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Abdominal Fat

Ryoko Shimada, Miho Fujita, Masahiro Yuasa, Hiromi Sawamura, Toshiaki Watanabe, Ayaka Nakashima, Kengo Suzuki
In the present study, the effects of Euglena and paramylon on hyperglycemia were examined in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF; type 2 diabetes mellitus model) rats. OLETF rats were fed an AIN-93 M diet containing cellulose, Euglena, or paramylon for 10 weeks. Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were used as nondiabetic controls. An oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0 and 10 weeks. OLETF control rats were obese because of bulimia and showed abdominal fat accumulation and hyperglycemia...
October 24, 2016: Food & Function
Arash Momeni, Suhail K Kanchwala
BACKGROUND: Autologous breast reconstruction is associated with long-term patient satisfaction that is superior to implant-based approaches. Occasionally, however, patients who desire autologous reconstruction present with inadequate donor-site volume. A hybrid approach, combining free flap reconstruction with simultaneous implant placement, is a solution. We present our experience with the use of mesh for improved pocket control using this reconstructive modality. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing autologous breast reconstruction was performed...
October 22, 2016: Microsurgery
Taulant Muka, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Joshua R Lewis, Richar L Prince, Nicole S Erler, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study whether dietary fat composition (n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (PUFAs) and PUFAs and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) ratio) is associated with total body fat (TF) and body fat distribution and whether this association was modified by the presence of chronic disease in middle-aged and elderly women in two population-based cohorts in the Netherlands and Australia. METHODS: The study was performed in the Rotterdam Study (RS), a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 1182 women) and the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study (CAIFOS), a 5-year randomized controlled trial among women age 70+ (N = 891)...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Christian Carpéné, Francisco Les, Mounia Hasnaoui, Simon Biron, Picard Marceau, Denis Richard, Jean Galitzky, Denis R Joanisse, Pascale Mauriège
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), identical to primary amine oxidase or vascular adhesion protein-1, is a membrane enzyme that generates hydrogen peroxide. SSAO is highly expressed at the adipocyte surface, and its plasma levels increase with type 2 diabetes. Since visceral adipose tissue (AT) is more tightly associated with obesity complications than subcutaneous (SC) abdominal fat, we compared SSAO activity in plasma and 4 distinct AT locations in 48 severely obese women (body mass index (BMI), averaging 54 ± 11 kg/m(2)), with or without a dysmetabolic profile...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Vanessa Di Cataldo, Alain Géloën, Jean-Baptiste Langlois, Fabien Chauveau, Benoît Thézé, Violaine Hubert, Marlène Wiart, Erica N Chirico, Jennifer Rieusset, Hubert Vidal, Vincent Pialoux, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas
Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE(-/-) mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE(-/-) mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes, Francisco Sampaio, Nuno Bettencourt, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Nuno Ferreira, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Vasco Gama
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events...
October 17, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
Morgana Mongraw-Chaffin, Alka M Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula, Arti Shah, Cheryl A M Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Few studies examine the relationships between anthropometry and the body composition measures they approximate, or whether they differ by sex, and no studies have examined these relationships in South Asians living in the US. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 871 participants in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study who had BMI < 40 kg/m(2) and underwent abdominal CT scans for measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Hui-Jie Zhang, Ling-Ling Pan, Zhi-Min Ma, Zheng Chen, Zhu-Feng Huang, Qian Sun, Yan Lu, Cheng-Kun Han, Ming-Zhu Lin, Xue-Jun Li, Shu-Yu Yang, Xiao-Ying Li
Exercise training can reduce hepatic fat accumulation and cardiovascular risk among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but how long these benefits extend beyond the period of active intervention is unclear. Intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and metabolic risk factors were assessed among 220 obese subjects with NAFLD who were randomly assigned to vigorous-moderate exercise, moderate exercise, or control over the subsequent 1 year after 12-month exercise intervention...
October 19, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Matteo Bonatti, Norberto Vezzali, Antonio Frena, Giampietro Bonatti
Incisional hernia represents a rare complication after ventriculoperitoneal shunt positioning due to failure of the fascial suture in the site of abdominal entrance of ventriculoperitoneal catheter. Clinical presentation can be extremely variable, according to patient's performance status, herniated material constitution (i.e. mesenteric fat, bowel loops or both) and complication occurrence (e.g. strangulation or intestinal obstruction). Early diagnosis is fundamental in order to surgically repair the defect and prevent further complications...
June 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Aijuan Zheng, Wenhuan Chang, Guohua Liu, Ying Yue, Jianke Li, Shu Zhang, Huiyi Cai, Aijun Yang, Zhimin Chen
Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
2016: PloS One
C Cortes-Oliveira, C F Nicoletti, M A de Souza Pinhel, B A P de Oliveira, D C G Quinhoneiro, N Y Noronha, J S Marchini, W A da Silva Júnior, W S Júnior, C B Nonino
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although energy restriction contributes to weight loss, it may also reduce energy expenditure, limiting the success of weight loss in the long term. Studies have described how genetics contributes to the development of obesity, and uncoupling proteins 1 and 2 (UCP1 and UCP2) and beta-3-adrenoceptor (ADRB3) have been implicated in the metabolic pathways that culminate in this condition. This study aimed to evaluate how the UCP1, UCP2 and ADRB3 genes influence weight loss in severely obese women submitted to hypocaloric dietary intervention...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
H Fukasawa, M Kaneko, H Niwa, T Matsuyama, H Yasuda, H Kumagai, R Furuya
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Higher body mass index appears protective in hemodialysis patients, although it remains to be determined which component of muscle or fat mass is primarily associated with this survival advantage. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eighty-one hemodialysis patients in our institution were prospectively followed from July 2011 to August 2015. Muscle and fat mass were evaluated by measuring the cross-sectional areas of the thigh and abdomen using computed tomography...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Magdalena Gibas-Dorna, Monika Szulińska, Piotr Turkowski, Justyna Kupsz, Anna Sowińska, Kinga Mikrut, Małgorzata Bernatek, Jacek Piatek
The aim of the current study was to examine the liposuction-induced metabolic changes with regard to release of major adipokines and insulin sensitivity in overweight male patients. Seventeen overweight male patients aged 37.15 ± 9.60 years (6 with diabetes type 2, 11 without comorbidities) and 10 age-matched healthy lean controls were enrolled in the study. Using Vibration Amplification of Sound Energy at Resonance System, ultrasound assisted liposuction was applied onto the deep layers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
Poghni Peri-Okonny, Colby Ayers, Naim Maalouf, Sandeep Das, James De Lemos, Jarett Berry, Aslan Turer, Ian Neeland, Philipp Scherer, Wanpen Vongpatanasin
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of body adiposity on relationship between leptin and incident hypertension in a multiethnic sample of US population. DESIGN AND METHOD: Participants were normotensive adults with BP ≤ 130/85 enrolled in Dallas Heart Study, a large, multiethnic population-based cohort. Incident hypertension was defined as systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg, or initiation of antihypertensive medications.Biomarkers were measured at baseline from fasting venous blood samples...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Duk Hee Lee
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of major cardiovascular risk factors like glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. The most important risk factor for MetS is abdominal obesity. Also, insulin resistance is considered as an underlying pathophysiology of MetS. Under the current paradigm, excess calorie intake and physical inactivity are major contributors to obesity and insulin resistance.Meanwhile, many environmental chemicals have recently received attention as a significant contributor to obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Wenting Ai, Min Wu, Lin Chen, Baozhou Jiang, Mian Mu, Lihua Liu, Zuyi Yuan
The effects of ghrelin, a peptide hormone, on atherogenesis are mainly beneficial. This study aimed to investigate whether ghrelin ameliorates atherosclerosis (AS) by preventing endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). AS was induced by a high-fat diet in ApoE(-/-) mice. AS lesions in aortas were detected by Oil-red O staining, and the inner diameter and intima-media thickness (IMT) of the abdominal aorta were analyzed by ultrasonography. The protein expression of the ERS markers 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein, C/EBP homologous protein, and active caspase-12 was detected by western blot analysis...
October 18, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Kara M Whitaker, Andrew O Odegaard, David R Jacobs, Stephen Sidney, Mark A Pereira
PURPOSE: We examined whether sedentary lifestyle habits and physical activity level are associated with abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and liver attenuation, independently of each other and potential confounders. METHODS: Analysis of 3,010 African American and Caucasian men and women, aged 42-59 years, from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who completed multiple-slice abdominal computed tomography (CT) in 2010-2011...
October 3, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Zulfa Abrahams, Naomi Levitt, Maia Lesosky, Gary Maartens, Joel Dave
Long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of developing lipodystrophy. Few studies from Africa have used longitudinal data to assess the development of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy. We use clinical anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to describe changes in body fat distribution over a 24-month period in individuals initiated on ART. A convenience sample of black South Africans (55 men and 132 women) were recruited and followed for 24 months after commencing ART...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Amir Reza Radmard, Mohammad Sadegh Rahmanian, Alireza Abrishami, Ali Yoonessi, Soheil Kooraki, Mehrdad Dadgostar, Amir Pejman Hashemi Taheri, Marjan Gerami Seresht, Hossein Poustchi, Elham Jafari, Reza Malekzadeh, Shahin Merat
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and quantitative measures of central adiposity in the general population using a semi-automated method on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from Golestan Cohort Study. Two groups of 120 individuals with and without fatty liver were randomly selected based on findings of ultrasound. Non-invasive diagnosis of NAFLD was made by combination of ultrasound and MRI...
October 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
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