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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245157/dynamic-cellular-complexity-of-anoxygenic-phototrophic-sulfur-bacteria-in-the-chemocline-of-meromictic-lake-cadagno
#1
Francesco Danza, Nicola Storelli, Samuele Roman, Samuel Lüdin, Mauro Tonolla
The meromictic Lake Cadagno is characterized by a compact chemocline with high concentrations of anoxygenic phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and green sulfur bacteria (GSB). The co-occurrence of phylogenetically distant bacterial groups such as PSB and GSB in the same ecological niche, makes the chemocline of Lake Cadagno an ideal system for studying the conditions and consequences of coexistence of photosynthetic bacteria populations. In this study, we applied flow cytometry (FCM) as a fast tool to identify metabolic changes due to the production and consumption of inclusion bodies such as sulfur globules (SGBs), and follow population dynamics of closely related anoxygenic photosynthetic sulfur bacteria in their natural environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245053/influence-of-diabetes-on-the-foreign-body-response-to-nitric-oxide-releasing-implants
#2
Robert J Soto, Elizabeth P Merricks, Dwight A Bellinger, Timothy C Nichols, Mark H Schoenfisch
The foreign body response (FBR) to nitric oxide (NO)-releasing subcutaneous implants was compared between healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic swine by evaluating inflammation, collagen capsule formation, and angiogenesis. Steel wire substrates were first modified with polyurethane membranes capable of diverse NO-release kinetics (NO fluxes and release durations of 0.8-630.0 pmol cm-2 s-1 and 2-13 d, respectively). The NO-releasing materials were implanted in the subcutis for 3, 10, or 25 d for histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the FBR...
November 30, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245041/stability-of-postmortem-methemoglobin-artifactual-changes-caused-by-storage-conditions
#3
Vincent Varlet, Elenore Ryser, Marc Augsburger, Cristian Palmiere
Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries and distributes oxygen to the body. Methemoglobinemia is a blood disorder in which an abnormal amount of methemoglobin (MetHb), a form of hemoglobin (Hb), is produced from either inadequate MetHb reductase activity or too much MetHb production or by exposure to oxidizing agents. This could lead to anoxia and death if it is not treated. However, this parameter has not been investigated as a valid post-mortem indicator because random MetHb levels have been observed in various studies: MetHb increases can be observed due to autoxidation during storage, and MetHb decreases can be observed due to MetHb reductase or microbial activity in post-mortem samples...
December 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244985/malignancy-related-hypercalcemia-in-advanced-solid-tumors-survival-outcomes
#4
Ricardo Emanuel de Oliveira Ramos, Milena Perez Mak, Michel Fabiano Silva Alves, Gustavo Henrique Munhoz Piotto, Tiago Kenji Takahashi, Leonardo Gomes da Fonseca, Marina Cavalcanti Maroja Silvino, Paulo Marcelo Hoff, Gilberto de Castro
Purpose Malignancy-related hypercalcemia (MRH) is associated with a dismal prognosis. The widespread use of bisphosphonates (BPs), availability of more effective drugs in cancer treatment, and improvement in supportive care might have attenuated its impact. Patients and Methods To assess overall survival (OS) of patients with MRH in a contemporary setting, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 306 patients with solid cancer hospitalized for symptomatic hypercalcemia. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to evaluate possible prognostic factors associated with MRH...
December 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244903/dermal-fibroblast-in-cutaneous-development-and-healing
#5
REVIEW
Venkata Thulabandu, Demeng Chen, Radhika P Atit
The skin is the largest organ of the body and is composed of two layers: the overlying epidermis and the underlying dermis. The dermal fibroblasts originate from distinct locations of the embryo and contain the positional identity and patterning information in the skin. The dermal fibroblast progenitors differentiate into various cell types that are fated to perform specific functions such as hair follicle initiation and scar formation during wound healing. Recent studies have revealed the heterogeneity and plasticity of dermal fibroblasts within skin, which has implications for skin disease and tissue engineering...
December 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244804/conditional-knockout-mice-for-the-distal-appendage-protein-cep164-reveal-its-essential-roles-in-airway-multiciliated-cell-differentiation
#6
Saul S Siller, Himanshu Sharma, Shuai Li, June Yang, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Wipawee Winuthayanon, Holly Colognato, Bernadette C Holdener, Feng-Qian Li, Ken-Ichi Takemaru
Multiciliated cells of the airways, brain ventricles, and female reproductive tract provide the motive force for mucociliary clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and ovum transport. Despite their clear importance to human biology and health, the molecular mechanisms underlying multiciliated cell differentiation are poorly understood. Prior studies implicate the distal appendage/transition fiber protein CEP164 as a central regulator of primary ciliogenesis; however, its role in multiciliogenesis remains unknown...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244724/rlj-rgd3-suppresses-the-growth-of-heya8-cells-in-nude-mice
#7
Yuanyuan Zheng, Li Lv, Longda Yi, Rui Wu, Rong Xiao, Jihong Wang
In the previous study, rLj-RGD3, a recombinant toxin protein which contains three RGD motifs, was reported to not only inhibit the proliferation of an ovarian cancer cell line, HeyA8 cells, by inducing apoptosis, but also block their adhesion, migration and invasion processes. However, whether rLj-RGD3 could also suppress the tumor growth in HeyA8 xenografted mice has not been reported yet. In the present study, rLj-RGD3 was intraperitoneally injected in the nude mice bearing HeyA8 tumors. Compared with the control group (normal saline), rLj-RGD3 inhibited the tumor growth significantly in the HeyA8 xenografted mice in a dose-dependent manner without affecting their body weights...
December 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244071/the-glycosyltransferase-eogt-regulates-adropin-expression-in-decidualizing-human-endometrium
#8
Joanne Muter, Mohammad T Alam, Pavle Vrljicak, Flavio S V Barros, Peter T Ruane, Lauren J Ewington, John D Aplin, Melissa Westwood, Jan J Brosens
In pregnancy, resistance of endometrial decidual cells to stress signals is critical for the integrity of the feto-maternal interface and, by extension, survival of the conceptus. O-GlcNAcylation is an essential post-translational modification that links glucose sensing to cellular stress resistance. Unexpectedly, decidualization of primary endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) was associated with a 60% reduction in O-GlcNAc modified proteins, reflecting downregulation of the enzyme that adds O-GlcNAc to substrates (O-GlcNAc transferase, OGT) but not the enzyme that removes the modification (O-GlcNAcase, OGA)...
December 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243911/neurodegenerative-disease-proteinopathies-are-connected-to-distinct-histone-post-translational-modification-landscapes
#9
Karen Chen, Seth A Bennett, Navin Rana, Huda Yousuf, Mohamed Said, Sadiqa Taaseen, Natalie Mendo, Steven Marc Meltser, Mariana Torrente
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are devastating neurodegenerative diseases involving the progressive degeneration of neurons. No cure is available for patients diagnosed with these diseases. A prominent feature for both ALS and PD is the accumulation of protein inclusions in the cytoplasm of degenerating neurons; however, the particular protein comprising these inclusions varies. The RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are most notable in ALS, while α-synuclein aggregates into Lewy bodies in PD...
December 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243871/expression-of-six3-and-otx-in-solenogastres-mollusca-supports-an-ancestral-role-in-bilaterian-anterior-posterior-axis-patterning
#10
Emanuel Redl, Maik Scherholz, Tim Wollesen, Christiane Todt, Andreas Wanninger
The homeodomain transcription factors six3 and otx are involved in patterning the anterior body and parts of the central nervous system (CNS) in bilaterians. Their similar expression patterns have been used as an argument for homology of heads, brains, segmentation, and ciliated larvae. We investigated the developmental expression of six3 and otx in the aplacophoran mollusk Wirenia argentea. Six3 is expressed in subepithelial cells delimiting the apical organ of the solenogaster pericalymma larva. Otx is expressed in cells of the prototroch and adjacent regions as well as in posterior extensions of the prototrochal expression domain...
December 15, 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243511/acute-stress-disorder-and-c-reactive-protein-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#11
Hannes Bielas, Rebecca E Meister-Langraf, Jean-Paul Schmid, Jürgen Barth, Hansjörg Znoj, Ulrich Schnyder, Mary Princip, Roland von Känel
Background Myocardial infarction-triggered acute stress disorder (ASD) and subclinical inflammation associate with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, and worsen the prognosis of myocardial infarction patients. We examined the relationship between ASD severity and C-reactive protein levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods We assessed 190 patients (median age 59 years; 83% men) with a verified myocardial infarction within 48 h of an acute coronary intervention. Circulating levels of C-reactive protein were categorized according to their prognostic risk for cardiovascular disease: 0 to <5, 5 to <10, 10 to <20, and ≥ 20 mg/l...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243183/effects-of-experimental-periodontitis-on-the-metabolic-system-in-rats-with-diet-induced-obesity-dio-an-analysis-of-serum-biochemical-parameters
#12
Ryutaro Kuraji, Miyako Fujita, Hiroshi Ito, Shuichi Hashimoto, Yukihiro Numabe
Recent studies have shown that periodontitis accelerates the progression of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Thus, we examined the influence of periodontitis on serum biochemical parameters of metabolic disease in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat. First, we established the DIO model using ten male rats fed with either basal diet (lean group) or high-fat diet (DIO group) for 12 weeks. Second, to examine the interaction between periodontitis and obesity, we divided 24 DIO rats into the following four groups...
December 14, 2017: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243040/protective-effect-of-acacetin-on-sepsis-induced-acute-lung-injury-via-its-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidative-activity
#13
Li-Chao Sun, Hong-Bo Zhang, Cheng-Dong Gu, Shi-Dong Guo, Gang Li, Rui Lian, Yao Yao, Guo-Qiang Zhang
Sepsis is a clinical syndrome with no effective protective or therapeutic treatments. Acacetin, a natural flavonoid compound, has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects which can potentially work to reduce sepsis. We investigated the potential protective effect of acacetin on sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) ALI and dissect out the underlying mechanisms. Mice were divided into five groups: a sham group, a sepsis-induced ALI group, and three sepsis groups pre-treated with 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg body weight of acacetin...
December 14, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242852/prospective-study-of-nonmyeloablative-hla-mismatched-unrelated-bmt-with-high-dose-posttransplantation-cyclophosphamide
#14
Yvette L Kasamon, Richard F Ambinder, Ephraim J Fuchs, Marianna Zahurak, Gary L Rosner, Javier Bolaños-Meade, Mark J Levis, Douglas E Gladstone, Carol Ann Huff, Lode J Swinnen, William H Matsui, Ivan Borrello, Robert A Brodsky, Richard J Jones, Leo Luznik
Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) candidates may lack HLA-matched, related haploidentical, and unrelated umbilical cord options. Barriers to partially HLA-mismatched, unrelated donor (mMUD) BMT include excess graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), graft failure, and death. We prospectively studied nonmyeloablative (NMA) mMUD BMT with high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for patients with hematologic malignancies. Three transplants were performed with busulfan/fludarabine conditioning, with subsequent change to fludarabine/Cy/total body irradiation (flu/Cy/TBI)...
2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242821/regulation-of-regeneration-by-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-in-the-extracellular-matrix
#15
David M Gardiner
Just as the building of a house requires a blueprint, the rebuilding of lost or damaged body parts through regeneration requires a set of instructions for the assembly of the various tissues into the right places. Much progress has been made in understanding how to control the differentiation of different cell types to provide the building blocks for regeneration, such as bone, muscle, blood vessels and nerves/Schwann cells. These are the cells that follow the blueprint (the pattern-following cells) and end up in the right places relative to each other in order to restore the lost function...
September 2017: Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242704/effects-of-prolonged-treatment-with-co-trimoxazole-on-the-thyroid-gland-liver-and-epididymal-sperm-reserve-in-dogs
#16
Davinson C Anyogu, Vincent So Shoyinka, John I Ihedioha
Co-trimoxazole is an antimicrobial drug gotten from potentiation of sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim. It is widely used for the treatment of bacterial and protozoan infections in humans. It is also used in veterinary clinics against susceptible microorganisms, but thyroid dysfunction has raised concern especially in dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of prolonged treatment with co-trimoxazole in euthyroid dogs. Dogs were given co-trimoxazole at 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg body weight at 12-hour intervals for 21 days...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242640/effects-of-maternal-obesity-on-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#17
Heba Badraiq, Aleksandra Cvoro, Antonio Galleu, Marisa Simon, Cristian Miere, Carl Hobbs, Reiner Schulz, Richard Siow, Francesco Dazzi, Dusko Ilic
We investigated whether maternal metabolic environment affects mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) from umbilical cord's Wharton's Jelly (WJ) on a molecular level, and potentially render them unsuitable for clinical use in multiple recipients. In this pilot study on umbilical cords post partum from healthy non-obese (BMI = 19-25; n = 7) and obese (BMI ≥ 30; n = 7) donors undergoing elective Cesarean section, we found that WJ MSC from obese donors showed slower population doubling and a stronger immunosuppressive activity...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242622/assessment-of-disturbed-glucose-metabolism-and-surrogate-measures-of-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#18
Christian L Roth, Clinton Elfers, Christiane S Hampe
BACKGROUND: With the rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese children, it is becoming imperative to detect disturbed glucose metabolism as early as possible in order to prevent T2D development. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 92 obese children (median age 11.7 years, 51% female) and 7 lean children (median age 11.4 years, 57% female) who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a tertiary pediatric care center. Glucose tolerance was assessed and different indices for β-cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were calculated...
December 14, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242601/cell-cycle-synchronisation-of-trypanosoma-brucei-by-centrifugal-counter-flow-elutriation-reveals-the-timing-of-nuclear-and-kinetoplast-dna-replication
#19
Corinna Benz, Frank Dondelinger, Paul G McKean, Michael D Urbaniak
We report an optimised centrifugal counter-flow elutriation protocol for the rapid and direct isolation of G1 cell cycle synchronised populations of both the procyclic and bloodstream form stages of Trypanosoma brucei that yields viable and proliferative cells. The high quality of the synchronisation achieved can be judged by the uniform DNA content, narrow size distribution, synchronous division, and the maintenance of synchronicity into subsequent cell cycles. We show that early-eluting fractions represent different G1 subpopulations that progress through the cell cycle with distinct temporal profiles post-elutriation, as exemplified by the observation of the maturation of a second flagellar basal body in late G1 phase, DNA replication in S phase, and dimethylation of histone H3 in mitosis/cytokinesis...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242535/lipid-bodies-containing-oxidatively-truncated-lipids-block-antigen-cross-presentation-by-dendritic-cells-in-cancer
#20
Filippo Veglia, Vladimir A Tyurin, Dariush Mohammadyani, Maria Blasi, Elizabeth K Duperret, Laxminarasimha Donthireddy, Ayumi Hashimoto, Alexandr Kapralov, Andrew Amoscato, Roberto Angelini, Sima Patel, Kevin Alicea-Torres, David Weiner, Maureen E Murphy, Judith Klein-Seetharaman, Esteban Celis, Valerian E Kagan, Dmitry I Gabrilovich
Cross-presentation is a critical function of dendritic cells (DCs) required for induction of antitumor immune responses and success of cancer immunotherapy. It is established that tumor-associated DCs are defective in their ability to cross-present antigens. However, the mechanisms driving these defects are still unknown. We find that impaired cross-presentation in DCs is largely associated with defect in trafficking of peptide-MHC class I (pMHC) complexes to the cell surface. DCs in tumor-bearing hosts accumulate lipid bodies (LB) containing electrophilic oxidatively truncated (ox-tr) lipids...
December 14, 2017: Nature Communications
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