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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822266/endogenous-non-enzymatic-antioxidants-in-the-human-body
#1
Iwona Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Anna Maria Witkowska, Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko
The exposure of cells, tissues and extracellular matrix to harmful reactive species causes a cascade of reactions and induces activation of multiple internal defence mechanisms (enzymatic or non-enzymatic) that provide removal of reactive species and their derivatives. The non-enzymatic antioxidants are represented by molecules characterized by the ability to rapidly inactivate radicals and oxidants. This paper focuses on the major intrinsic non-enzymatic antioxidants, including metal binding proteins (MBPs), glutathione (GSH), uric acid (UA), melatonin (MEL), bilirubin (BIL) and polyamines (PAs)...
August 16, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822119/five-questions-answered-a-review-of-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Harold L Atkins, Mark S Freedman
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system leading to demyelination, and axonal and neuronal damage, resulting in progressive disability. More intensive therapies such as immunodepletion with hematopoietic stem-cell rescue are being used at a time prior to patients becoming irreversibly disabled. Over the last 15 years, there has been a shift away from using autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplants (aHSCT) to treat patients with progressive MS, towards treating those with active inflammation and relapses...
August 18, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821981/modifiable-factors-and-esophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-published-meta-analyses
#3
REVIEW
Clara Castro, Bárbara Peleteiro, Nuno Lunet
There are marked differences in the etiology of the major histological types of esophageal cancer (EC)-squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and adenocarcinomas (EAC). This study aimed to summarize the current scientific knowledge on modifiable risk factors for EC, by histological type, through a systematic review of meta-analyses referenced in PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge. We identified 100 meta-analyses on risk factors for ESCC (n = 54), EAC (n = 43), or EC (n = 51). ESCC risk significantly increased with alcohol and maté drinking, smoking, red and processed meat consumption and human papillomavirus infection, while it was negatively associated with body mass index and consumption of fruit, vegetables, white meat, folate, and some carotenoids...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821965/increased-endocytosis-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-into-cancerous-urothelial-cells-versus-normal-urothelial-cells
#4
Jasna Lojk, Vladimir Boštjan Bregar, Klemen Strojan, Samo Hudoklin, Peter Veranič, Mojca Pavlin, Mateja Erdani Kreft
The blood-urine barrier is the tightest and most impermeable barrier in the body and as such represents a problem for intravesical drug delivery applications. Differentiation-dependent low endocytotic rate of urothelial cells has already been noted; however, the differences in endocytosis of normal and cancer urothelial cells have not been exploited yet. Here we analysed the endocytosis of rhodamine B isothiocyanate-labelled polyacrylic acid-coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) in biomimetic urothelial in vitro models, i...
August 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821931/targeting-angiogenesis-for-radioimmunotherapy-with-a-177-lu-labeled-antibody
#5
Emily B Ehlerding, Saige Lacognata, Dawei Jiang, Carolina A Ferreira, Shreya Goel, Reinier Hernandez, Justin J Jeffery, Charles P Theuer, Weibo Cai
PURPOSE: Increased angiogenesis is a marker of aggressiveness in many cancers. Targeted radionuclide therapy of these cancers with angiogenesis-targeting agents may curtail this increased blood vessel formation and slow the growth of tumors, both primary and metastatic. CD105, or endoglin, has a primary role in angiogenesis in a number of cancers, making this a widely applicable target for targeted radioimmunotherapy. METHODS: The anti-CD105 antibody, TRC105 (TRACON Pharmaceuticals), was conjugated with DTPA for radiolabeling with (177)Lu (t 1/2 6...
August 18, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821872/microbiota-in-the-coelomic-fluid-of-two-common-coastal-starfish-species-and-characterization-of-an-abundant-helicobacter-related-taxon
#6
Satoshi Nakagawa, Hikari Saito, Akihiro Tame, Miho Hirai, Hideyuki Yamaguchi, Takashi Sunata, Masanori Aida, Hisashi Muto, Shigeki Sawayama, Yoshihiro Takaki
Marine invertebrates associate with diverse microorganisms. Microorganisms even inhabit coelomic fluid (CF), namely, the fluid filling the main body cavity of echinoderms. The CF microbiota potentially impacts host health and disease. Here, we analysed the CF microbiota in two common coastal starfish species, Patiria pectinifera and Asterias amurensis. Although microbial community structures were highly variable among individual starfish, those of P. pectinifera were compositionally similar to those in the surrounding seawater...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821850/comparative-metabonomics-of-wenxin-keli-and-verapamil-reveals-differential-roles-of-gluconeogenesis-and-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-myocardial-injury-protection
#7
Miaomiao Jiang, Qiuying Wang, Jingrui Chen, Yanan Wang, Guanwei Fan, Yan Zhu
Metabonomics/metabolomics is a rapid technology for comprehensive profiling of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues, or whole organisms, the application of which has led to understanding pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiometabolic diseases, defining predictive biomarkers for those diseases, and also assessing the efficacious effects of incident drugs. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was employed to identify the metabolic changes in rat plasma caused by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), and to compare the metabolic regulatory differences between traditional Chinese medicine Wenxin Keli (WXKL) and Western medicine verapamil...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821796/cathepsin-k-knockout-protects-against-cardiac-dysfunction-in-diabetic-mice
#8
Rui Guo, Yinan Hua, Olivia Rogers, Travis E Brown, Jun Ren, Sreejayan Nair
Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin K plays a critical role in cardiac pathophysiology. To expand upon our previous findings, we tested the hypothesis that, knockout of cathepsin K protects against diabetes-associated cardiac anomalies. Wild-type and cathepsin K knockout mice were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) injections. Body weight, organ mass, fasting blood glucose, energy expenditure, cardiac geometry and function, cardiac histomorphology, glutathione levels and protein levels of cathepsin K and those associated with Ca(2+) handling, calcineurin/NFAT signaling, insulin signaling, cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis were determined...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821771/thermal-acclimation-mitigates-cold-induced-paracellular-leak-from-the-drosophila-gut
#9
Heath A MacMillan, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Sima Jonusaite, Scott P Kelly, Andrew Donini
Chill susceptible insects suffer tissue damage and die at low temperatures. The mechanisms that cause chilling injury are not well understood but a growing body of evidence suggests that a cold-induced loss of ion and water homeostasis leads to hemolymph hyperkalemia that depolarizes cells, leading to cell death. The apparent root of this cascade is the net leak of osmolytes down their concentration gradients in the cold. Many insects, however, are capable of adjusting their thermal physiology, and cold-acclimated Drosophila can maintain homeostasis and avoid injury better than warm-acclimated flies...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821741/predicting-the-murine-enterocyte-metabolic-response-to-diets-that-differ-in-lipid-and-carbohydrate-composition
#10
Neeraj Sinha, Maria Suarez-Diez, Evert M van Schothorst, Jaap Keijer, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Guido J E J Hooiveld
The small intestine serves as gatekeeper at the interface between body and diet and is thought to play an important role in the etiology of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. A computational modelling approach was used to improve our understanding of the metabolic responses of epithelial cells to different diets. A constraint based, mouse-specific enterocyte metabolic model (named mmu_ENT717) was constructed to describe the impact of four fully characterized semi-purified diets, that differed in lipid and carbohydrate composition, on uptake, metabolism, as well as secretion of carbohydrates and lipids...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821669/transcriptomic-analysis-of-ribosome-bound-mrna-in-cortical-neurites-in-vivo
#11
Rebecca Ouwenga, Allison M Lake, David O'Brien, Amit Mogha, Adish Dani, Joseph D Dougherty
Localized translation in neurites helps regulate synaptic strength and development. Dysregulation of local translation is associated with many neurological disorders. However, due to technical limitations, study of this phenomenon has largely been limited to brain regions with laminar organization of dendrites such as the hippocampus or cerebellum. It has not been examined in the cortex, a region of importance for most neurological disorders, where dendrites of each neuronal population are densely intermingled with cell bodies of others...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821663/agrp-neurons-can-increase-food-intake-during-conditions-of-appetite-suppression-and-inhibit-anorexigenic-parabrachial-neurons
#12
Rachel A Essner, Alison G Smith, Adam A Jamnik, Anna R Ryba, Zoe D Trutner, Matthew E Carter
To maintain energy homeostasis, orexigenic (appetite-inducing) and anorexigenic (appetite suppressing) brain systems functionally interact to regulate food intake. Within the hypothalamus, neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP) sense orexigenic factors and orchestrate an increase in food-seeking behavior. In contrast, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) suppress feeding. PBN CGRP neurons become active in response to anorexigenic hormones released following a meal, including amylin, secreted by the pancreas, and cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by the small intestine...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821646/location-of-the-mesopontine-neurons-responsible-for-maintanance-of-anesthetic-loss-of-consciousness
#13
Anne Minert, Shai-Lee Yatziv, Marshall Devor
The transition from wakefulness to general anesthesia is widely attributed to suppressive actions of anesthetic molecules distributed by the systemic circulation to the cerebral cortex (for amnesia and loss-of-consciousness) and to the spinal cord (for atonia and antinociception). An alternative hypothesis proposes that anesthetics act on one or more brainstem or diencephalic nuclei, with suppression of cortex and spinal cord mediated by dedicated axonal pathways. We previously documented induction of an anesthesia-like state in rats by microinjection of small amounts of GABAA-R agonists into an upper brainstem region named the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area(MPTA)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820500/odorous-compounds-from-poultry-manure-induce-dna-damage-nuclear-changes-and-decrease-cell-membrane-integrity-in-chicken-liver-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#14
Adriana Nowak, Tadeusz Bakuła, Katarzyna Matusiak, Remigiusz Gałęcki, Sebastian Borowski, Beata Gutarowska
Animal breeding and management of organic wastes pose a serious problem to the health of livestock and workers, as well as the nearby residents. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms of toxicity of selected common odorous compounds from poultry manure, including ammonia, dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), butyric acid, phenol, and indole. We measured their genotoxic and cytotoxic activity in the model chicken cell line (LMH), in vitro, by comet assay and lactate dehydrogenase assay, respectively...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820349/evaluation-of-different-methods-for-dna-extraction-from-human-burnt-bones-and-the-generation-of-genetic-profiles-for-identification
#15
Anum Uzair, Nouman Rasool, Muhammad Wasim
Bone exposure to heat in the presence of moisture breaks the phosphodiester bonds of the backbone, leaving sheared DNA in bone cells. This also limits the possibility of generating a complete profile of the victim. With the increasing incidence of fire outbreaks over the past few years, a paradigm shift to establish identity has been observed, from morphological identification of victims to STR profiling. For this study, 10 bone samples were taken from burnt human bodies that were recovered from different fire outbreak scenes...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820063/loss-in-toxic-function-of-aggregates-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-mutants-by-a-%C3%AE-synuclein-derived-peptide
#16
Soheila Mohammadi, Maryam Nikkhah, Saman Hosseinkhani
Parkinson's disease (PD) primarily results from a severe and selective damage of dopaminergic neurons. The neuropathological hallmark of the disease is the presence of inclusions known as Lewy bodies, that are enriched in α-Synuclein (αS) nanofibrils, within the surviving neurons. The inhibition of αS aggregation is considered as an efficient approach for preventing or treating PD. To date, several researchers have been focused on screening for the inhibitors that are able to block, slow down, or reverse αS aggregation, particularly at its early stages...
August 18, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819990/effects-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-and-sedentary-lifestyle-on-susceptibility-of-adult-offspring-to-ozone-exposure-in-rats
#17
C J Gordon, P M Phillips, A F M Johnstone, J Schmid, M C Schladweiler, A Ledbetter, S J Snow, U P Kodavanti
Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be manifested by maternal obesity. Thirty-day-old female Long-Evans rats were fed a control (CD) or high-fat (HF) (60% calories) diet for 6 wks and then bred. GD1 rats were then housed with a running wheel (RW) or without a wheel (SED) until parturition, creating four groups of offspring: CD-SED, CD-RW, HF-SED and HF-RW...
August 18, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819951/metformin-a-new-old-drug
#18
Marta Patrycja Wróbel, Bogdan Marek, Dariusz Kajdaniuk, Dominika Rokicka, Aleksandra Szymborska-Kajanek, Krzysztof Strojek
For many years metformin has been the gold standard in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. According to recommendations of the most important diabetes associations, this is the first-choice drug for use as monotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Metformin is also recommended in combined treatment when monotherapy is no longer effective. It is then combined with a sulfony-lurea, an incretin, flozin, or insulin, irrespective of the number of insulin injections per day. Besides its properties used in the treatment of diabetes, metformin has been treated for some time as a drug of a so-called pleiotropic activity, as each year brings new reports about its favourable effect in different conditions...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819754/development-of-the-hybrid-cells-in-series-model-to-simulate-ammonia-nutrient-pollutant-transport-along-the-umgeni-river
#19
Kayode O Olowe, Muthukrishnavellaisamy Kumarasamy
Discharge of organic waste results in high nutrient pollution of the water bodies which is a major menace to the environment. A high quantity of nutrients such as ammonia causes a reduction in the dissolved oxygen level and induces algal growth in the water bodies. Water quality models have been the tools to evaluate the rate at which streams can disperse the pollutants they receive. Many water quality models are flawed either because of their inadequacy to completely simulate the advection component of the pollutant transport, or because of the limited application of the models, due to inaccurate estimation of model parameters...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819694/thoracic-corpectomy-for-neoplastic-vertebral-bodies-using-a-navigated-lateral-extracavitary-approach-a-single-center-consecutive-case-series-technique-and-analysis
#20
Sebastian Hartmann, Christoph Wipplinger, Anja Tschugg, Pujan Kavakebi, Alexander Örley, Pierre Pascal Girod, Claudius Thomé
Thoracic myelopathy is often caused by vertebral body fractures resulting from neoplastic conditions, traumatic events, or infectious diseases. One of the preferred procedures for treating it is the lateral extracavitary approach (LECA) with single-level or multilevel decompressive corpectomy and reconstruction. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the thoracic lateral extracavitary approach with corpectomy using vertebral body replacement systems (VBR-S) and dorsal reconstruction. Twenty-four patients with metastatic or primary lesions of thoracic vertebrae T2-T12 underwent spinal decompression and ventral column reconstruction with correction of spinal deformity via a LECA...
August 17, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
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