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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150903/phylogenetic-and-genetic-variation-analyses-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-isolated-from-china
#1
S Yang, S Yin, Y Shang, B Liu, L Yuan, M U Zafar Khan, X Liu, J Cai
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a causative agent of PCV2-associated disease, which is a growing problem in the swine industry worldwide. High nucleotide substitution occurs in the capsid (Cap) gene of PCV2, which allows the continuous evolution and the emergence of novel PCV2 strains. In this study, we sequenced 24 Chinese PCV2 strains collected from healthy and diseased pigs between 2013 and 2015. Analyses of the genome, Cap and phylogeny classified the 24 Chinese PCV2 strains as PCV-2a (four of 24), PCV-2b (five of 24) and PCV-2d (15 of 24)...
November 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150660/gene-expression-profile-changes-in-the-jejunum-of-weaned-piglets-after-oral-administration-of-lactobacillus-or-an-antibiotic
#2
Dongyan Zhang, Tingting Shang, Yan Huang, Sixin Wang, Hui Liu, Jing Wang, Yamin Wang, Haifeng Ji, Rijun Zhang
The small intestine plays an essential role in the health and well-being of animals. Previous studies have shown that Lactobacillus has a protective effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelium integrity and appropriate maturation of gut-associated tissues. Here, gene expression in jejunum tissue of weaned piglets was investigated by RNA-seq analysis after administration of sterile saline, Lactobacillus reuteri, or an antibiotic (chlortetracycline). In total, 401 and 293 genes were significantly regulated by chlortetracycline and L...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150491/hypothermia-modulates-arrhythmia-substrates-during-different-phases-of-resuscitation-from-ischemic-cardiac-arrest
#3
Joseph S Piktel, Aurelia Cheng, Matthew McCauley, Zack Dale, Michelle Nassal, Danielle Maleski, Gary Pawlowski, Kenneth R Laurita, Lance D Wilson
BACKGROUND: We designed an innovative porcine model of ischemia-induced arrest to determine dynamic arrhythmia substrates during focal infarct, global ischemia from ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF) and then reperfusion to determine the effect of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) on dynamic arrhythmia substrates and resuscitation outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anesthetized adult pigs underwent thoracotomy and regional plunge electrode placement in the left ventricle...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150243/effects-of-n-carbamylglutamate-and-l-arginine-on-steroidogenesis-and-gene-expression-in-bovine-granulosa-cells
#4
T Feng, L F Schütz, B C Morrell, M C Perego, L J Spicer
Feeding N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and arginine (ARG) improves reproductive measures in pigs and reduces systemic steroid levels in pregnant ewes. We hypothesized that the effects of NCG and ARG on reproduction were due to direct effects on the ovary. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of NCG and ARG on granulosa cell (GC) steroidogenesis, gene expression, and cell proliferation in vitro. GC were collected from small (1-5mm) bovine follicles and treated in vitro with NCG or ARG in serum-free medium for 24h to 48h...
November 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150045/spectrum-of-benzo-a-pyrene-induced-mutations-in-the-pig-a-gene-of-l5178ytk-cells-identified-with-next-generation-sequencing
#5
Javier Revollo, Yiying Wang, Page McKinzie, Azra Dad, Mason Pearce, Robert H Heflich, Vasily N Dobrovolsky
We used Sanger sequencing and next generation sequencing (NGS) for analysis of mutations in the endogenous X-linked Pig-a gene of clonally expanded L5178YTk(+/-) cells. The clones developed from single cells that were sorted on a flow cytometer based upon the expression pattern of the GPI-anchored marker, CD90, on their surface. CD90-deficient and CD90-proficient cells were sorted from untreated cultures and CD90-deficient cells were sorted from cultures treated with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Pig-a mutations were identified in all clones developed from CD90-deficient cells; no Pig-a mutations were found in clones of CD90-proficient cells...
December 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149984/corneal-xenotransplantation-from-pig-to-rhesus-monkey-no-signs-of-transmission-of-endogenous-porcine-retroviruses
#6
A Li, Y Zhang, Y Liu, Z Pan
BACKGROUND: Xenotransplantations of pig corneas have become an attractive alternative to human corneas. Such xenotransplantations carry the danger, however, of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs). Here, we investigated whether porcine corneas harbor viral DNA and RNA and whether transplantation to a nonhuman primate would lead to host PERV infection. METHODS: Monkey vein endothelial cells (MVECs) were inoculated with porcine aortic endothelial cell (PAEC) supernatants, and DNA and total RNA of MVECs were tested for PERV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149900/immunogenic-potential-of-a-salmonella-typhimurium-live-vaccine-for-pigs-against-monophasic-salmonella-typhimurium-dt-193
#7
Tobias Theuß, Elke Ueberham, Jörg Lehmann, Thomas Lindner, Sven Springer
BACKGROUND: Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mSTM) strains account for up to 8.6% of all human Salmonellosis cases. They have an increasing prevalence during recent years and several human cases with hospitalisation were reported. These strains are often isolated from pigs and pork - one primary source of human infection. A Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) live vaccine has been proven successful in controlling of STM infections in pigs for many years. The aim of this study was to test the immunogenicity of the vaccine in weaners during oral challenge with a virulent mSTM strain and to examine the kinetics of STM-specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies induced by vaccination and infection...
November 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149522/melatonin-improves-the-meiotic-maturation-of-porcine-oocytes-by-reducing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-during-in-vitro-maturation
#8
Hyo-Jin Park, Jae-Young Park, Jin-Woo Kim, Seul-Gi Yang, Jae-Min Jung, Min-Ji Kim, Man-Jong Kang, Young Ho Cho, Gabbine Wee, Hee-Young Yang, Bong-Seok Song, Sun-Uk Kim, Deog-Bon Koo
Under endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress conditions, the unfolded protein response (UPR) generates a defense mechanism in mammalian cells. The regulation of UPR signaling is important in oocyte maturation, embryo development, and female reproduction of pigs. Recent studies have shown that melatonin plays an important role as an anti-oxidant to improve pig oocyte maturation. However, there is no report on the role of melatonin in the regulation of UPR signaling and ER-stress during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149487/fabrication-of-chelate-setting-%C3%AE-tricalcium-phosphate-cement-using-sodium-citrate-and-sodium-alginate-as-mixing-solution-and-its-in-vivo-osteoconductivity
#9
Toshiisa Konishi, Poon Nian Lim, Michiyo Honda, Masaki Nagaya, Hiroshi Nagashima, Eng San Thian, Mamoru Aizawa
Moldable and injectable calcium-phosphate cements (CPCs) are material candidates for bone replacement applications. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of sodium alginate and sodium citrate additives to the liquid phase of CPC, in improving its handling property as well as mechanical strength. The use of these additives enhanced the handling property significantly, in terms of consistency as compared to CPC without additives due to the liquefying effect caused by the adsorption of citrate ions on the cement particles...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149296/comparative-transcriptomics-of-five-high-altitude-vertebrates-and-their-low-altitude-relatives
#10
Qianzi Tang, Yiren Gu, Xuming Zhou, Long Jin, Jiuqiang Guan, Rui Liu, Jing Li, Kereng Long, Shilin Tian, Tiandong Che, Silu Hu, Yan Liang, Xuemei Yang, Xuan Tao, Zhijun Zhong, Guosong Wang, Xiaohui Chen, Diyan Li, Jideng Ma, Xun Wang, Miaomiao Mai, An'an Jiang, Xiaolin Luo, Xuebin Lv, Vadim N Gladyshev, Xuewei Li, Mingzhou Li
Background: Species living at high altitude are subject to strong selective pressures due to inhospitable environments (e.g., hypoxia, low temperature, high solar radiation, and lack of biological production), making these species valuable models for comparative analyses of local adaptation. Studies that examined high-altitude adaptation identified a vast array of rapidly evolving genes that characterize the dramatic phenotypic changes in high-altitude animals. However, how high-altitude environment shapes gene expression programs remains largely unknown...
November 15, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148726/a-novel-approach-for-99mtc-labeling-of-red-blood-cells-evaluation-of-99mtc-4saboroxime-as-a-blood-pool-imaging-agent
#11
Min Liu, Zuoquan Zhao, Wei Fang, Shuang Liu
Angiography with radiolabeled red blood cells (RBCs) plays an important role in diagnosis and prognosis in vascular diseases. Both in vitro and in vivo methods have been developed for 99mTc-labeling of RBCs. However, these methods are complicated and lack of reproducibility. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop an alternative method for routine 99mTc-labeling of RBCs. In this report, we present a novel approach for 99mTc-labeling of RBCs. We prepared a new 99mTc(III) radiotracer [99mTcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2B-4AS] (99mTc-4ASboroxime: 4AS-B(OH)2 = 4-aminosulfonylphenyl)boronic acid, and CDOH2 = cyclohexanedione dioxime) in >95% radiochemical purity...
November 17, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148520/an-in-vitro-prototype-of-a-porcine-biomimetic-testis-like-cell-culture-system-a-novel-tool-for-the-study-of-reassembled-sertoli-and-leydig-cells
#12
Iva Arato, Giovanni Luca, Francesca Mancuso, Catia Bellucci, Cinzia Lilli, Mario Calvitti, Barbara C Hansen, Domenico Milardi, Giuseppe Grande, Riccardo Calafiore
At present, there is no reliable in vitro assembled prepubertal testis-like biomimetic organ culture system designed to assess the functional effects of human gonadotropins on Sertoli and Leydig cells. Spermatogenesis is regulated by endocrine, paracrine, and juxtacrine factors (testicular cross-talk), mainly orchestrated by gonadotropins such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) that play a pivotal role by stimulating Leydig and Sertoli cells, respectively. The aim of our study was to set up an in vitro prepubertal porcine bioengineered construct as a new model for experimental studies on reassembled Sertoli and Leydig cells...
November 10, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148391/outbreaks-of-neuroinvasive-astrovirus-associated-with-encephalomyelitis-weakness-and-paralysis-among-weaned-pigs-hungary
#13
Ákos Boros, Mihály Albert, Péter Pankovics, Hunor Bíró, Patricia A Pesavento, Tung Gia Phan, Eric Delwart, Gábor Reuter
A large, highly prolific swine farm in Hungary had a 2-year history of neurologic disease among newly weaned (25- to 35-day-old) pigs, with clinical signs of posterior paraplegia and a high mortality rate. Affected pigs that were necropsied had encephalomyelitis and neural necrosis. Porcine astrovirus type 3 was identified by reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization in brain and spinal cord samples in 6 animals from this farm. Among tissues tested by quantitative RT-PCR, the highest viral loads were detected in brain stem and spinal cord...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148386/human-case-of-streptococcus-suis-disease-ontario-canada
#14
Jeisa Gomez-Torres, Asim Nimir, James Cluett, Anita Aggarwal, Sameer Elsayed, Deirdre Soares, Sarah Teatero, Yan Chen, Marcelo Gottschalk, Nahuel Fittipaldi
We report a case of Streptococcus suis human disease in Ontario, Canada, caused by a serotype 2 strain genotypically similar to those commonly isolated from pigs in North America. Initially, the isolate was misidentified as a viridans group Streptococcus. Human S. suis infections may be underdiagnosed in North America.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148382/high-abundance-and-genetic-variability-of-atypical-porcine-pestivirus-in-pigs-from-europe-and-asia
#15
Alexander Postel, Denise Meyer, Gökce Nur Cagatay, Francesco Feliziani, Gian Mario De Mia, Nicole Fischer, Adam Grundhoff, Vesna Milićević, Ming-Chung Deng, Chia-Yi Chang, Hua-Ji Qiu, Yuan Sun, Michael Wendt, Paul Becher
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) was recently reported to be associated with neurologic disorders in newborn piglets. Investigations of 1,460 serum samples of apparently healthy pigs from different parts of Europe and Asia demonstrate a geographically wide distribution of genetically highly variable APPV and high APPV genome and antibody detection rates.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148380/high-rate-of-mcr-1-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-among-pigs-portugal
#16
Nicolas Kieffer, Marta Aires-de-Sousa, Patrice Nordmann, Laurent Poirel
The mcr-1 (mobile colistin resistance 1) gene, which encodes phosphoethanolamine transferase, has been recently identified as a source of acquired resistance to polymyxins in Escherichia coli. Using the SuperPolymyxin selective medium, we prospectively screened 100 pigs at 2 farms in Portugal for polymyxin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and recovered 98 plasmid-mediated MCR-1-producing isolates. Most isolates corresponded to nonclonally related E. coli belonging to many sequence types; we also found 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence types...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148270/a-g3p-13-porcine-group-a-rotavirus-emerging-in-china-is-a-reassortant-and-a-natural-recombinant-in-the-vp4-gene
#17
Z Jing, X Zhang, H Shi, J Chen, D Shi, H Dong, L Feng
Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are a major cause of serious intestinal disease in piglets. In this study, a novel pig strain was identified in a stool sample from China. The strain was designated RVA/Pig/China/LNCY/2016/G3P[13] and had a G3-P[13]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1 genome. The viral protein 7 (VP7) and non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) genes of RVA/Pig/China/LNCY/2016/G3P[13] were closely related to cogent genes of human RVAs, suggesting that a reassortment between pig and human strains had occurred. Recombination analysis showed that RVA/Pig/China/LNCY/2016/G3P[13] is a natural recombinant strain between the P[23] and P[7] RVA strains, and crossover points for recombination were found at nucleotides (nt) 456 and 804 of the VP4 gene...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148267/detection-of-teschovirus-type-13-from-two-swine-herds-exhibiting-nervous-clinical-signs-in-growing-pigs
#18
J Carnero, C Prieto, L Polledo, F J Martínez-Lobo
Recently, the number of clinical reports of growing pigs showing neurological signs possibly related to viral infections has increased. The objective of this report was to describe two outbreaks of an atypical condition observed in 6- to 7-week-old pigs with a morbidity of 20% and a fatality rate of 60% in two unrelated farms of the same company. During the acute phase of the disease, fever, sudden death, neurological signs, ear necrosis and occasional corneal opacity were observed. Histopathological examination revealed interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and lymphocytic vasculitis in different organs and mild polioencephalomyelitis suggesting a potential viral infection...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147092/meat-quality-traits-of-pigs-finished-on-food-waste
#19
Jihwan Choe, Knowledge M Moyo, Kibum Park, Jeongho Jeong, Haeun Kim, Yungsun Ryu, Jonggun Kim, Jun-Mo Kim, Sanghoon Lee, Gwang-Woong Go
Despite the benefits associated with the use of food waste (FW), there are mixed consumer perceptions regarding pork quality harvested from pigs fed FW. Twenty crossbred pigs were selected for the present study. Ten pigs were fed a conventional diet (control group), and the other 10 pigs were given a conventional diet and FW (FW group) during different growth stages. Meat quality in the FW group showed deteriorative qualities with higher lightness and yellowness synonymous to pale soft exudative meat. Drip loss in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p<0...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146772/cre-dependent-cas9-expressing-pigs-enable-efficient-in-vivo-genome-editing
#20
Kepin Wang, Qin Jin, Degong Ruan, Yi Yang, Qishuai Liu, Han Wu, Zhiwei Zhou, Zhen Ouyang, Zhaoming Liu, Yu Zhao, Bentian Zhao, Quanjun Zhang, Jiangyun Peng, Chengdan Lai, Nana Fan, Yanhui Liang, Ting Lan, Nan Li, Xiaoshan Wang, Xinlu Wang, Yong Fan, Pieter A Doevendans, Joost P G Sluijter, Pentao Liu, Xiaoping Li, Liangxue Lai
Despite being time-consuming and costly, generating genome-edited pigs holds great promise for agricultural, biomedical, and pharmaceutical applications. To further facilitate genome editing in pigs, we report here establishment of a pig line with Cre-inducible Cas9 expression that allows a variety of ex vivo genome editing in fibroblast cells including single- and multigene modifications, chromosome rearrangements, and efficient in vivo genetic modifications. As a proof of principle, we were able to simultaneously inactivate five tumor suppressor genes (TP53, PTEN, APC, BRCA1, and BRCA2) and activate one oncogene (KRAS), achieved by delivering Cre recombinase and sgRNAs, which caused rapid lung tumor development...
November 16, 2017: Genome Research
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