD) vs Biceps femoris (BF)) on gene expression and transcriptional regulation at two developmental stages. Nine IB and 10 IBxDU piglets were slaughtered at birth, and seven IB and 10 IBxDU at four months of age (growing period). Carcass traits and LD intramuscular fat (IMF) content were measured...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936190/two-isoforms-of-yersinia-pestis-plasminogen-activator-pla-intraspecies-distribution-intrinsic-disorder-propensity-and-contribution-to-virulence
#3
Svetlana V Dentovskaya, Mikhail E Platonov, Tat'yana E Svetoch, Pavel Kh Kopylov, Tat'yana I Kombarova, Sergey A Ivanov, Rima Z Shaikhutdinova, Lyubov' V Kolombet, Sadhana Chauhan, Vitaly G Ablamunits, Vladimir L Motin, Vladimir N Uversky, Andrey P Anisimov
It has been shown previously that several endemic Y. pestis isolates with limited virulence contained the I259 isoform of the outer membrane protease Pla, while the epidemic highly virulent strains possessed only the T259 Pla isoform. Our sequence analysis of the pla gene from 118 Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains revealed that the I259 isoform was present exclusively in the endemic strains providing a convictive evidence of more ancestral origin of this isoform. Analysis of the effects of the I259T polymorphism on the intrinsic disorder propensity of Pla revealed that the I259T mutation slightly increases the intrinsic disorder propensity of the C-terminal tail of Pla and makes this protein slightly more prone for disorder-based protein-protein interactions, suggesting that the T259 Pla could be functionally more active than the I259 Pla...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936165/enzymatically-modified-starch-favorably-modulated-intestinal-transit-time-and-hindgut-fermentation-in-growing-pigs
#4
M A Newman, Q Zebeli, K Velde, D Grüll, T Molnar, W Kandler, B U Metzler-Zebeli
Aside from being used as stabilizing agents in many processed foods, chemically modified starches may act as functional dietary ingredients. Therefore, development of chemically modified starches that are less digestible in the upper intestinal segments and promote fermentation in the hindgut receives considerable attention. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on nutrient flow, passage rate, and bacterial activity at ileal and post-ileal level. Eight ileal-cannulated growing pigs were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy cornstarch as control) in a cross-over design for 10 d, followed by a 4-d collection of feces and 2-d collection of ileal digesta...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936142/gene-co-expression-network-analysis-unraveling-transcriptional-regulation-of-high-altitude-adaptation-of-tibetan-pig
#5
Cunling Jia, Xiaoyan Kong, James E Koltes, Xiao Gou, Shuli Yang, Dawei Yan, Shaoxiong Lu, Zehui Wei
Tibetan pigs have survived at high altitude for millennia and they have a suite of adaptive features to tolerate the hypoxic environment. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of hypoxia-adaptive phenotypes have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we analyzed differentially expressed genes (DEGs), biological pathways and constructed co-expression regulation networks using whole-transcriptome microarrays from lung tissues of Tibetan and Duroc pigs both at high and low altitude...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936087/detection-of-placental-proteomes-at-different-uterine-positions-in-large-white-and-meishan-gilts-on-gestational-day-90
#6
Long Che, Mengmeng Xu, Zhenguo Yang, Shengyu Xu, Lianqiang Che, Yan Lin, Zhengfeng Fang, Bin Feng, Jian Li, Daiwen Chen, De Wu
Within-litter uniformity in pigs is a major factor affecting piglet survival and growth performance. We know that Meishan (MS) gilts have higher piglet survival rate than Large White (LW) gilts because their foetal weight is less varied. To understand the molecular basis for placental nutritional transport during the late stages of gestation in LW and MS, we employed the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) method to investigate alterations in the placental proteomes of LW and MS gilts on gestational day 90...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936019/ultrasensitive-detection-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-from-fecal-samples-using-functionalized-nanoparticles
#7
Na Xing, Xiaoxiao Guan, Bin An, Beibei Cui, Zengguo Wang, Xiaoya Wang, Xiujuan Zhang, Qian Du, Xiaomin Zhao, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the main causative agent of porcine diarrhea, which has resulted in devastating damage to swine industry and become a perplexed global problem. PEDV infection causes lesions and clinical symptoms, and infected pigs often succumb to severe dehydration. If there is not a timely and effective method to control its infection, PEDV will spread rapidly across the whole swine farm. Therefore, preclinical identification of PEDV is of great significance for preventing the outbreak and spread of this disease...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935161/effects-of-noise-exposure-on-neonatal-auditory-brainstem-response-thresholds-in-pregnant-guinea-pigs-at-different-gestational-periods
#8
Chihiro Morimoto, Kazuhiko Nario, Tadashi Nishimura, Ryota Shimokura, Hiroshi Hosoi, Tadashi Kitahara
AIM: Noise exposure during pregnancy has been reported to cause fetal hearing impairment. However, little is known about the effects of noise exposure during various gestational stages on postnatal hearing. In the present study, we investigated the effects of noise exposure on auditory brainstem response (ABR) at the early, mid-, and late gestational periods in newborn guinea pigs. METHODS: Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to 4-kHz pure tone at a 120-dB sound pressure level for 4 h...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935110/involvement-of-opioid-receptors-in-inhibition-of-bladder-overactivity-induced-by-sacral-neuromodulation-in-pigs-a-possible-action-mechanism
#9
Xing Li, Limin Liao, Guoqing Chen, Zhaoxia Wang, Han Deng
AIMS: To determine the role of opioid receptors in the inhibition of bladder overactivity by sacral neuromodulation (SNM) in pigs, and explore the possible mechanism of SNM. METHODS: Both implant-driven stimulators of the S3 spinal nerve were implanted in seven pigs. Naloxone and tramadol were administered. Multiple cystometrograms were performed to determine the effects of SNM and opioid receptors on the micturition reflex by infusing normal saline (NS) or acetic acid (AA)...
December 9, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934767/generation-of-influenza-a-viruses-as-live-but-replication-incompetent-virus-vaccines
#10
Longlong Si, Huan Xu, Xueying Zhou, Ziwei Zhang, Zhenyu Tian, Yan Wang, Yiming Wu, Bo Zhang, Zhenlan Niu, Chuanling Zhang, Ge Fu, Sulong Xiao, Qing Xia, Lihe Zhang, Demin Zhou
The conversion of life-threatening viruses into live but avirulent vaccines represents a revolution in vaccinology. In a proof-of-principle study, we expanded the genetic code of the genome of influenza A virus via a transgenic cell line containing orthogonal translation machinery. This generated premature termination codon (PTC)-harboring viruses that exerted full infectivity but were replication-incompetent in conventional cells. Genome-wide optimization of the sites for incorporation of multiple PTCs resulted in highly reproductive and genetically stable progeny viruses in transgenic cells...
December 2, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934581/severe-acute-respiratory-infection-caused-by-swine-influenza-virus-in-a-child-necessitating-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo-the-netherlands-october-2016
#11
Pieter L A Fraaij, Enno D Wildschut, Robert J Houmes, Corien M Swaan, Christian J Hoebe, H C C de Jonge, Paulien Tolsma, Isme de Kleer, Suzan D Pas, Bas B Oude Munnink, My V T Phan, Theo M Bestebroer, R Shanty Roosenhoff, Jeroen J A van Kampen, Matthew Cotten, Nancy Beerens, Ron A M Fouchier, Johannes H van den Kerkhof, Aura Timen, Marion P Koopmans
In October 2016, a severe infection with swine influenza A(H1N1) virus of the Eurasian avian lineage occurred in a child with a previous history of eczema in the Netherlands, following contact to pigs. The patient's condition deteriorated rapidly and required life support through extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After start of oseltamivir treatment and removal of mucus plugs, the patient fully recovered. Monitoring of more than 80 close unprotected contacts revealed no secondary cases.
December 1, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934291/antiprotozoal-effects-of-the-tomato-tetrasaccharide-glycoalkaloid-tomatine-and-the-aglycone-tomatidine-on-mucosal-trichomonads
#12
Jenny Liu, Sierra Kanetake, Yun-Hsuan Wu, Christina Tam, Luisa W Cheng, Kirkwood M Land, Mendel Friedman
The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of the commercial tetrasaccharide tomato glycoalkaloid tomatine and the aglycone tomatidine on three mucosal pathogenic protozoa that are reported to infect humans, cattle, and cats, respectively: Trichomonas vaginalis strain G3, Tritrichomonas foetus strain D1, and Tritrichomonas foetus strain C1. A preliminary screen showed that tomatine at 100 μM concentration completely inhibited the growth of all three trichomonads. In contrast, the inhibition of all three pathogens by tomatidine was much lower, suggesting the involvement of the lycotetraose carbohydrate side chain in the mechanism of inhibition...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933548/metabolic-characterization-of-acutely-isolated-hippocampal-and-cerebral-cortical-slices-using-u-13-c-glucose-and-1-2-13-c-acetate-as-substrates
#13
Laura F McNair, Rasmus Kornfelt, Anne B Walls, Jens V Andersen, Blanca I Aldana, Jakob D Nissen, Arne Schousboe, Helle S Waagepetersen
Brain slice preparations from rats, mice and guinea pigs have served as important tools for studies of neurotransmission and metabolism. While hippocampal slices routinely have been used for electrophysiology studies, metabolic processes have mostly been studied in cerebral cortical slices. Few comparative characterization studies exist for acute hippocampal and cerebral cortical slices, hence, the aim of the current study was to characterize and compare glucose and acetate metabolism in these slice preparations in a newly established incubation design...
December 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933298/non-targeted-plasma-metabolome-of-early-and-late-lactation-gilts
#14
Lea A Rempel, Jeremy R Miles, William T Oliver, Corey D Broeckling
Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts) have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or late lactation), (2) degree of body condition loss after lactation (extreme or minimal), and (3) interactions; to potentially identify compounds or pathways that could aide in alleviating energetic demands of lactation in gilts...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933120/fast-and-selective-cell-isolation-from-blood-sample-by-microfiber-fabric-system-with-vacuum-aspiration
#15
Takayuki Ueki, Akifumi Yoshihara, Yuji Teramura, Madoka Takai
Since circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells which are found in the blood of cancer patients, CTCs are potential tumor markers, so a rapid isolation of CTCs is desirable for clinical applications. In this paper, a three-dimensional polystyrene (PS) microfiber fabric with vacuum aspiration system was developed for capturing CTCs within a short time. Various microfiber fabrics with different diameters were prepared by the electrospinning method and optimized for contact frequency with cells. Vacuum aspiration utilizing these microfiber fabrics could filter all cells within seconds without mechanical damage...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933049/high-diversity-of-genogroup-i-picobirnaviruses-in-mammals
#16
Patrick C Y Woo, Jade L L Teng, Ru Bai, Annette Y P Wong, Paolo Martelli, Suk-Wai Hui, Alan K L Tsang, Candy C Y Lau, Syed S Ahmed, Cyril C Y Yip, Garnet K Y Choi, Kenneth S M Li, Carol S F Lam, Susanna K P Lau, Kwok-Yung Yuen
In a molecular epidemiology study using 791 fecal samples collected from different terrestrial and marine mammals in Hong Kong, genogroup I picobirnaviruses (PBVs) were positive by RT-PCR targeting the partial RdRp gene in specimens from five cattle, six monkeys, 17 horses, nine pigs, one rabbit, one dog, and 12 California sea lions, with 11, 9, 23, 17, 1, 1, and 15 sequence types in the positive specimens from the corresponding animals, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PBV sequences from each kind of animal were widely distributed in the whole tree with high diversity, sharing 47...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932640/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-genotype-iii-japanese-encephalitis-virus-isolated-from-pigs-in-sichuan-china
#17
Yuancheng Zhou, Xiuping Zhuo, Jianqiang Ye, Yuhan Cai
A complete genomic sequence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was detected by viral metagenome analysis on aborted piglets. A phylogenetic analysis of this genome reveals that it is highly similar to previously reported India JEV genomes. The complete JEV sequence is 10,718 nucleotides long.
December 8, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932284/genetic-diversity-of-coronaviruses-in-bats-in-lao-pdr-and-cambodia
#18
Audrey Lacroix, Veasna Duong, Vibol Hul, Sorn San, Hull Davun, Keo Omaliss, Sokha Chea, Alexandre Hassanin, Watthana Theppangna, Soubanh Silithammavong, Kongsy Khammavong, Sinpakone Singhalath, Zoe Greatorex, Amanda E Fine, Tracey Goldstein, Sarah Olson, Damien O Joly, Lucy Keatts, Philippe Dussart, Aneta Afelt, Roger Frutos, Philippe Buchy
South-East Asia is a hot spot for emerging zoonotic diseases, and bats have been recognized as hosts for a large number of zoonotic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), responsible for acute respiratory syndrome outbreaks. Thus, it is important to expand our knowledge of the presence of viruses in bats which could represent a risk to humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been reported in bat species from Thailand, China, Indonesia, Taiwan and the Philippines. However no such work was conducted in Cambodia or Lao PDR...
December 5, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931933/diagnostic-evaluation-of-assays-for-detection-of-antibodies-against-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv-in-pigs-exposed-to-different-pedv-strains
#19
Priscilla F Gerber, Davide Lelli, Jianqiang Zhang, Bertel Strandbygaard, Ana Moreno, Antonio Lavazza, Simona Perulli, Anette Bøtner, Loic Comtet, Mickael Roche, Philippe Pourquier, Chong Wang, Tanja Opriessnig
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused economic losses in the Americas, Asia and Europe in recent years. Reliable serological assays are essential for epidemiological studies and vaccine evaluation. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect antibodies against different PEDV strains in pig serum. A total of 732 serum samples from North American or European pigs were tested. Samples included experimental samples from pigs infected with classical (G1a PEDV) or variant genogroup 1 PEDV (G1b PEDV), pandemic genogroup 2 PEDV (G2b PEDV) or non-infected controls...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931922/qualitative-analysis-of-the-risks-and-practices-associated-with-the-spread-of-african-swine-fever-within-the-smallholder-pig-value-chains-in-uganda
#20
Michel Dione, Emily Ouma, Felix Opio, Brian Kawuma, Danilo Pezo
A study was undertaken between September 2014 and December 2014 to assess the perceptions of smallholder pig value chain actors of the risks and practices associated with the spread of African swine fever (ASF) disease within the pig value chains. Data was collected from 136 value chain actors and 36 key informants through 17 group discussions and two key informant interview (KII) sessions respectively using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools. Results from this study revealed that according to value chain actors and stakeholders, the transporting, slaughtering, and collecting/bulking nodes represent the highest risk, followed by the inputs and services (feeds and drugs) supply nodes...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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