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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471184/targeting-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-for-the-treatment-of-neuroinflammation
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Fazio, Martina Ulivieri, Claudia Volpi, Marco Gargaro, Francesca Fallarino
A large body of evidence suggests that neuroinflammation lies at the core of nearly all CNS disorders, including psychiatric disorders. Invading and local immune cells orchestrate the series of events that lead to either tissue repair or damage in response to neuroinflammation. Both lymphocytes and microglia express metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, which respond to glutamate or other endogenous activators (e.g. some kynurenine metabolites of tryptophan metabolism) influencing immune phenotype and the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470963/autoantibodies-hurt-transfer-of-patient-derived-caspr2-antibodies-induces-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#2
Matthew A Hunt, Diana S M Nascimento, Alex Bersellini Farinotti, Camilla I Svensson
In this issue of Neuron, Dawes et al. (2018) show that CASPR2 antibodies (Abs) isolated from patients bind specifically to primary afferent cell bodies and induce neuropathic pain in mice. Consequent decreased expression of Kv1 channels and their aberrant localization along myelinated axons explain the observed hyperexcitability and pain.
February 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470839/embryonic-neurogenesis-in-echinoderms
#3
REVIEW
Veronica F Hinman, Robert D Burke
The phylogenetic position of echinoderms is well suited to revealing shared features of deuterostomes that distinguish them from other bilaterians. Although echinoderm neurobiology remains understudied, genomic resources, molecular methods, and systems approaches have enabled progress in understanding mechanisms of embryonic neurogenesis. Even though the morphology of echinoderm larvae is diverse, larval nervous systems, which arise during gastrulation, have numerous similarities in their organization. Diverse neural subtypes and specialized sensory neurons have been identified and details of neuroanatomy using neuron-specific labels provide hypotheses for neural function...
February 22, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470709/arctic-antarctic-and-temperate-green-algae-zygnema-spp-under-uv-b-stress-vegetative-cells-perform-better-than-pre-akinetes
#4
Andreas Holzinger, Andreas Albert, Siegfried Aigner, Jenny Uhl, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Kateřina Trumhová, Martina Pichrtová
Species of Zygnema form macroscopically visible mats in polar and temperate terrestrial habitats, where they are exposed to environmental stresses. Three previously characterized isolates (Arctic Zygnema sp. B, Antarctic Zygnema sp. C, and temperate Zygnema sp. S) were tested for their tolerance to experimental UV radiation. Samples of young vegetative cells (1 month old) and pre-akinetes (6 months old) were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm, 400 μmol photons m-2  s-1 ) in combination with experimental UV-A (315-400 nm, 5...
February 22, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470680/changes-in-skeletal-muscle-and-body-weight-on-sleeping-beauty-transposon-mediated-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-pig-migf-1
#5
Bo Gao, Wei Wang, Han Wu, Cai Chen, Dan Shen, Saisai Wang, Wei Chen, Li Zhang, Shuheng Chan, Chengyi Song
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) is an important growth factor in mammals, but the functions of the local muscle-specific isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1 (mIGF-1) to skeletal muscle development have rarely been reported. To determine the effect of pig mIGF-1 on body development and muscle deposition in vivo and to investigate the molecular mechanisms, the transgenic mouse model was generated which can also provide experimental data for making transgenic pigs with pig endogenous IGF1 gene. We constructed a skeletal muscle-specific expression vector using 5'- and 3'-regulatory regions of porcine skeletal α-actin gene...
February 22, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470431/articular-cartilage-aging-potential-regenerative-capacities-of-cell-manipulation-and-stem-cell-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Magdalena Krajewska-Włodarczyk, Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Waldemar Placek, Adam Osowski, Joanna Wojtkiewicz
Changes in articular cartilage during the aging process are a stage of natural changes in the human body. Old age is the major risk factor for osteoarthritis but the disease does not have to be an inevitable consequence of aging. Chondrocytes are particularly prone to developing age-related changes. Changes in articular cartilage that take place in the course of aging include the acquisition of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype by chondrocytes, a decrease in the sensitivity of chondrocytes to growth factors, a destructive effect of chronic production of reactive oxygen species and the accumulation of the glycation end products...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470430/metabolic-responses-in-endothelial-cells-following-exposure-to-ketone-bodies
#7
Erika Meroni, Nadia Papini, Franca Criscuoli, Maria C Casiraghi, Luca Massaccesi, Nicoletta Basilico, Daniela Erba
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet based on the induction of the synthesis of ketone bodies (KB). Despite its widespread use, the systemic impact of KD is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of physiological levels of KB on HMEC-1 endothelial cells. To this aim, DNA oxidative damage and the activation of Nrf2, a known transcriptional factor involved in cell responses to oxidative stress, were assessed. The exposure of cells to KB exerted a moderate genotoxic effect, measured by a significant increase in DNA oxidative damage...
February 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470174/antidiabetic-and-protective-effects-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-arbutus-unedo-l-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-diabetic-mice
#8
Hanae Naceiri Mrabti, Karima Sayah, Nidal Jaradat, Faouzi Kichou, Abdelaziz Ed-Dra, Badiaa Belarj, Yahia Cherrah, My El Abbes Faouzi
Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is currently a major health problem and the most common chronic disease worldwide. Traditional medicinal plants remedies remain a potential adjunct therapy to maintain better glycemic control while also imparting few side-effects. Arbutus unedo L. has been traditionally used to manage several diseases including diabetes. This study was undertaken to contribute the validation of the traditional use of Arbutus unedoL. (Ericaceae) in the treatment of diabetes. Methods In-vitro antidiabetic effect of the A...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470134/the-effect-of-aronia-berry-on-type-1-diabetes-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#9
Yong-Deok Jeon, Sa-Haeng Kang, Kwang-Hyun Moon, Jeong-Ho Lee, Dae-Geun Kim, Wook Kim, Jong-Sung Kim, Byung-Yong Ahn, Jong-Sik Jin
The number of diabetic patients worldwide is increasing, and complications such as stroke and cardiovascular disease are becoming a serious cause of death. Diabetes mellitus is classified into two types according to the etiopathogenic mechanism and insulin dependence. Type 1 diabetes (T1D), an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is caused by damage and destruction of pancreatic β cells that produce insulin. It is a disease that is characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Aronia berry has been used as a medicinal food in Europe...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470128/human-subcutaneous-tissue-response-to-glucose-sensors-macrophages-accumulation-impact-on-sensor-accuracy
#10
Mercedes Rigla, Belén Pons, Pere Rebasa, Alexis Luna, Francisco Javier Pozo, Assumpta Caixàs, Maria Villaplana, David Subías, Maria Rosa Bella, Neus Combalia
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous (s.c.) glucose sensors have become a key component in type 1 diabetes management. However, their usability is limited by the impact of foreign body response (FBR) on their duration, reliability, and accuracy. Our study gives the first description of human acute and subacute s.c. response to glucose sensors, showing the changes observed in the sensor surface, the inflammatory cells involved in the FBR and their relationship with sensor performance. METHODS: Twelve obese patients (seven type 2 diabetes) underwent two abdominal biopsies comprising the surrounding area where they had worn two glucose sensors: the first one inserted 7 days before and the second one 24 h before biopsy procedure...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469618/elastic-tpu-mesh-as-abdominal-wall-inlay-significantly-reduces-defect-size-in-a-minipig-model
#11
D Heise, R Eickhoff, A Kroh, M Binnebösel, U Klinge, C D Klink, U P Neumann, A Lambertz
BACKGROUND: The open abdomen with mesh implantation, followed by early reoperation with fascial closure, is a modern surgical approach in difficult clinical situations such as severe abdominal sepsis. As early fascial closure is not possible in many cases, mesh-mediated fascial traction is helpful for conditioning of a minimized ventral hernia after open abdomen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utilization of an innovative elastic thermoplastic polyurethane mesh (TPU) as an abdominal wall inlay in a minipig model...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469473/-role-of-rho-gtpases-in-the-immune-regulation-of-infection-and-inflammation
#12
Zhou Wei, Yang Jun-Qi
The Rho subfamily of GTPase belongs to the Ras superfamily of small GTP binding protein, it is a nucleotide dependent protein, which plays a "molecular switch" function in the signal transduction process and control of numerous signaling pathways. Rho protein has many biological effects on cytoskeleton or target proteins as a signal converter in signal transduction, such as the regulation of membrane transport function, cell migration, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation. It also plays a very important role in the infection and immune inflammation of the body...
December 26, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469082/novel-use-of-bioelectric-impedence-technique-to-detect-alterations-in-body-composition-in-advanced-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
A Mohan, R Poulose, A Ansari, K Madan, V Hadda, G C Khilnani, R Guleria
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is frequent in lung cancer and is measured using various tools, including the novel bioelectric impedance technique for measuring body composition. However, the validation of this technique for assessing body composition in advanced small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is untested. METHODS: Forty-one treatment naïve patients (all males) and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated by anthropometric measurements of skinfold thicknesses and body composition parameters such as body fat%, fat mass, fat-free mass (FFM), and total body water (TBW)...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468680/proinflammatory-role-of-blister-fluid-derived-exosomes-in-bullous-pemphigoid
#14
Hui Fang, Shuai Shao, Man Jiang, Erle Dang, Shengxian Shen, Jieyu Zhang, Pei Qiao, Caixia Li, Gang Wang
Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder characterised by the presence of autoantibodies against bullous pemphigoid autoantigens, leading to dermal-epidermal separation with consequent blister formation. However, whether and how the components of blister fluid exacerbate the progression of bullous pemphigoid is unclear. Exosomes are nanometre-sized vesicles released from cells into the body fluid, where they can transmit signals throughout the body. In the present study, we isolated and characterised exosomes from the blister fluids of patients with bullous pemphigoid, evaluated their proinflammatory role, and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468631/high-dose-melphalan-based-sequential-conditioning-chemotherapy-followed-by-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-adult-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukaemia
#15
Nina K Steckel, Christoph Groth, Jan-Henrik Mikesch, Rudolf Trenschel, Hellmut Ottinger, Lambros Kordelas, Carsten Mueller-Tidow, Christoph Schliemann, Christian Reicherts, Joern C Albring, Gerda Silling, Eva Schmidt, Wolfgang E Berdel, Georg Lenz, Markus Ditschkowski, Dietrich W Beelen, Matthias Stelljes
Considering the unsatisfactory results of salvage therapies for patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (R/R-AML), their value before allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains questionable. However, direct allogeneic HSCT following established conditioning regimens applied in patients with R/R-AML during active disease has been equally disappointing. In this retrospective observational study, high-dose melphalan, as part of a sequential preparative regimen, followed by a total body irradiation (4 × 2 Gy)-based or a treosulfan-based dose-adapted conditioning therapy for allogeneic HSCT was administered to 292 adult patients (median age 56 years, range 17-74) with primary refractory (144 patients), secondary refractory (97 patients) or relapsed AML (51 patients)...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468227/solitary-mastocytoma-in-the-eyelid-of-an-adult
#16
Elizabeth L McKinnon, Andrew J Rand, Alan D Proia
Purpose: To describe the ophthalmic symptoms and histopathological findings in a rare case of an eyelid mastocytoma in an adult. Observations: A man in his early 60s developed a painless, non-tender, non-pruritic, mobile nodule on the right lower eyelid beneath the inferior orbital rim. The lesion grew to 15 × 9 mm over eleven months. Biopsy revealed a diffuse infiltrate of histiocytoid and spindle-shaped mast cells forming cords and small nests between collagen fibers in the superficial and deep dermis...
March 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468178/retrograde-interferon-gamma-signaling-induces-major-histocompatibility-class-i-expression-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#17
Benjamin D S Clarkson, Misha S Patel, Reghann G LaFrance-Corey, Charles L Howe
Objective: Injury-associated axon-intrinsic signals are thought to underlie pathogenesis and progression in many neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Retrograde interferon gamma (IFN γ ) signals are known to induce expression of major histocompatibility class I (MHC I) genes in murine axons, thereby increasing the susceptibility of these axons to attack by antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. We sought to determine whether the same is true in human neurons...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468156/adherent-vs-free-floating-neural-induction-by-dual-smad-inhibition-for-neurosphere-cultures-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Martje G Pauly, Victor Krajka, Felix Stengel, Philip Seibler, Christine Klein, Philipp Capetian
Keeping neural stem cells under proliferation, followed by terminal differentiation, can substantially increase the number of neurons generated. With regard to the usability of proliferating neurospheres (NSPHs) cultures, adherent induction protocols have not yet been studied in comparison to embryoid body (EB)-based protocols. To compare these proctocols, neural induction of human induced pluripotent stem cells was performed by dual SMAD inhibition under both adherent and free-floating EB culture conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468140/posttranslational-modifications-of-pyruvate-kinase-m2-tweaks-that-benefit-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Gopinath Prakasam, Mohammad Askandar Iqbal, Rameshwar N K Bamezai, Sybille Mazurek
Cancer cells rewire metabolism to meet biosynthetic and energetic demands. The characteristic increase in glycolysis, i.e., Warburg effect, now considered as a hallmark, supports cancer in various ways. To attain such metabolic reshuffle, cancer cells preferentially re-express the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2, M2-PK) and alter its quaternary structure to generate less-active PKM2 dimers. The relatively inactive dimers cause the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates that are redirected into anabolic pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468088/neck-circumference-is-independently-associated-with-relative-systemic-hypertension-in-young-adults-with-sickle-cell-anaemia
#20
Lawrence A Olatunji, Olatunde P Olabode, Olawale M Akinlade, Abiola S Babatunde, Victoria A Olatunji, Ayodele O Soladoye
Background: A seemingly interesting observation in patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is that they usually have lower systemic blood pressures (BP) and insulin resistance than persons in the general population in spite of chronic inflammation and vasculopathy. However, relative systemic hypertension (rHTN) has been linked to pulmonary hypertension, increased blood viscosity and renal insufficiency, which could indicate a risk of developing cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) in SCA.We therefore hypothesized that neck circumference (NC) and CMD marker; triglyceride glucose (TyG) index would independently predict rHTN in young adults with SCA in steady state...
2018: Clinical Hypertension
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