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Abdominal Fat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922485/effect-of-abdominal-visceral-fat-on-the-development-of-new-erosive-oesophagitis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Su Youn Nam, Young-Woo Kim, Bum Joon Park, Kum Hei Ryu, Il Ju Choi, Byung-Ho Nam, Hyun Boem Kim
OBJECTIVES: Although abdominal visceral fat has been associated with erosive oesophagitis in cross-sectional studies, there are no data that describe its longitudinal effects. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal effects of abdominal visceral fat on the development of new erosive oesophagitis in patients who did not have erosive oesophagitis at baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-centre prospective study. A total of 1503 participants without erosive oesophagitis at baseline were followed up for 34 months and they underwent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography at both baseline and during follow-up...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922125/an-er%C3%AE-agonist-induces-browning-of-subcutaneous-abdominal-fat-pad-in-obese-female-mice
#2
Yi-Fei Miao, Wen Su, Yu-Bing Dai, Wan-Fu Wu, Bo Huang, Rodrigo P A Barros, Hao Nguyen, Laure Maneix, You-Fei Guan, Margaret Warner, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα(-/-) female mice...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921046/weight-management-in-primary-care
#3
REVIEW
Susanne Maurer
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges worldwide. It is not only a medical but also a philosophical, ecological, economic, sociocultural, and psychological problem as well as a severe consequence of our modern value definition to 'receive more and more'. Therefore, physicians are not able to treat obesity broadly and should not be used as tools to achieve certain weight goals. METHODS: This article presents an outline of conservative obesity therapy...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921045/clinical-scenario-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Swantje Brede, Georg Serfling, Johanna Klement, Sebastian M Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert
The term metabolic syndrome (MeS) refers to a cluster of associated symptoms composed of impaired fasting glucose, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. MeS is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality. The increased amount of visceral fat together with a chronic inflammatory state predisposes to the development of arteriosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia are associated with fatty liver disease. In addition, MeS is linked to non-cardiovascular diseases such as cancer as well as psychiatric or endocrine disorders...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920882/paroxetine-can-enhance-neurogenesis-during-neurogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#5
Maliheh Jahromi, Shahnaz Razavi, Nushin Amirpour, Zahra Khosravizadeh
BACKGROUND: Some antidepressant drugs can promote neuronal cell proliferation in vitro as well as hippocampal neurogenesis in human and animal models. Furthermore, adipose tissue is an available source of adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate in to multiple lineages. Therefore, human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (hAD-SCs) may be a suitable source for regenerative medical applications. Since there is no evidence for the effect of Paroxetine as the most commonly prescribed antidepressant drug for neurogenic potential of hADSCs, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Paroxetine on proliferation and neural differentiation of hADSCs...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920487/synchronous-occurrence-of-a-hepatic-myelolipoma-and-two-hepatocellular-carcinomas
#6
Shao-Yan Xu, Hai-Yang Xie, Lin Zhou, Shu-Sen Zheng, Wei-Lin Wang
Myelolipoma is a rare tumor composed of fat and bone marrow components, most of which are located in the adrenal gland. Myelolipoma in the liver is extremely rare. To date, only 10 cases have been reported in the English-language medical literature. In one of these cases, the hepatic myelolipoma was found within a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we report the first case of the synchronous occurrence of hepatic myelolipoma and HCCs in different liver sections of one patient, a 26-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital because of a 4-d history of upper abdominal pain...
November 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919361/adverse-effects-on-insulin-secretion-of-replacing-saturated-fat-with-refined-carbohydrate-but-not-with-monounsaturated-fat-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-centrally-obese-subjects
#7
Lin F Chang, Shireene R Vethakkan, Kalanithi Nesaretnam, Thomas A B Sanders, Kim-Tiu Teng
BACKGROUND: Current dietary guidelines recommend the replacement of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) with carbohydrates or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) based on evidence on lipid profile alone, the chronic effects of the mentioned replacements on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are however unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the chronic effects of the substitution of refined carbohydrate or MUFA for SAFA on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in centrally obese subjects...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919113/analysis-of-flap-weight-and-postoperative-complications-based-on-flap-weight-in-patients-undergoing-microsurgical-breast-reconstruction
#8
Gretl Lam, Katie E Weichman, Patrick L Reavey, Stelios C Wilson, Jamie P Levine, Pierre B Saadeh, Robert J Allen, Mihye Choi, Nolan S Karp, Vishal D Thanik
Background Higher body mass index (BMI) has been shown to increase postoperative complications in autologous breast reconstruction. However, the correlation with flap weight is unknown. Here, we explore the relationship of flap weights and complication rates in patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction. Methods Retrospective chart review identified all patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction with abdominally based flaps at a single institution between November 2007 and April 2013...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916783/reduction-of-visceral-fat-by-liraglutide-is-associated-with-ameliorations-of-hepatic-steatosis-albuminuria-and-micro-inflammation-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-insulin-treatment-a-randomized-control-trial
#9
Ryotaro Bouchi, Yujiro Nakano, Tatsuya Fukuda, Takato Takeuchi, Masanori Murakami, Isao Minami, Hajime Izumiyama, Koshi Hashimoto, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Liraglutide, an analogue of human glucagon-like peptide 1, reduces cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, it has still been unknown by which mechanisms liraglutide could reduce cardiovascular events. Type 2 diabetic patients with insulin treatment were enrolled in this randomized, open-label, comparative study. Participants were randomly assigned to liraglutide plus insulin (liraglutide group) and insulin treatment (control group) at 1:1 allocation. Primary endpoint was the change in viscera fat are (VFA, cm(2)) at 24 weeks...
December 3, 2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916214/assessment-of-abdominal-fat-using-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-anthropometric-and-biochemical-parameters
#10
Ali Al-Radaideh, Reema Tayyem, Kholoud Al-Fayomi, Nisreen Nimer, Amer Malkawi, Rana Al-Zu Bi, Lana Agraib, Imad Athamneh, Nawal Hijjawi
BACKGROUND: To measure the abdominal subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF) volumes using high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate their association with selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters among obese and nonobese apparently healthy participants. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 167 healthy participants. Abdominal scans were acquired at 3T MRI, and the SF and VF were segmented and their volumes were calculated...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915268/equations-of-prediction-for-abdominal-fat-in-brown-egg-laying-hens-fed-different-diets
#11
C Souza, J J B Jaimes, C E Gewehr
The objective was to use noninvasive measurements to formulate equations for predicting the abdominal fat weight of laying hens in a noninvasive manner. Hens were fed with different diets; the external body measurements of birds were used as regressors. We used 288 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement, submitted for 16 wk to 2 metabolizable energy levels (2,550 and 2,800 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of crude protein in the diet (150, 160, and 170 g/kg), totaling 6 treatments, with 48 hens each...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914137/is-vitamin-d-an-independent-risk-factor-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-healthy-population
#12
Danbee Park, Hyuktae Kwon, Seung Won Oh, Hee Kyung Joh, Seung Sik Hwang, Jin Ho Park, Jae Moon Yun, Hyejin Lee, Goh Eun Chung, Sangjoon Ze, Jae Hong Park, Yeseul Bae, Arang Lee
The association between vitamin D levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized. However, few studies showed independent associations between vitamin D deficiency and NAFLD after a sex-related adjustment for metabolic factors. We aimed to study whether vitamin D deficiency is an independent risk factor of NAFLD even after controlling for metabolic syndrome and visceral fat in both sexes. In this cross-sectional study, 7,514 Korean adults (5,278 men, 2,236 women) participated in a health check-up program...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913848/increased-fetal-adiposity-prior-to-diagnosis-of-gestational-diabetes-in-south-asians-more-evidence-for-the-thin-fat-baby
#13
Hema Venkataraman, Uma Ram, Sam Craik, Anuradhai Arungunasekaran, Suresh Seshadri, Ponnusamy Saravanan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased future risk of obesity in the offspring. Increased adiposity has been observed in the newborns of women with GDM. Our aim was to examine early fetal adiposity in women with GDM. METHODS: Obstetric and sonographic data was collated for 153 women with GDM and 178 controls from a single centre in Chennai, India. Fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and biparietal diameter (BPD) were recorded at 11, 20 and 32 weeks...
December 2, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911483/effects-of-dietary-heme-iron-and-exercise-training-on-abdominal-fat-accumulation-and-lipid-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#14
Masanori Katsumura, Shoko Takagi, Hana Oya, Shohei Tamura, Takaoki Saneyasu, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue...
December 2, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909908/obesity-and-liver-cancer
#15
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Sabrina Schlesinger
Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905531/a-indicator-of-visceral-adipose-dysfunction-to-evaluate-metabolic-health-in-adult-chinese
#16
Ming-Feng Xia, Ying Chen, Huan-Dong Lin, Hui Ma, Xiao-Ming Li, Qiqige Aleteng, Qian Li, Dan Wang, Yu Hu, Bai-Shen Pan, Xue-Jun Li, Xiao-Ying Li, Xin Gao
Visceral adipose dysfunction is a major cause of metabolic disorders. However, there is lack of a clinical index for prediction of visceral fat dysfunction in Asians. The present study aims to establish a visceral adiposity index for evaluation of metabolic health status in Chinese, the largest Asian ethnic group. 485 subjects were recruited from Lianqian Community, Xiamen and received abdominal computed tomography(CT) for visceral fat area. A Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) was created using multivariate linear regression analyses, and was further validated in 6495 subjects recruited from Changfeng Community, Shanghai...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904608/arnebia-euchroma-ointment-can-reduce-abdominal-fat-thickness-and-abdominal-circumference-of-overweight-women-a-randomized-controlled-study
#17
Mansour Siavash, Mohsen Naseri, Mojgan Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE) ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903520/visceral-adiposity-and-metabolic-syndrome-after-very-high-fat-and-low-fat-isocaloric-diets-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Vivian L Veum, Johnny Laupsa-Borge, Øyvin Eng, Espen Rostrup, Terje H Larsen, Jan Erik Nordrehaug, Ottar K Nygård, Jørn V Sagen, Oddrun A Gudbrandsen, Simon N Dankel, Gunnar Mellgren
BACKGROUND: Different aspects of dietary pattern, including macronutrient and food profiles, may affect visceral fat mass and metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that consuming energy primarily from carbohydrate or fat in diets with similar food profiles would differentially affect the ability to reverse visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: Forty-six men (aged 30-50 y) with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) >29 and waist circumference >98 cm were randomly assigned to a very high-fat, low-carbohydrate (VHFLC; 73% of energy fat and 10% of energy carbohydrate) or low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC; 30% of energy fat and 53% of energy carbohydrate) diet for 12 wk...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901177/agreement-between-bmi-and-body-fat-obesity-definitions-in-a-physically-active-population
#19
Luiz Guilherme G Porto, Rosenkranz M Nogueira, Eugênio C Nogueira, Guilherme E Molina, Andrea Farioli, Luiz Fernando Junqueira, Stefanos N Kales
Objectives: Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used proxy of body composition (BC). Concerns exist regarding possible BMI misclassification among active populations. We compared the prevalence of obesity as categorized by BMI or by skinfold estimates of body fat percentage (BF%) in a physically active population. Subjects and methods: 3,822 military firefighters underwent a physical fitness evaluation including cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) by the 12 min-Cooper test, abdominal strength by sit-up test (SUT) and body composition (BC) by BF% (as the reference), as well as BMI...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900852/association-of-ultrasound-based-measures-of-fetal-body-composition-with-newborn-adiposity
#20
S Ikenoue, F Waffarn, K Sumiyoshi, M Ohashi, C Ikenoue, C Buss, D L Gillen, H N Simhan, S Entringer, P D Wadhwa
BACKGROUND: Newborns exhibit substantial variation in gestational age-adjusted and sex-adjusted fat mass proportion. The antecedent characteristics of fetal body composition that are associated with newborn fat mass proportion are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether a composite measure of fetal fat mass is prospectively associated with newborn adiposity. METHODS: In a longitudinal study of 109 low-risk pregnancies, fetal ultrasonography was performed at approximately 12, 20 and 30 weeks gestation...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
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