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Athlete, stress, recovery, adaptation

Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller, Gary J Slater
Athletes involved in contact-sports are habitually exposed to skeletal muscle damage as part of their training and performance environments. This often leads to exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) resulting from repeated eccentric and/or high-intensity exercise, and impact-induced muscle damage (IIMD) resulting from collisions with opponents and the playing surface. Whilst EIMD has been an area of extensive investigation, IIMD has received comparatively little research, with the magnitude and timeframe of alterations following IIMD not presently well understood...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Andrew M Watson
Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Dennis-Peter Born, Christoph Zinner, Billy Sperlich
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucosal immune function and circadian variation of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate and mood during a period of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to long-slow distance training (LSD). Methods: Recreational male runners (n = 28) completed nine sessions of either HIIT or LSD within 3 weeks. The HIIT involved 4 × 4 min of running at 90-95% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3 min of active recovery while the LSD comprised of continuous running at 70-75% of maximum heart rate for 60-80 min...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Kenneth C Vitale, Shawn Hueglin, Elizabeth Broad
Tart cherry (TC) juice has many antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenol compounds. TC lessens pain and accelerates strength recovery after exercise and decreases blood markers of inflammation/oxidative stress. These improvements occur in both strength and endurance exercise. TC supplementation may not be optimal during the adaptation/build stage of training. However, excessive inflammatory/oxidative stress during single-day intense training/competition or multiday tournaments may delay return to peak form...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Morgan R Shields, M Alison Brooks, Kelli F Koltyn, Jee-Seon Kim, Dane B Cook
INTRODUCTION: Student-athletes face numerous challenges across their competitive season. Although mood states have been previously studied, little is known about adaptations in other psychological responses, specifically cognition. The purpose of this study was to characterize cognitive function, mood, sleep, and stress responses at select time points of a season in collegiate rowers. It was hypothesized that during baseline, typical training, and recovery, athletes would show positive mental health profiles, in contrast to decreases in cognition with increases in negative mood and measurements of stress during peak training...
November 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kerry McGawley, Elisabeth Juudas, Zuzanna Kazior, Kristoffer Ström, Eva Blomstrand, Ola Hansson, Hans-Christer Holmberg
Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT) within a polarized microcycle. Methods: Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6 ± 1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3 ± 1.5) completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK) in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5 × 4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing) were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT) was distributed evenly around the HIT...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Benjamin K Walters, Connor R Read, A Reed Estes
INTRODUCTION: In 2014, 60 million youth ages 6-18 participated in some form of generalized athletics. 3.5 million children are injured annually participating in organized sport or recreational activities. While sound physical education can decrease the burden of youth sports injuries, the median annual physical education budget of $764 for United States elementary, middle and high schools may not allow enough flexibility to apply evidenced-based guidelines. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The topics were selected after a careful review of the 2016 National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement on Long-Term Athletic Development...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Yanita McLeay, Stephen Stannard, Stuart Houltham, Carlene Starck
Endurance athletes are susceptible to cellular damage initiated by excessive levels of aerobic exercise-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whilst ROS can contribute to the onset of fatigue, there is increasing evidence that they play a crucial role in exercise adaptations. The use of antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C and E in athletes is common; however, their ability to enhance performance and facilitate recovery is controversial, with many studies suggesting a blunting of training adaptations with supplementation...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Steven A Romero, Christopher T Minson, John R Halliwill
Recovery from exercise refers to the time period between the end of a bout of exercise and the subsequent return to a resting or recovered state. It also refers to specific physiological processes or states occurring after exercise that are distinct from the physiology of either the exercising or the resting states. In this context, recovery of the cardiovascular system after exercise occurs across a period of minutes to hours, during which many characteristics of the system, even how it is controlled, change over time...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
R Allan, C Mawhinney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
A D Ruddock, S W Thompson, S A Hudson, C A James, O R Gibson, J A Mee
INTRODUCTION: The 2014 FIFA World Cup was held in Brazil, where the climatic conditions presented a significant thermoregulatory and perceptual challenge to those unfamiliar with the heat and humidity. CASE PRESENTATION: This case report documents the adaptation induced by a novel mixed methods (isothermic and passive) heat acclimation (HA) regime for a northern European professional soccer match official prior to the tournament. The intervention involved 13 HA sessions over an 18 day period comprising five isothermic HA sessions whereby intermittent running was used to target and maintain tympanic temperature (Tytemp) at 38 °C for 90 min, and seven passive HA sessions of 48 °C water bathing for 30 min...
2016: SpringerPlus
Mette Hansen, Jens Bangsbo, Jørgen Jensen, Matilde Krause-Jensen, Bo Martin Bibby, Ove Sollie, Ulrika Andersson Hall, Klavs Madsen
BACKGROUND: Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous training camp...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Aaron T Scanlan, Maria C Madueno
Scanlan, AT and Madueno, MC. Passive recovery promotes superior performance and reduced physiological stress across different phases of short-distance repeated sprints. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2540-2549, 2016-Limited research has examined the influence of recovery modalities on run-based repeated-sprint (RS) performance with no data available relative to the sprint phase. This study compared run-based RS performance across various sprint phases and underlying physiological responses between active and passive recoveries...
September 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
A Durguerian, C Bougard, C Drogou, F Sauvet, M Chennaoui, E Filaire
We examined the effects of a rapid weight loss on dietary intakes, psychological parameters and physical performance of 11 international weightlifters. During the first period (T1), all subjects maintained their body weight and participated in a simulated weightlifting competition. Then, they were assigned into 2 groups depending on whether they lost (Group 2) or maintained (Group 1) their body weight over 6 days. A battery of tests was performed at T1 and after a 6-day food restriction (T2), including assessment for body composition, performance, evaluation of mood states and fatigue...
March 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
John Quindry, Charles Dumke, Dustin Slivka, Brent Ruby
Exercise and oxidative stress research continues to grow as a physiological subdiscipline. The influence of high altitude on exercise and oxidative stress is among the recent topics of intense study in this area. Early findings indicate that exercise at high altitude has an independent influence on free radical generation and the resultant oxidative stress. This review provides a detailed summary of oxidative stress biochemistry as gleaned mainly from studies of humans exercising at high altitude. Understanding of the human response to exercise at altitude is largely derived from field-based research at altitudes above 3000 m in addition to laboratory studies which employ normobaric hypoxia...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Lori Haase, April C May, Maryam Falahpour, Sara Isakovic, Alan N Simmons, Steven D Hickman, Thomas T Liu, Martin P Paulus
The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes' ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK)] changes neural activation patterns during an interoceptive challenge...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Juan José García Verazaluce, María Del Carmen Vargas Corzo, María José Aguilar Cordero, Francisco Ocaña Peinado, Álvaro Sarmiento Ramírez, Rafael Guisado Barrilao
INTRODUCTION: Physical training programmes are based on provoking transitory states of fatigue in order to induce super compensation by the biological systems involved in the activity, in order to improve the athlete's medium-long term performance. The administration of nutritional supplements with antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties, such as Phlebodium decumanum and coenzyme Q10, can be a very advantageous means of achieving recovery from the inflammation and tissue damage caused by the stress of prolonged, intense exercise...
October 3, 2014: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Tsavis D Dileo, Jeffrey B Powell, Hyoung K Kang, Raymond J Roberge, Aitor Coca, Jung-Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: Heat acclimation (HA) evokes numerous physiological adaptations, improves heat tolerance and has also been shown to enhance lactate (LA) responses during exercise, similar to that seen with endurance training. The purpose of this study was to examine whether HA improves the body's ability to remove LA during recovery following maximal exercise. METHODS: Ten healthy men completed two trials of maximal treadmill exercise (pre- and post-HA) separated by 5 days of HA...
January 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Michael R Esco, Andrew A Flatt
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of the vagal-related heart rate variability index, log-transformed root mean square of successive R-R intervals (lnRMSSD), measured under ultra-short-term conditions (< 60 seconds) with conventional longer term recordings of 5 minutes in collegiate athletes under resting and post-exercise conditions. Electrocardiographic readings were collected from twenty-three athletes within 5-minute segments at rest and at 25-30 minutes of supine recovery following a maximal exercise test...
September 2014: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Ewa Jówko, Barbara Długołęcka, Beata Makaruk, Igor Cieśliński
BACKGROUND: Although research suggests that antioxidant supplementation can protect against exercise-induced muscle damage and oxidative stress, also delayed post-exercise muscle recovery and hindered adaptation to training were reported in the supplemented athletes. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on selected blood markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage in sprinters during preparatory phase of their training cycle...
August 2015: European Journal of Nutrition
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