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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645159/genomic-characterization-of-two-novel-sar11-isolates-from-the-red-sea-including-the-first-strain-of-the-sar11-ib-clade
#1
Francy Jimenez-Infante, David Kamanda Ngugi, Manikandan Vinu, Jochen Blom, Intikhab Alam, Vladimir B Bajic, Ulrich Stingl
The SAR11 clade (Pelagibacterales) is a diverse group that forms a monophyletic clade within the Alphaproteobacteria, and constitutes up to one third of all prokaryotic cells in the photic zone of most oceans. Pelagibacterales are very abundant in the warm and highly saline surface waters of the Red Sea, raising the question of adaptive traits of SAR11 populations in this water body and warmer oceans through the world. In this study, two pure cultures were successfully obtained from surface waters on the Red Sea, one isolate of subgroup Ia and one of the previously uncultured SAR11 Ib lineage...
June 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644902/sirt6-alters-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#2
Eitan Okun, Daniel Marton, Daniel Cohen, Kathleen Griffioen, Yariv Kanfi, Tomer Illouz, Ravit Madar, Haim Y Cohen
Sirtuins are pleiotropic NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases involved in metabolism, DNA damage repair, inflammation and stress resistance. SIRT6, a member of the sirtuin family, regulates the process of normal aging and increases the lifespan of male mice over-expressing Sirt6 by 15%. Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons within the hippocampus of adult mammals, involves several complex stages including stem cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and network integration. During aging, the number of newly generated neurons continuously declines, and this is correlated with a decline in neuronal plasticity and cognitive behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644870/effects-of-nicotine-on-corneal-wound-healing-following-acute-alkali-burn
#3
Jong Won Kim, Chae Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
Epidemiological studies have indicated that smoking is a pivotal risk factor for the progression of several chronic diseases. Nicotine, the addictive component of cigarettes, has powerful pathophysiological properties in the body. Although the effects of cigarette smoking on corneal re-epithelialization have been studied, the effects of nicotine on corneal wound healing-related neovascularization and fibrosis have not been fully demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic administration of nicotine on corneal wound healing following acute insult induced by an alkali burn...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644418/new-mt%C3%A2-melatonin-receptor-selective-ligands-agonists-and-partial-agonists
#4
Jean A Boutin, Anne Bonnaud, Chantal Brasseur, Olivier Bruno, Nolwenn Lepretre, Peter Oosting, Sophie Coumailleau, Philippe Delagrange, Olivier Nosjean, Céline Legros
The search for melatonin receptor agonists and antagonists specific towards one of the receptor subtypes will extend our understanding of the role of this system in relaying circadian information to the body. A series of compounds derived from a hit compound discovered in a screening process led to powerful agonists specific for one of the isoform of the melatonin receptor namely, MT₂. The compounds are based on a poorly explored skeleton in the molecular pharmacology of melatonin. By changing the steric hindrance of one substituent (i...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644392/development-of-bone-targeting-drugs
#5
REVIEW
Molly Stapleton, Kazuki Sawamoto, Carlos J Alméciga-Díaz, William G Mackenzie, Robert W Mason, Tadao Orii, Shunji Tomatsu
The skeletal system, comprising bones, ligaments, cartilage and their connective tissues, is critical for the structure and support of the body. Diseases that affect the skeletal system can be difficult to treat, mainly because of the avascular cartilage region. Targeting drugs to the site of action can not only increase efficacy but also reduce toxicity. Bone-targeting drugs are designed with either of two general targeting moieties, aimed at the entire skeletal system or a specific cell type. Most bone-targeting drugs utilize an affinity to hydroxyapatite, a major component of the bone matrix that includes a high concentration of positively-charged Ca(2+)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644146/association-between-fibrinogen-level-and-the-severity-of-coronary-stenosis-in-418-male-patients-with-myocardial-infarction-younger-than-35-years-old
#6
Xiong-Yi Gao, Bing-Yang Zhou, Min-Zhou Zhang, Xi Zhao, Ping Qing, Cheng-Gang Zhu, Na-Qiong Wu, Yuan-Lin Guo, Ying Gao, Xiao-Lin Li, Yao Wang, Geng Liu, Qian Dong, Li-Heng Guo, Jian-Jun Li
Fibrinogen (Fib) is a useful marker for predicting the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in adult population. However, whether Fib can be a predictor for the presence and severity of CAD in very young MI patients (≤35 years old) remains to be determined. A total of 418 males from 61,863 patients with MI who were under 35 years old were sequentially recruited in our study. The patients were divided into two main groups and three subgroups according to coronary angiograph and Gensini score (GS) system: no coronary artery stenosis (group A), the results of the coronary artery stenosis (group B); low GS, intermediate GS and high GS...
June 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643924/exosomes-novel-regulators-of-bone-remodelling-and-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-orthodontics
#7
REVIEW
L S Holliday, K P McHugh, J Zuo, J I Aguirre, J K Neubert, W J Rody
Recent studies suggest that exosomes are involved in intercellular communication required for the maintenance of healthy bone. Exosomes are small (30-150 nm in diameter) extracellular vesicles that are formed in multivesicular bodies and are released from cells as the multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. Regulatory exosomes have the capacity to exert profound control over target cells. They can stimulate plasma membrane receptors and are also internalized by the target cell delivering proteins, lipids, small molecules and functional RNAs from the cell of origin...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643909/the-fate-of-osterix-expressing-mesenchymal-cells-in-dental-root-formation-and-maintenance
#8
A Takahashi, N Ono, W Ono
OBJECTIVES: Osterix (Osx)-expressing mesenchymal cells are progenitors for tooth root forming cells. The aim of this study was to reveal the fates of Osx-expressing cells during and after root formation using a lineage tracing experiment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To reveal the fates of Osx-expressing dental mesenchymal progenitors, we took advantage of tamoxifen-inducible Cre reporter system. Osx-creER; R26R-tdTomato mice received tamoxifen (0.1 mg/body) at postnatal day 3 (P3)...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643604/long-non-coding-rnas-new-biomarkers-for-prognosis-and-diagnosis-of-colon-cancer
#9
Heng Deng, Jian Min Wang, Ming Li, Ran Tang, Kun Tang, Yingzi Su, Yong Hou, Jun Zhang
Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs has been found in many human cancers, including colorectal cancer that is still the third most prevalent cancer worldwide and related to poor prognosis; along with this, robust testimony has identified that long non-coding RNAs can take charge of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. This review summarizes nowadays research achievements on the character of long non-coding RNAs in the prognosis and diagnosis of colorectal cancer. On the basis of the results acquired in the last decade, some long non-coding RNAs are rising as biomarkers of colorectal cancer for prognosis, diagnosis, even prediction of therapeutic result, and have crucial effects in the regulation of colorectal cancer cell functions such as proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, metastasis, and drug resistant ability...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643089/time-lapse-observation-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-a-case-with-repeated-multiple-pronuclei-after-ivf-icsi
#10
J Dai, L Z Leng, C F Lu, F Gong, S P Zhang, W Zheng, G X Lu, G Lin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cause of repeated multipronucleus (MPN) formation in zygotes in a patient after both in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). METHOD: This is a case study. A patient had unexplained primary infertility with recurring total MPN zygotes after IVF and ICSI cycles. Time-lapse monitoring of pronucleus formation was carried out. Embryos developed from MPN zygotes were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642969/diverse-metabolic-effects-of-o-glcnacylation-in-the-pancreas-but-limited-effects-in-insulin-sensitive-organs-in-mice
#11
Shogo Ida, Katsutaro Morino, Osamu Sekine, Natsuko Ohashi, Shinji Kume, Tokuhiro Chano, Kanako Iwasaki, Norio Harada, Nobuya Inagaki, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: O-GlcNAcylation is characterised by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to various proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and serves in sensing intracellular nutrients by modulating various cellular processes. Although it has been speculated that O-GlcNAcylation is associated with glucose metabolism, its exact role in whole body glucose metabolism has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether loss of O-GlcNAcylation globally and in specific organs affected glucose metabolism in mammals under physiological conditions...
June 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642703/different-regulation-of-interleukin-1-production-and-activity-in-monocytes-and-macrophages-innate-memory-as-an-endogenous-mechanism-of-il-1-inhibition
#12
Mariusz P Madej, Elfi Töpfer, Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani
Production and activity of interleukin (IL)-1β are kept under strict control in our body, because of its powerful inflammation-promoting capacity. Control of IL-1β production and activity allows IL-1 to exert its defensive activities without causing extensive tissue damage. Monocytes are the major producers of IL-1β during inflammation, but they are also able to produce significant amounts of IL-1 inhibitors such as IL-1Ra and the soluble form of the decoy receptor IL-1R2, in an auto-regulatory feedback loop...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642697/targeting-microglial-activation-states-as-a-therapeutic-avenue-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Sudhakar R Subramaniam, Howard J Federoff
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive disorder characterized neuropathologically by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, intracellular proteinaceous inclusions, reduction of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum, and increased neuroinflammatory cells. The consequent reduction of dopamine in the basal ganglia results in the classical parkinsonian motor phenotype. A growing body of evidence suggest that neuroinflammation mediated by microglia, the resident macrophage-like immune cells in the brain, play a contributory role in PD pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642609/microbial-signatures-associated-with-oropharyngeal-and-oral-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#14
Sagarika Banerjee, Tian Tian, Zhi Wei, Kristen N Peck, Natalie Shih, Ara A Chalian, Bert W O'Malley, Gregory S Weinstein, Michael D Feldman, James Alwine, Erle S Robertson
The microbiome is fundamentally one of the most unique organs in the human body. Dysbiosis can result in critical inflammatory responses and result in pathogenesis contributing to neoplastic events. We used a pan-pathogen array technology (PathoChip) coupled with next-generation sequencing to establish microbial signatures unique to human oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCC/OPSCC). Signatures for DNA and RNA viruses including oncogenic viruses, gram positive and negative bacteria, fungi and parasites were detected...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642603/imaging-of-anticancer-drug-action-in-single-cells
#15
REVIEW
Miles A Miller, Ralph Weissleder
Imaging is widely used in anticancer drug development, typically for whole-body tracking of labelled drugs to different organs or to assess drug efficacy through volumetric measurements. However, increasing attention has been drawn to pharmacology at the single-cell level. Diverse cell types, including cancer-associated immune cells, physicochemical features of the tumour microenvironment and heterogeneous cell behaviour all affect drug delivery, response and resistance. This Review summarizes developments in the imaging of in vivo anticancer drug action, with a focus on microscopy approaches at the single-cell level and translational lessons for the clinic...
June 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642576/upregulation-of-mir-223-in-the-rat-liver-inhibits-proliferation-of-hepatocytes-under-simulated-microgravity
#16
Yongjie Chen, Ji Xu, Chao Yang, Hongyu Zhang, Feng Wu, Jian Chen, Kai Li, Hailong Wang, Yu Li, Yinghui Li, Zhongquan Dai
Long-term spaceflight affects numerous organ systems in the body, including metabolic dysfunction. Recently, ample evidence has demonstrated that the liver is a vulnerable organ during spaceflight. However, the changes in hepatocyte proliferation and cell cycle control under microgravity remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we first confirmed that the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, biochemical markers of liver function, were altered in rats under tail suspension (TS) conditions to simulate microgravity, as shown in previous reports...
June 23, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642474/comparing-dna-enrichment-of-proliferating-cells-following-administration-of-different-stable-isotopes-of-heavy-water
#17
Don E Farthing, Nataliya P Buxbaum, Philip J Lucas, Natella Maglakelidze, Brittany Oliver, Jiun Wang, Kevin Hu, Ehydel Castro, Catherine V Bare, Ronald E Gress
Deuterated water ((2)H2O) is a label commonly used for safe quantitative measurement of deuterium enrichment into DNA of proliferating cells. More recently, it has been used for labeling proteins and other biomolecules. Our in vitro - in vivo research reports important stable isotopic labeling enrichment differences into the DNA nucleosides and their isotopologues (e.g. deoxyadenosine (dA) M + 1, dA M + 2, dA M + 3), as well as tumor cell proliferation effects for various forms of commercially available stable heavy water ((2)H2O, H2(18)O, and (2)H2(18)O)...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642375/acquired-resistance-to-corticotropin-therapy-in-nephrotic-syndrome-role-of-de-novo-neutralizing-antibody
#18
Pei Wang, Yan Zhang, Yu Wang, Andrew S Brem, Zhangsuo Liu, Rujun Gong
There is increasing evidence supporting the use of corticotropin as an alternative treatment of refractory proteinuric glomerulopathies. The efficacy of short-acting corticotropin, however, remains unknown and was tested here in an adolescent with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome caused by minimal change disease. After developing Cushing syndrome and recently being afflicted with severe cellulitis, the patient was weaned off all immunosuppressants, including corticosteroids. This resulted in a relapse of generalized anasarca, associated with massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia...
June 22, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642244/investigation-of-protein-synthesis-in-drosophila-larvae-using-puromycin-labelling
#19
Lisa P Deliu, Abhishek Ghosh, Savraj S Grewal
Translational control of gene expression is an important regulator of growth, homeostasis and aging in Drosophila The ability to measure changes in protein synthesis in response to genetic and environmental cues is therefore important in studying these processes. Here we describe a simple and cost effective approach to assay protein synthesis in Drosophila larval cells and tissues. The method is based on the incorporation of puromycin into nascent peptide chains. Using an ex vivo approach, we label newly synthesized peptides in larvae with puromycin and then measure levels of new protein synthesis using an anti-puromycin antibody...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642242/specific-expression-and-function-of-the-six3-optix-in-drosophila-serially-homologous-organs
#20
Amer Al Khatib, Natalia Siomava, Antonella Iannini, Nico Posnien, Fernando Casares
Organ size and pattern results from the integration of two positional information systems. One global, encoded by the Hox genes, links organ type with position along the main body axis. Within specific organs, local information is conveyed by signaling molecules that regulate organ growth and pattern. The mesothoracic (T2) wing and the metathoracic (T3) haltere of Drosophila represent a paradigmatic example of this coordination. The Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), expressed in the developing T3, selects haltere identity by, among other processes, modulating the production and signaling efficiency of Dpp, a BMP2-like molecule that acts as a major regulator of size and pattern...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
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