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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668141/-prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-to-tuberculosis-and-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-infections-in-hiv-positive-patients-in-bogot%C3%A3
#1
Magda Beltrán-León, Francy Pérez-Llanos, Liliana Sánchez, Carlos Parra-López, Myriam Navarrete, Ricardo Sánchez, Carlos Awad, Ana María Granada, Edgardo Quintero, Óscar Briceño, Óscar Cruz, Martha Isabel Murcia
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is one of the most widely distributed infectious diseases worldwide. It is the most common cause of mortality among AIDS patients. In Colombia, 12,918 tuberculosis cases were notified, and 926 deaths were reported in 2015. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to mycobacterial infections in HIVpositive patients in two public hospitals from Bogotá. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective and descriptive study was carried out by an active search for tuberculosis cases and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in HIV-positive patients...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668063/beyond-migration-chemokines-in-lymphocyte-priming-differentiation-and-modulating-effector-functions
#2
REVIEW
Julia M Laufer, Daniel F Legler
Chemokines and their receptors coordinate the positioning of leukocytes, and lymphocytes in particular, in space and time. Discrete lymphocyte subsets, depending on their activation and differentiation status, express various sets of chemokine receptors to be recruited to distinct tissues. Thus, the network of chemokines and their receptors ensures the correct localization of specialized lymphocyte subsets within the appropriate microenvironment enabling them to search for cognate antigens, to become activated, and to fulfill their effector functions...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668043/folate-deficiency-increases-chromosomal-damage-and-mutations-in-hematopoietic-cells-in-the-transgenic-mutamouse-model
#3
Danielle P LeBlanc, Nathalie A Behan, Jason M O'Brien, Francesco Marchetti, Amanda J MacFarlane
Folate deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and neural tube defects, and is also associated with some cancers. In vitro, folate deficiency increases mutation frequency and genome instability, as well as exacerbates the mutagenic potential of known environmental mutagens. Conversely, it remains unclear whether or not elevated folic acid (FA) intakes are beneficial or detrimental to the induction of DNA mutations and by proxy human health. We used the MutaMouse transgenic model to examine the in vivo effects of FA deficient, control, and supplemented diets on somatic DNA mutant frequency (MF) and genome instability in hematopoietic cells...
April 18, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667552/harvesting-isolation-and-differentiation-of-rat-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#4
Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Georgios N Panagopoulos, Myrto Bami, Vasileios G Igoumenou, Leonidas Dimopoulos, Adamantia Milonaki, Maria Kyriakidou, Evanthia Mitsiokapa, Jane Anastassopoulou, Andreas F Mavrogenis
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is one of the most attractive source of stem cells because it can be easily harvested and yields a greater stromal cell density. The multi-lineage potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) demonstrates their significant impact within the field of tissue engineering, with studies successfully demonstrating the ability to produce a range of tissue types. However, although, a broad spectrum of applications has already been suggested, many important scientific and medical questions remain unanswered before the clinical application of ADSCs in humans...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667248/establishment-of-a-radiotelemetric-recording-technique-in-mice-to-investigate-gastric-slow-waves-modulatory-role-of-putative-neurotransmitter-systems
#5
Huichuan Wang, Zengbing Lu, Yuen Hang Liu, Yayi Sun, Longlong Tu, Man P Ngan, Chi-Kong Yeung, John A Rudd
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Gastric slow waves originating from interstitial cells of Cajal-smooth muscle syncytium are usually studied in culture or in tissue segments, but no studies have made recording of slow waves from conscious freely moving mice. Can radiotelemetry be used to record slow waves, and do they respond predictably to drug treatment? What is the main finding and its importance? Radiotelemetry may be used to record slow waves from conscious freely moving mice permitting an examination of drug action in vivo, which is critical to drug discovery projects characterizing drugs and metabolites on gastrointestinal function...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667182/breathing-regulation-and-blood-gas-homeostasis-after-near-complete-lesions-of-the-retrotrapezoid-nucleus-in-adult-rats
#6
George M P R Souza, Roy Kanbar, Daniel S Stornetta, Stephen B G Abbott, Ruth L Stornetta, Patrice G Guyenet
The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is one of several CNS nuclei that contribute, in various capacities (e.g. CO2 detection, neuronal modulation) to the central respiratory chemoreflex (CRC). Here we test how important the RTN is to PCO2 homeostasis and breathing during sleep or wake. RTN Nmb positive neurons were killed with targeted microinjections of substance-P-saporin conjugate in adult rats. Under normoxia, rats with large RTN lesions (92 ± 4 % cell loss) had normal blood pressure (BP) and arterial pH but were hypoxic (-8 mmHg PaO2 ) and hypercapnic (+10 mmHg PaCO2 )...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667156/how-we-manage-patients-with-plasmacytomas
#7
REVIEW
Despina Fotiou, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Efstathios Kastritis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the diagnostic approach, treatment options, and future considerations in the management of plasmacytomas, either solitary or in the context of overt multiple myeloma (MM). RECENT FINDINGS: Advanced imaging techniques such as whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computerized tomography are essential for the diagnostic workup of solitary plasmacytomas (SP) to rule out the presence of other disease foci...
April 17, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667069/the-versatile-role-of-exosomes-in-cancer-progression-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications
#8
REVIEW
Vignesh Sundararajan, Fazlul H Sarkar, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in cancer biology have highlighted the relevance of exosomes and nanovesicles as carriers of genetic and biological messages between cancer cells and their immediate and/or distant environments. It has been found that these molecular cues may play significant roles in cancer progression and metastasis. Cancer cells secrete exosomes containing diverse molecules that can be transferred to recipient cells and/or vice versa to induce a plethora of biological processes, including angiogenesis, metastasis formation, therapeutic resistance, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and epigenetic/stemness (re)programming...
April 17, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666938/multigene-phylogeny-and-cell-evolution-of-chromist-infrakingdom-rhizaria-contrasting-cell-organisation-of-sister-phyla-cercozoa-and-retaria
#9
Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Ema E Chao, Rhodri Lewis
Infrakingdom Rhizaria is one of four major subgroups with distinct cell body plans that comprise eukaryotic kingdom Chromista. Unlike other chromists, Rhizaria are mostly heterotrophic flagellates, amoebae or amoeboflagellates, commonly with reticulose (net-like) or filose (thread-like) feeding pseudopodia; uniquely for eukaryotes, cilia have proximal ciliary transition-zone hub-lattices. They comprise predominantly flagellate phylum Cercozoa and reticulopodial phylum Retaria, whose exact phylogenetic relationship has been uncertain...
April 17, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666926/segmental-reversal-of-distal-small-intestine-in-short-bowel-syndrome-a-study-on-the-influence-on-postoperative-weight-and-intestinal-topography-in-piglets
#10
Pernille Kock Grave, Sabrina Valentin Thomsen, Pia Susanne Clark, Gunvor Iben Madsen, Niels Qvist, Mark Bremholm Ellebæk
PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of segmental reversal of the distal 20 cm of the small intestine in piglets with induced SBS compared to controls with SBS alone. Primary endpoint was postoperative weight change over a period of 1 month. Secondary endpoints were the influence on cell proliferation and mucosal architecture shown by histological analysis. METHODS: Sixteen piglets underwent a 60% resection of the distal small intestine and were randomized into two groups...
April 17, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666907/three-dimensional-analysis-of-nuclear-heterochromatin-distribution-during-early-development-in-the-rabbit
#11
Amélie Bonnet-Garnier, Kiên Kiêu, Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Krisztina Tar, Pierre Flores, Zichuan Liu, Nathalie Peynot, Martine Chebrout, András Dinnyés, Véronique Duranthon, Nathalie Beaujean
Changes to the spatial organization of specific chromatin domains such as constitutive heterochromatin have been studied extensively in somatic cells. During early embryonic development, drastic epigenetic reprogramming of both the maternal and paternal genomes, followed by chromatin remodeling at the time of embryonic genome activation (EGA), have been observed in the mouse. Very few studies have been performed in other mammalian species (human, bovine, or rabbit) and the data are far from complete. During this work, we studied the three-dimensional organization of pericentromeric regions during the preimplantation period in the rabbit using specific techniques (3D-FISH) and tools (semi-automated image analysis)...
April 18, 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666795/cell-chirality-drives-left-right-asymmetric-morphogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Mikiko Inaki, Takeshi Sasamura, Kenji Matsuno
Most macromolecules found in cells are chiral, meaning that they cannot be superimposed onto their mirror image. However, cells themselves can also be chiral, a subject that has received little attention until very recently. In our studies on the mechanisms of left-right (LR) asymmetric development in Drosophila , we discovered that cells can have an intrinsic chirality to their structure, and that this "cell chirality" is generally responsible for the LR asymmetric development of certain organs in this species...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666720/gastric-malt-lymphoma-with-increased-plasma-cell-differentiation-showing-unique-endoscopic-features
#13
Masaya Iwamuro, Takehiro Tanaka, Kenji Nishida, Seiji Kawano, Yoshiro Kawahara, Shogen Ohya, Tadashi Yoshino, Hiroyuki Okada
A 62-year-old woman was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) with increased plasma cell differentiation of the stomach. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed slightly elevated, whitish lesions in the gastric body. Magnifying endoscopic observation revealed that the gastric surface epithelium was swollen, but the structure was not destroyed or diminished. Elongated, tortuous vasculature was observed on the surface of the whitish lesions. The patient underwent eradication treatment for Helicobacter pylori , which resulted in complete remission...
2018: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666617/perspectives-of-phage-eukaryotic-cell-interactions-to-control-epstein-barr-virus-infections
#14
Andrzej Górski, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Natalia Bagińska, Jan Borysowski
Recently, leading medical journals emphasized the importance of further studies on the potential application of bacterial viruses (phages) for the treatment of antibiotics-resistant infections outlining the present status of the therapy and perspectives for the future. Furthermore, a leading scientific journal pointed to the recent progress in research on phage interactions with eukaryotic cells (especially cells of the immune system) and potential implications of their results for our broader understanding of the role of phages - not only as "bacteria eaters" - but also as an important part of our body defense protecting against external and internal pathogenic invaders (as suggested previously)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666210/regulation-and-mechanisms-of-extracellular-vesicle-biogenesis-and-secretion
#15
REVIEW
Crislyn D'Souza-Schorey, Jeffrey S Schorey
EV (extracellular vesicle) biology is a rapidly expanding field. These heterogeneous membrane vesicles, which are shed from virtually all cell types, collectively represent a new dimension of intercellular communication in normal physiology and disease. They have been shown to deliver infectious and pathogenic agents to non-infected cells whereas in cancers they are thought to condition the tumor microenvironment. Their presence in body fluids and inherent capacity for systemic delivery point to their clinical promise...
April 17, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666191/flagellum-inheritance-in-trypanosoma-brucei-requires-a-kinetoplastid-specific-protein-phosphatase
#16
Qing Zhou, Gang Dong, Ziyin Li
Trypanosoma brucei causes sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle in sub-Saharan Africa and alternates between its mammalian hosts and its insect vector, the tsetse fly. T. brucei uses a flagellum for motility, cell division, and cell-cell communication. Proper positioning and attachment of the newly assembled flagellum rely on the faithful duplication and segregation of flagellum-associated cytoskeletal structures. These processes are regulated by the polo-like kinase homolog TbPLK, whose activity and abundance are under stringent control to ensure spatiotemporally regulated phosphorylation of its substrates...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666052/functional-comparison-of-distinct-brachyury-states-in-a-renal-differentiation-assay
#17
Jing Zhou, Antonius Plagge, Patricia Murray
Mesodermal populations can be generated in vitro from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) using three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates called embryoid bodies or two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer culture systems. Here, we investigated whether Brachyury -expressing mesodermal cells generated using 3-D or 2-D culture systems are equivalent, or instead, have different properties. Using a Brachyury -GFP/E2-Crimson reporter mESC line, we isolated Brachyury- GFP+ mesoderm cells using flow-activated cell sorting and compared their gene expression profiles and ex vivo differentiation patterns...
April 17, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665664/-resting-metabolic-rate-estimated-by-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-and-its-determinants-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients
#18
J J Da, H Y Peng, X Lin, Y Shen, J Q Zhao, S He, Y Zha
Objective: To explore the level of resting energy expenditure (REE) estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis and the association of resting metabolic rate (RMR) with clinical related factors, and provide new ideas for improving protein energy wasting (PEW) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Methods: Seven hundred and sixty-five subjects receiving MHD between July 2015 and September 2016 in 11 hemodialysis centers in Guizhou province were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure RMR and body composition, such as lean body mass, fat mass and body cell mass (BCM)...
March 27, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665555/hesperidin-promotes-programmed-cell-death-by-downregulation-of-nongenomic-estrogen-receptor-signalling-pathway-in-endometrial-cancer-cells
#19
Z B Cincin, B Kiran, Y Baran, B Cakmakoglu
Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common malignant gynecologic tumor in women. EC is thought to be caused by increasing estrogen levels relative to progesterone in the body. Hesperidin (Hsd), a biologically active flavonoid, could be extracted from Citrus species. It has been recently shown that Hsd could exert anticarcinogenic properties in different cancer types. However, the effects of Hsd and its molecular mechanisms on EC remain unclear. In this study, the antiproliferative, apoptotic and genomic effects of Hsd in EC and its underlying mechanisms were identified...
April 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665402/n-acetylcysteine-inhibits-mancozeb-induced-impairments-to-the-normal-development-of-zebrafish-embryos
#20
Dennis Guilherme Costa-Silva, Luana Paganotto Leandro, Pratícia Brum Vieira, Nelson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Andressa Rubim Lopes, Lucia Emanueli Schimith, Mauro Eugênio Medina Nunes, Renata Siqueira de Mello, Illana Kemmerich Martins, Adriano Alves de Paula, Andrés Delgado Cañedo, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Thais Posser, Jeferson Luis Franco
Mancozeb (MZ), a manganese/zinc-containing ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (EBCD) fungicide has been claimed to present low acute toxicity and short environmental persistence, however, its effects on embryogenesis in non-target organisms is unclear. Here, we used zebrafish embryos (5 hpf) to assess the potential embryotoxic effects induced by MZ (up to 72 hpf) as well as the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this process by pre-treatment with a classical antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine, NAC). Markers of reactive oxygen species production (ROS), glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were measured along with genotoxicity (comet assay), cell death (Acridine Orange) and behavioral parameters (spontaneous movement, touch stimulation and swimming response), in order to determine potential mechanisms of embryotoxicity...
April 14, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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