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Yang Wu, Guanyong Su, Song Tang, Wei Liu, Zhiyuan Ma, Xinmei Zheng, Hongling Liu, Hongxia Yu
Tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), a substitute for brominated flame retardants (FRs) that have been phased out of use, is frequently detected in aqueous environments. However, previous studies on its endocrine disrupting effects have mainly focused on terrestrial mammals. Here, to comprehensively evaluate the potential adverse effects of TCEP on aquatic vertebrates, zebrafish was used as a model to examine developmental phenotypes. The underlying mechanisms of toxicity of TCEP were further explored using in silico and in vivo approaches...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Eisuke Chikayama, Ryo Yamashina, Keiko Komatsu, Yuuri Tsuboi, Kenji Sakata, Jun Kikuchi, Yasuyo Sekiyama
Foods from agriculture and fishery products are processed using various technologies. Molecular mixture analysis during food processing has the potential to help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved, thus enabling better cooking of the analyzed foods. To date, there has been no web-based tool focusing on accumulating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra from various types of food processing. Therefore, we have developed a novel web-based tool, FoodPro, that includes a food NMR spectrum database and computes covariance and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness...
October 19, 2016: Metabolites
Chang-Jie Jiang, Shoji Sugano, Akito Kaga, Sung Shin Lee, Takuma Sugimoto, Mami Takahashi, Masao Ishimoto
Stem and root rot disease caused by Phytophthora sojae is devastating to soybean crops worldwide. Developing host resistance to P. sojae, considered the most effective and stable means to control this disease, is partly hampered by limited germplasm resources. In this study, we first modified conventional methods for a P. sojae-resistance assay to a simpler and more cost-effective version in which the P. sojae-inoculum was mixed into the soil and the resistance was evaluated by survival rate (%) of soybean seedlings...
October 24, 2016: Phytopathology
Naeim Bahrami, Dev Sharma, Scott Rosenthal, Elizabeth M Davenport, Jillian E Urban, Benjamin Wagner, Youngkyoo Jung, Christopher G Vaughan, Gerard A Gioia, Joel D Stitzel, Christopher T Whitlow, Joseph A Maldjian
Purpose To examine the effects of subconcussive impacts resulting from a single season of youth (age range, 8-13 years) football on changes in specific white matter (WM) tracts as detected with diffusion-tensor imaging in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussions. Materials and Methods Head impact data were recorded by using the Head Impact Telemetry system and quantified as the combined-probability risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWECP). Twenty-five male participants were evaluated for seasonal fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in specific WM tracts: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)...
October 24, 2016: Radiology
Samantha V Abram, Krista M Wisner, Jaclyn M Fox, Deanna M Barch, Lei Wang, John G Csernansky, Angus W MacDonald, Matthew J Smith
Impaired cognitive empathy is a core social cognitive deficit in schizophrenia associated with negative symptoms and social functioning. Cognitive empathy and negative symptoms have also been linked to medial prefrontal and temporal brain networks. While shared behavioral and neural underpinnings are suspected for cognitive empathy and negative symptoms, research is needed to test these hypotheses. In two studies, we evaluated whether resting-state functional connectivity between data-driven networks, or components (referred to as, inter-component connectivity), predicted cognitive empathy and experiential and expressive negative symptoms in schizophrenia subjects...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Satoru Noji, Noriyoshi Seki, Takaki Maeba, Takayuki Sakai, Eiichi Watanabe, Katsuya Maeda, Kyoko Fukushima, Toru Noguchi, Kazuya Ogawa, Yukiyo Toyonaga, Tamotsu Negoro, Hisashi Kawasaki, Makoto Shiozaki
In typical kinase inhibitor programs, a hinge binder showing best potency with preferential specificity is initially selected, followed by fine-tuning of the accompanying substituents on its core module. A shortcoming of this approach is that the exclusive focus on a single chemotype can endanger all the analogues in the series if a critical shortcoming is revealed. Thus, an early evaluation of structure-activity relationships (SARs) can mitigate unforeseen outcomes within a series of multiple compounds, although there have been very few examples to follow such a policy...
October 13, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Xingui Liu, Satheesh Gujarathi, Xuan Zhang, Lijian Shao, Marjan Boerma, Cesar M Compadre, Peter A Crooks, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Daohong Zhou, Guangrong Zheng
A group of side chain partially saturated tocotrienol analogues, namely tocoflexols, have been previously designed in an effort to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of tocotrienols. (2R,8'S,3'E,11'E)-δ-Tocodienol (1) was predicted to be a high value tocoflexol for further pharmacological evaluation. We now report here an efficient 8-step synthetic route to compound 1 utilizing naturally-occurring δ-tocotrienol as a starting material (24% total yield). The key step in the synthesis is oxidative olefin cleavage of δ-tocotrienol to afford the chroman core of 1 with retention of chirality at the C-2 stereocenter...
July 2016: Tetrahedron
Adam C Fisher, Sau L Lee, Daniel P Harris, Lucinda Buhse, Steven Kozlowski, Lawrence Yu, Michael Kopcha, Janet Woodcock
Failures surrounding pharmaceutical quality, particularly with respect to product manufacturing issues and facility remediation, account for the majority of drug shortages and product recalls in the United States. Major scientific advancements pressure established regulatory paradigms, especially in the areas of biosimilars, precision medicine, combination products, emerging manufacturing technologies, and the use of real-world data. Pharmaceutical manufacturing is increasingly globalized, prompting the need for more efficient surveillance systems for monitoring product quality...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Jing Wang, Binbin Sun, Lingling Tian, Xiaomin He, Qiang Gao, Tong Wu, Seeram Ramakrishna, Jinghao Zheng, Xiumei Mo
Tracheal injuries are one of major challenging issues in clinical medicine because of the poor intrinsic ability of tracheal cartilage for repair. Tissue engineering provides an alternative method for the treatment of tracheal defects by generating replacement tracheal structures. In this study, core-shell nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated to encapsulate bovine serum albumin & rhTGF-β3 (recombinant human transforming growth factor-β3) into the core of the nanofibers for tracheal cartilage regeneration. Characterization of the core-shell nanofibrous scaffold was carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and tensile mechanical test...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Lili Chen, Fangling Ji, Yongming Bao, Jing Xia, Lianying Guo, Jingyun Wang, Yachen Li
The greatest crux in the combination of chemotherapy and gene therapy is the construction of a feasible and biocompatible carrier for loading the therapeutic drug and gene simultaneously. Here, a new amphiphilic bifunctional pullulan derivative (named as PDP) synthesized by grafting lipophilic desoxycholic acid and low-molecular weight (1kDa) branched polyethylenimine onto the backbone of pullulan was evaluated as a nano-carrier for the co-delivery of drug and gene for potential cancer therapy. PDP exhibited good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity in the hemolysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Aqiba Bokhari, Patricia G Tiscornia-Wasserman
Renal cell carcinoma metastases to pancreas, thyroid, and contralateral adrenal gland are decidedly uncommon. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is the most frequent subtype. Cytology diagnosis may be challenging. A 74-year-old male with remote history of vocal cord malignancy and hypertension presented with abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) revealed 8.4 cm left renal mass highly suspicious for renal cell carcinoma, a 1.8 cm mass within vessels near left adrenal and a 2.5 cm mass in pancreatic tail...
October 22, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Jamie L Burgess, R Alan Burgess, Yalemi Morales, Jenna M Bouvang, Sean J Johnson, Nicholas E Dickenson
Like many Gram-negative pathogens, Shigella rely on a complex type three secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into host cells, take over host functions, and ultimately establish infection. Despite these critical roles, the energetics and regulatory mechanisms controlling the T3SS and pathogen virulence remain largely unclear. In this study, we present a series of high-resolution crystal structures of Spa47 and use the structures to model an activated Spa47 oligomer, finding that ATP hydrolysis may be supported by specific sidechain contributions from adjacent protomers within the complex...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Lisa K Fazio, Casey A Kennedy, Robert S Siegler
We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards' suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children's fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played Catch the Monster with Fractions, a game in which they estimated fraction locations on a number line and received feedback on the accuracy of their estimates. The intervention lasted less than 15 minutes...
2016: PloS One
Mohammed Al-Temimi, Michael Kidon, Samir Johna
CONTEXT: Reports evaluating faculty knowledge of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in community hospitals without a dedicated residency program are uncommon. OBJECTIVE: Faculty evaluation regarding knowledge of ACGME core competencies before a residency program is started. DESIGN: Physicians at the Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center (N = 480) were surveyed for their knowledge of ACGME core competencies before starting new residency programs...
October 14, 2016: Permanente Journal
Adrienne M Laury, Sarah N Bowe, Joshua Lospinoso
Importance: To date, an otolaryngology-specific morbidity and mortality (M&M) conference has never been reported or evaluated. Objective: To propose a novel otolaryngology-specific M&M format and to assess its success using a validated assessment tool. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preintervention and postintervention cohort study spanning 14 months (September 2014 to November 2015), with 32 faculty, residents, and medical students attending the department of otolaryngology M&M conference, conducted at the the San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Frantz Le Dévédec, Loujin Houdaihed, Christine Allen
In this study, an amphiphilic copolymer that includes a core-forming block with phenyl groups was synthesized by living anionic polymerization of phenyl glycidyl ether (PheGE) on methoxy-polyethylene glycol (mPEG-b-PPheGE). Characterization of the copolymer revealed a narrow molecular distribution (PDI < 1.03) and confirmed the degree of polymerization of mPEG122-b-(PheGE)15. The critical micelle concentration of the copolymer was evaluated using an established fluorescence method with the aggregation behavior evaluated by dynamic light scattering and transmission electronic microscopy...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Maria Demireva, JungSoo Kim, P B Armentrout
Guided ion beam mass spectrometry (GIBMS) is used to measure the kinetic energy dependent product ion cross sections for reactions of the lanthanide metal gadolinium cation (Gd(+)) with O2, CO2, and CO and for reactions of GdO(+) with CO, O2, and Xe. GdO(+) is formed through barrierless and exothermic processes in the reactions of Gd(+) with O2 and CO2. All other reactions observed are endothermic, and analyses of their kinetic energy dependent cross sections yield 0 K bond dissociation energies (BDEs) for GdO(+), GdC(+), and GdCO(+)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Adam Pap, Katalin F Medzihradszky, Zsuzsanna Darula
Growing evidence on the diverse biological roles of extracellular glycosylation as well as the need for quality control of protein pharmaceuticals make glycopeptide analysis both exciting and important again after a long hiatus. High-throughput O-glycosylation studies have to tackle the complexity of glycosylation as well as technical difficulties and, up to now, have yielded only limited results mostly from single enrichment experiments. In this study, we address the technical reproducibility of the characterization of the most prevalent O-glycosylation (mucin-type core 1 structures) in human serum, using a two-step lectin affinity-based workflow...
October 20, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Carla Novais, Ana P Tedim, Val F Lanza, Ana R Freitas, Eduarda Silveira, Ricardo Escada, Adam P Roberts, Mohammed Al-Haroni, Fernando Baquero, Luísa Peixe, Teresa M Coque
Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18, and ST78) in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works) with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ammara Usman, Umar Sadat, Zhongzhao Teng, Martin J Graves, Jonathan R Boyle, Kevin Varty, Paul D Hayes, Jonathan H Gillard
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of atheroma using contrast media enables assessment of the systemic severity of atherosclerosis in different arterial beds. Whether black-blood imaging has similar ability remains widely unexplored. In this study, we evaluate whether black-blood imaging can differentiate carotid plaques of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) in terms of morphological and biomechanical features of plaque vulnerability, thereby allowing assessment of the systemic severity nature of atherosclerosis in different arterial beds...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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