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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513771/species-distribution-and-antifungal-susceptibility-patterns-of-candida-isolates-from-a-public-tertiary-teaching-hospital-in-the-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#1
P Mnge, B I Okeleye, S D Vasaikar, T Apalata
Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine...
May 15, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510690/trichosporonosis-in-pediatric-patients-with-a-hematologic-disorder
#2
Catherine E Foster, Morven S Edwards, Julienne Brackett, Deborah A Schady, C Mary Healy, Carol J Baker
Background.: Trichosporonosis is an emerging and often fatal opportunistic fungal infection in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with hematologic malignancy, but data in children are lacking. Methods.: We report here 3 cases of invasive infection caused by Trichosporon asahii in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, Texas. We also conducted a literature review and identified 16 additional reports of pediatric patients with invasive T asahii infection and an underlying malignant or nonmalignant hematologic disorder...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501465/candiduria-evidence-based-approach-to-management-are-we-there-yet
#3
REVIEW
W A Alfouzan, R Dhar
Candiduria is considered one of the most controversial issues in patient management. Neither the diagnosis nor the optimal treatment options are standardized. This is further complicated by lack of defined laboratory criteria for diagnosis as most of the studies were set for bacterial rather than fungal urinary tract infection (UTI). Furthermore, since Candida species is a known commensal of the genitourinary tract its presence in the urine sample adds ambiguity to making a definitive diagnosis of candidal UTI...
May 10, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499959/impact-of-initial-empirical-antifungal-agents-on-the-outcome-of-critically-ill-patients-with-invasive-candidiasis-analysis-of-the-china-scan-study
#4
Na Cui, Hao Wang, Haibo Qiu, Ruoyu Li, Dawei Liu
The effect of different empirical antifungal agents on the clinical outcome of critically ill patients with invasive candidiasis (IC) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, 136 patients with proven IC who received empirical therapy in the China-SCAN multicentre study were retrospectively analysed. Initial empirical antifungal monotherapy consisted of a triazole [fluconazole (n = 61), voriconazole (n = 20) or itraconazole (n = 12)] or an echinocandin (n = 43). Hospital mortality as the primary outcome and global responses (clinical and microbiological) were assessed...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496146/the-antifungal-pipeline-a-reality-check
#5
REVIEW
John R Perfect
Invasive fungal infections continue to appear in record numbers as the immunocompromised population of the world increases, owing partially to the increased number of individuals who are infected with HIV and partially to the successful treatment of serious underlying diseases. The effectiveness of current antifungal therapies - polyenes, flucytosine, azoles and echinocandins (as monotherapies or in combinations for prophylaxis, or as empiric, pre-emptive or specific therapies) - in the management of these infections has plateaued...
May 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493006/activity-of-combined-antifungal-agents-against-multidrug-resistant-candida-glabrata-strains
#6
Laura Bedin Denardi, Jéssica Tairine Keller, Vanessa Oliveira, Débora Alves Nunes Mario, Janio Morais Santurio, Sydney Hartz Alves
In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of echinocandins, azoles, and amphotericin B alone and in combination against echinocandin/azole-sensitive and echinocandin/azole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates. Susceptibility tests were performed using the broth microdilution method in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M27-A3. The checkerboard method was used to evaluate the fractional inhibitory concentration index of the interactions. Cross-resistance was observed among echinocandins; 15% of the isolates resistant to caspofungin were also resistant to anidulafungin and micafungin...
May 10, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492295/elderly-versus-non-elderly-patients-with-intra-abdominal-candidiasis-in-the-icu
#7
George Dimopoulos, Dimitrios K Matthaiou, Elda Righi, Maria Merelli, Matteo Bassetti
BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) has a considerable cost in terms of mortality and morbidity. We sought to study the epidemiology, characteristics and outcome of elderly (>75 years old) versus non-elderly patients with IAC and risk factors for mortality in elderly patients. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of a retrospective multinational cohort study over a 3- year period (2011-2013). RESULTS: Of 482 patients, 124 (25.7%) were elderly and 358 (74...
May 11, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491490/rapid-emergence-of-fks-mutations-in-candida-glabrata-isolates-in-a-peritoneal-candidiasis
#8
Milène Sasso, Claire Roger, Laurence Lachaud
We report a rapid acquisition of echinocandin resistance after 12 days of micafungin treatment, without prior exposure, in a patient with peritoneal candidiasis due to C. glabrata. Isolates recovered before and after treatment were compared by multilocus sequence typing. Results of antifungal susceptibility testing and FKS mutations were reported. The interest of repeating antifungal susceptibility testing for echinocandin molecules during the treatment is discussed and a strategy to research FKS mutations proposed...
June 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483957/candida-parapsilosis-sensu-lato-in-pediatric-patients-identification-of-cryptic-species-and-antifungal-susceptibility-testing
#9
Maria Emilia Cattana, Catiana Dudiuk, Mariana Fernández, Florencia Rojas, Liliana Alegre, Susana Córdoba, Guillermo García-Effron, Gustavo Giusiano
A total of 59 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 1 C. orthopsilosis recovered from catheters and blood cultures of pediatric patients of the Northeastern region of Argentina were studied. Susceptibility to azoles, amphotericin B, and echinocandins were tested by broth microdilution method. According to CLSI clinical breakpoints, more than 91% of the strains were azole-susceptible while 15% showed high amphotericin B MICs.
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480239/safety-and-efficacy-of-anidulafungin-for-fungal-infection-in-patients-with-liver-dysfunction-or-multiorgan-failure
#10
Anita Verma, Georg Auzinger, Michal Kantecki, James Campling, Dean Spurden, Fran Percival, Nigel Heaton
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to review our clinical experience on the safety and efficacy of anidulafungin, an echinocandin antifungal, in the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in patients with moderate to severe abnormal liver function tests or multiorgan failure and IFI, in a large United Kingdom Liver Centre. METHODS: The clinical records of the first 50 consecutive patients treated for IFI with anidulafungin between January 7, 2009 and March 2, 2011 were analyzed...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478968/an-unusual-case-of-urinary-tract-infection-caused-by-saprochaete-capitata-under-anidulafungin-treatment
#11
G Hazirolan, A Aypak, N Aksu
Saprochaete capitata may cause uncommon severe infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Here, we describe a rare case of urinary tract infection by S. capitata in a chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus patient, which occur during anidulafungin therapy. Mycological examinations of urine were positive to S. capitata identified by mass spectrometry and confirmed by ITS sequencing. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the isolate for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and, anidulafungin were 2, 16, 1, 1, and 8μg/mL, respectively...
May 3, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461313/phenotypic-and-molecular-evaluation-of-echinocandin-susceptibility-of-candida-glabrata-candida-bracarensis-and-candida-nivariensis-strains-isolated-during-30-years-in-argentina
#12
Soraya Morales-López, Catiana Dudiuk, Walter Vivot, Wanda Szusz, Susana B Córdoba, Guillermo Garcia-Effron
The echinocandin susceptibility of 122 C. glabrata complex strains (including 5 C. nivariensis and 3 C. bracarensis) were evaluated by microdilution and compared with a molecular tool able to detect FKS mutations. No echinocandin resistance was detected. PCR results coincide with MIC data in 99.25% of the cases (1 C. glabrata was misidentified as resistant) but were 20 hours faster. C. nivariensis FKSs were sequenced showing differences with C. glabrata FKSs.
May 1, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456868/comparative-pathogenicity-of-lomentospora-prolificans-scedosporium-prolificans-isolates-from-mexican-patients
#13
Mariana Elizondo-Zertuche, Alexandra M Montoya, Efrén Robledo-Leal, Idalia Garza-Veloz, Ana L Sánchez-Núñez, Raquel Ballesteros-Elizondo, Gloria M González
We identified 11 Lomentospora prolificans isolates recovered from Mexican patients using phenotypic and molecular characteristics. The identification of isolates was assessed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA) sequencing. In vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin was determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) procedures. Three isolates (07-2239, 11-2242 and 04-2673) were used to induce systemic infection in immunocompetent ICR mice...
April 29, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438935/candida-guilliermondii-complex-is-characterized-by-high-antifungal-resistance-but-low-mortality-a-report-on-22-cases-of-candidemia
#14
Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Felipe Pérez-García, Pilar Escribano, Carlos Sánchez-Carrillo, Oscar Zaragoza, Belén Padilla, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Benito Almirante, M Teresa Martin-Gómez, Patricia Muñoz, Emilio Bouza, Jesús Guinea
Objectives: The objectives of our study were to describe the characteristics of patients infected with C. guilliermondii candidemia and to perform an in-depth microbiological characterization of isolates and compare them with those of patients with C. albicans candidemia.Methods: We described the risk factors and outcome of 22 patients with candidemia caused by C. guilliermondii complex. Incident isolates were identified using molecular techniques, and susceptibility to fluconazole, anidulafungin and micafungin was studied...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437176/echinocandins-in-ocular-therapeutics
#15
Akash Patil, Soumyajit Majumdar
Fungal infections of the eye, especially fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis, are major causes of concern and if left untreated could lead to vision loss. Currently, natamycin (polyene antifungal) is the only commercially available topical agent used for the treatment of ocular fungal infections. The other antifungals, belonging to the polyene and azole classes, are used off-label in treating ocular infections and are administered topically, orally, intraocularly, or systemically. Even though their use through the different routes of administration has shown favorable outcomes, challenges such as poor ocular penetration, low bioavailability, ocular toxicity, and systemic side effects limit their utility...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434558/resistance-profiles-and-risk-factors-of-resistant-microorganisms-in-bacteraemia-of-abdominal-origin
#16
J Martín Jaramago, R Armero Ibáñez, J J Camarena Miñana, M Morales Suárez-Varela
OBJECTIVE: The presence of resistant microorganisms is a major cause of failure in initial empirical antimicrobial therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the resistance profile of microorganisms that cause bacteraemia of abdominal origin and to identify whether the previous use of antibiotics and the place of acquisition of bacteraemia are risk factors associated with the presence of resistant organisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A clinical, observational, epidemiological, retrospective cohort study was conducted with all the adult patients admitted to a university hospital from 2011-2013...
April 20, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431933/caspofungin-versus-micafungin-in-the-incidence-of-hepatotoxicity-in%C3%A2-patients-with-normal-to-moderate-liver-failure
#17
Yuichi Shibata, Mao Hagihara, Hideo Kato, Noriyo Kawasumi, Jun Hirai, Naoya Nishiyama, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Katsuhiko Matsuura, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: One of the major adverse events of caspofungin and micafungin is hepatotoxicity, however, there are few reports compared the incidence of hepatotoxicity between caspofungin and micafungin. Herein, the primary objective of this study was to compare the incidence of hepatotoxicity between caspofungin and micafungin treatments for patients with fungal or suspected fungal infection. METHODS: In total, 201 patients [caspofungin group: 66 patients; micafungin group: 135 patients] treated with echinocandins from April 2014 to November 2015 at Aichi Medical University Hospital...
June 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429246/comparison-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-caspofungin-versus-micafungin-in-pediatric-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-a-retrospective-analysis
#18
Natalia Maximova, Giulia Schillani, Roberto Simeone, Alessandra Maestro, Davide Zanon
INTRODUCTION: The high morbidity and mortality associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) provide the rationale for antifungal prophylaxis in immuno-compromised pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Caspofungin and micafungin are antifungal agents of interest for prophylaxis of IFIs because of their potency against Candida and minimal toxicity or interactions with other drugs. Few studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of such echinocandins as prophylaxis for IFIs in patients undergoing HSCT...
May 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425571/clinical-factors-affecting-costs-in-patients-receiving-systemic-antifungal-therapy-in-intensive-care-units-in-greece-results-from-the-estimator-study
#19
A Armaganidis, S Nanas, E Antoniadou, K Mandragos, K Liakou, A Koutsoukou, G Baltopoulos, G Nakos, A Kounougeri, K Ganas, A Prekates, M Kompoti, D Georgopoulos, I Pneumatikos, E Zakynthinos
Invasive fungal infections are common in intensive care units (ICUs) but there is a great variability in factors affecting costs of different antifungal treatment strategies in clinical practice. To determine factors affecting treatment cost in adult ICU patients with or without documented invasive fungal infection receiving systemic antifungal therapy (SAT) we have performed a prospective, multicentre, observational study enrolling patients receiving SAT in participating ICUs in Greece. During the study period, 155 patients received SAT at 14 participating ICUs: 37 (23...
April 20, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412040/ros-formation-is-a-differential-contributory-factor-to-the-fungicidal-action-of-amphotericin-b-and-micafungin-in-candida-albicans
#20
José P Guirao-Abad, Ruth Sánchez-Fresneda, Begoña Alburquerque, José A Hernández, Juan-Carlos Argüelles
The hypothetical role played by the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the fungicidal action carried out by Amphotericin B (AmB) and Micafungin (MF) was examined in Candida albicans, which remains the most prevalent fungal pathogen. The clinical MICs for MF and AmB were 0.016 and 0.12μg/ml, respectively. Whereas AmB (0.5-1.0×MIC) induced a marked production of intracellular ROS accompanied by a high degree of cell killing in the C. albicans SC5314 strain, the fungicidal effect of MF was still operative, but ROS generation was slight...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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