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Athlete, stress, recovery, adaptation

Steven A Romero, Christopher Todd Minson, John R Halliwill
Recovery from exercise refers to the time period between the end of a bout of exercise and the subsequent return to a resting or recovered state. It also refers to specific physiological processes or states, occurring after exercise, which are distinct from the physiology of either the exercising or the resting states. In this context, recovery of the cardiovascular system after exercise occurs across a period of minutes to hours, during which many characteristics of the system, even how it is controlled, are changing over time...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
R Allan, C Mawhinney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
A D Ruddock, S W Thompson, S A Hudson, C A James, O R Gibson, J A Mee
INTRODUCTION: The 2014 FIFA World Cup was held in Brazil, where the climatic conditions presented a significant thermoregulatory and perceptual challenge to those unfamiliar with the heat and humidity. CASE PRESENTATION: This case report documents the adaptation induced by a novel mixed methods (isothermic and passive) heat acclimation (HA) regime for a northern European professional soccer match official prior to the tournament. The intervention involved 13 HA sessions over an 18 day period comprising five isothermic HA sessions whereby intermittent running was used to target and maintain tympanic temperature (Tytemp) at 38 °C for 90 min, and seven passive HA sessions of 48 °C water bathing for 30 min...
2016: SpringerPlus
Mette Hansen, Jens Bangsbo, Jørgen Jensen, Matilde Krause-Jensen, Bo Martin Bibby, Ove Sollie, Ulrika Andersson Hall, Klavs Madsen
BACKGROUND: Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous training camp...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Aaron T Scanlan, Maria C Madueno
Scanlan, AT and Madueno, MC. Passive recovery promotes superior performance and reduced physiological stress across different phases of short-distance repeated sprints. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2540-2549, 2016-Limited research has examined the influence of recovery modalities on run-based repeated-sprint (RS) performance with no data available relative to the sprint phase. This study compared run-based RS performance across various sprint phases and underlying physiological responses between active and passive recoveries...
September 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
A Durguerian, C Bougard, C Drogou, F Sauvet, M Chennaoui, E Filaire
We examined the effects of a rapid weight loss on dietary intakes, psychological parameters and physical performance of 11 international weightlifters. During the first period (T1), all subjects maintained their body weight and participated in a simulated weightlifting competition. Then, they were assigned into 2 groups depending on whether they lost (Group 2) or maintained (Group 1) their body weight over 6 days. A battery of tests was performed at T1 and after a 6-day food restriction (T2), including assessment for body composition, performance, evaluation of mood states and fatigue...
March 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
John Quindry, Charles Dumke, Dustin Slivka, Brent Ruby
Exercise and oxidative stress research continues to grow as a physiological subdiscipline. The influence of high altitude on exercise and oxidative stress is among the recent topics of intense study in this area. Early findings indicate that exercise at high altitude has an independent influence on free radical generation and the resultant oxidative stress. This review provides a detailed summary of oxidative stress biochemistry as gleaned mainly from studies of humans exercising at high altitude. Understanding of the human response to exercise at altitude is largely derived from field-based research at altitudes above 3000 m in addition to laboratory studies which employ normobaric hypoxia...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Lori Haase, April C May, Maryam Falahpour, Sara Isakovic, Alan N Simmons, Steven D Hickman, Thomas T Liu, Martin P Paulus
The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes' ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK)] changes neural activation patterns during an interoceptive challenge...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Juan José García Verazaluce, María Del Carmen Vargas Corzo, María José Aguilar Cordero, Francisco Ocaña Peinado, Álvaro Sarmiento Ramírez, Rafael Guisado Barrilao
INTRODUCTION: Physical training programmes are based on provoking transitory states of fatigue in order to induce super compensation by the biological systems involved in the activity, in order to improve the athlete's medium-long term performance. The administration of nutritional supplements with antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties, such as Phlebodium decumanum and coenzyme Q10, can be a very advantageous means of achieving recovery from the inflammation and tissue damage caused by the stress of prolonged, intense exercise...
October 3, 2014: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Tsavis D Dileo, Jeffrey B Powell, Hyoung K Kang, Raymond J Roberge, Aitor Coca, Jung-Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: Heat acclimation (HA) evokes numerous physiological adaptations, improves heat tolerance and has also been shown to enhance lactate (LA) responses during exercise, similar to that seen with endurance training. The purpose of this study was to examine whether HA improves the body's ability to remove LA during recovery following maximal exercise. METHODS: Ten healthy men completed two trials of maximal treadmill exercise (pre- and post-HA) separated by 5 days of HA...
January 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Michael R Esco, Andrew A Flatt
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of the vagal-related heart rate variability index, log-transformed root mean square of successive R-R intervals (lnRMSSD), measured under ultra-short-term conditions (< 60 seconds) with conventional longer term recordings of 5 minutes in collegiate athletes under resting and post-exercise conditions. Electrocardiographic readings were collected from twenty-three athletes within 5-minute segments at rest and at 25-30 minutes of supine recovery following a maximal exercise test...
September 2014: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Ewa Jówko, Barbara Długołęcka, Beata Makaruk, Igor Cieśliński
BACKGROUND: Although research suggests that antioxidant supplementation can protect against exercise-induced muscle damage and oxidative stress, also delayed post-exercise muscle recovery and hindered adaptation to training were reported in the supplemented athletes. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on selected blood markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage in sprinters during preparatory phase of their training cycle...
August 2015: European Journal of Nutrition
Louise M Burke, Iñigo Mujika
Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance...
August 2014: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Roberto Carlos Leonardo-Mendonça, Melquiades Concepción-Huertas, Eduardo Guerra-Hernández, Mikel Zabala, Germaine Escames, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
The aim of this study was to investigate whether different phases of training affect oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in professional cyclists. Ten professional cyclists, aged 21.8 ± 2.5 years, were enrolled in the study. They were classified into two groups of five athletes each one with similar nutritional intake excepting for the overload of vitamin C (1000 mg day(-1)) and E (400 mg day(-1)) supplementation in one of them. The cyclists of both groups performed the same exercise design, consisting of hard, tapering and recovery training periods...
2014: European Journal of Sport Science
Dejana Popovic, Bosiljka Plecas-Solarovic, Vesna Pesic, Milan Petrovic, Bosiljka Vujisic-Tesic, Bojana Popovic, Svetlana Ignjatovic, Arsen Ristic, Svetozar S Damjanovic
The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and ACTH receptor polymorphism (ACTHRP) for left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Thirty-six elite male athletes, as chronic stress adaptation models, and twenty sedentary age and sex-mached subjects emabarked on standard and tissue Doppler echocardiography to assess cardiac parameters at rest. They performed maximal cardiopulmonary test, which was used as an acute stress model. ACTH and cortisol were measured at rest (10min before test), at beginning, at maximal effort, at 3rd min of recovery, using radioimmunometric and radioimmunoassey techniques, respectively...
July 2014: Peptides
Julien D Périard, Sebastien Racinais, Wade L Knez, Christopher P Herrera, Ryan J Christian, Olivier Girard
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether an individualised hydration regimen reduces thermal, physiological and perceptual strain during match-play tennis in the heat, and minimises alterations in neuromuscular function and physical performance postmatch and into recovery. METHODS: 10 men undertook two matches for an effective playing time (ball in play) of 20 min (∼113 min) in ∼37°C and ∼33% RH conditions. Participants consumed fluids ad libitum during the first match (HOT) and followed a hydration regimen (HYD) in the second match based on undertaking play euhydrated, standardising sodium intake and minimising body mass losses...
April 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Jeanick Brisswalter, Julien Louis
Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery...
March 2014: Sports Medicine
Raphaël Faiss, Olivier Girard, Grégoire P Millet
Over the past two decades, intermittent hypoxic training (IHT), that is, a method where athletes live at or near sea level but train under hypoxic conditions, has gained unprecedented popularity. By adding the stress of hypoxia during 'aerobic' or 'anaerobic' interval training, it is believed that IHT would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea level. A thorough analysis of studies including IHT, however, leads to strikingly poor benefits for sea-level performance improvement, compared to the same training method performed in normoxia...
December 2013: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Alexander G Tonevitsky, Diana V Maltseva, Asghar Abbasi, Timur R Samatov, Dmitry A Sakharov, Maxim U Shkurnikov, Alexey E Lebedev, Vladimir V Galatenko, Anatoly I Grigoriev, Hinnak Northoff
BACKGROUND: MiRNAs are essential mediators of many biological processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks during exercise and the subsequent recovery period. RESULTS: Here we monitored the transcriptome changes using microarray analysis of the whole blood of eight highly trained athletes before and after 30 min of moderate exercise followed by 30 min and 60 min of recovery period. We combined expression profiling and bioinformatics and analysed metabolic pathways enriched with differentially expressed mRNAs and mRNAs which are known to be validated targets of differentially expressed miRNAs...
2013: BMC Physiology
Sandro H Mendes, Aline C Tritto, João Paulo L F Guilherme, Marina Y Solis, Douglas E Vieira, Emerson Franchini, Antonio H Lancha, Guilherme G Artioli
BACKGROUND: Studies failing to show a negative effect of rapid weight loss (RWL) on performance have been conducted in athletes who have been cycling weight for years. It has been suggested that chronic weight cycling could lead combat athletes to become resistant to the stresses associated with weight loss. To investigate the effects of RWL up to 5% of body mass on high-intensity intermittent performance in weight cyclers (WC) and non-weight cyclers (non-WC). METHODS: Eighteen male combat athletes (WC: n=10; non-WC: n=8) reduced up to 5% of their body mass in 5 days...
December 2013: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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