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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164433/distal-lateral-subungual-onychomycosis-owing-to-tritirachium-oryzae-a-bystander-or-invader
#1
Hari Pankaj Vanam, P Narsimha Rao, Kalyani Mohanram, Prakash Peralam Yegneswaran, Shiva Prakash Mandya Rudramurthy
The genus Tritirachium is a mitosporic fungus which inhabits in soil and decaying plant material and also a notable insect pathogen. Human infections with Tritirachium species though rare were previously reported to cause corneal ulcers, otomycosis, onychomycosis, and dermatomycosis of the scalp and hence may be considered as a potential pathogen. Here we report a case of distal lateral subungual onychomycosis involving right great toenail in a 22-year-old female, wherein direct potassium hydroxide preparations, fungal cultures, and molecular sequencing of the isolate established Tritirachium oryzae as the etiological agent...
November 21, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163920/harnessing-fungal-nonribosomal-cyclodepsipeptide-synthetases-for-mechanistic-insights-and-tailored-engineering
#2
Charlotte Steiniger, Sylvester Hoffmann, Andi Mainz, Marcel Kaiser, Kerstin Voigt, Vera Meyer, Roderich D Süssmuth
Nonribosomal peptide synthetases represent potential platforms for the design and engineering of structurally complex peptides. While previous focus has been centred mainly on bacterial systems, fungal synthetases assembling drugs like the antifungal echinocandins, the antibacterial cephalosporins or the anthelmintic cyclodepsipeptide (CDP) PF1022 await in-depth exploitation. As various mechanistic features of fungal CDP biosynthesis are only partly understood, effective engineering of NRPSs has been severely hampered...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141400/antifungal-treatment-with-echinocandins-a-10-year-clinical-experience
#3
R Poves-Alvarez, B Cano-Hernández, S Balbás-Alvarez, P Román-García, M Heredia-Rodríguez, E Gómez-Sánchez, E Gómez-Pesquera, M Lorenzo-López, B Martínez-Rafael, M F Muñoz-Moreno, J M Eiros, E Tamayo
OBJECTIVE: The number of studies evaluating the use of echinocandins, whether or not its indication meets international guidelines, in clinical practice is limited. The objective of the present study was to determine the use of echinocandins in a tertiary Spanish hospital in 10 years of clinical practice, and to evaluate its impact on prognosis. METHODS: This retrospective study involved adult nonneutropenic ill patients with suspicion of fungal invasion who started treatment with echinocandins between 2006 and 2015...
November 10, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133552/cd101-a-novel-echinocandin-possesses-potent-anti-biofilm-activity-against-early-and-mature-candida-albicans-biofilms
#4
Jyotsna Chandra, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
Currently available echinocandins are generally effective against Candida biofilms, but recent emergence of resistance has underscored the importance of developing new antifungal agents that are effective against biofilms. CD101 is a long-acting, novel echinocandin with distinctive pharmacokinetic properties and improved stability and safety relative to other drugs in the same class. CD101 is currently being evaluated as a once-weekly IV infusion for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. In this study, we determined: (1) the effect of CD101 against early and mature phase biofilms formed by C...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120502/necrotizing-microascus-tracheo-bronchitis-in-a-bilateral-lung-transplant-recipient
#5
Olivier Taton, Benjamin Bernier, Isabelle Etienne, Benjamin Bondue, Sophie Lecomte, Christiane Knoop, Frederique Jacob, Isabel Montesinos
Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of mortality among solid organ transplant recipients. Scopulariopsis species and their teleomorph Microascus are molds found in soil and decaying organic matter. We report here the case of a woman who underwent bilateral lung transplantation for severe emphysema. On day 25 after transplantation, endobronchial green-black lesions were detected during routine endoscopy. Endobronchial swabs, biopsies, and broncho-alveolar lavage samples were positive for Microascus cirrosus...
November 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112282/antifungals-discovery-an-insight-into-new-strategies-to-combat-antifungal-resistance
#6
REVIEW
Alexandre M Fuentefria, Bruna Pippi, Daiane F Dalla Lana, Katarzyna K Donato, Saulo F de Andrade
Undeniably, new antifungal treatments are necessary against pathogenic fungi. Fungal infections have significantly increased in recent decades, being highlighted as important causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Five main antifungal classes are used: (i) azoles, (ii) echinocandins, (iii) polyenes, (iv) allylamines and (v) pyrimidine analogs. Moreover, the treatment of mycoses has several limitations, such as; undesirable side effects, narrow activity spectrum, a small number of targets and fungal resistance; which are still of major concern in clinical practice...
November 7, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095200/emerging-multidrug-resistant-candida-species
#7
Arnaldo L Colombo, João N de Almeida Júnior, Jesus Guinea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the epidemiology, strategies for early detection, and clinical management of infections caused by the most commonly found multidrug-resistant (MDR) Candida spp. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing numbers of reports describing invasive infections by MDR Candida auris and Candida glabrata has been reported in medical centers worldwide. SUMMARY: We checked all papers published along the last 10 years describing epidemiological, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of infections by MDR Candida spp...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081766/an-update-on-candida-tropicalis-based-on-basic-and-clinical-approaches
#8
REVIEW
Diana L Zuza-Alves, Walicyranison P Silva-Rocha, Guilherme M Chaves
Candida tropicalis has emerged as one of the most important Candida species. It has been widely considered the second most virulent Candida species, only preceded by C. albicans. Besides, this species has been recognized as a very strong biofilm producer, surpassing C. albicans in most of the studies. In addition, it produces a wide range of other virulence factors, including: adhesion to buccal epithelial and endothelial cells; the secretion of lytic enzymes, such as proteinases, phospholipases, and hemolysins, bud-to-hyphae transition (also called morphogenesis) and the phenomenon called phenotypic switching...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077791/prosthetic-valve-candida-spp-endocarditis-new-insights-into-long-term-prognosis-the-escape-study
#9
Claire Rivoisy, Antonio Vena, Laura Schaeffer, Caroline Charlier, Arnaud Fontanet, François Delahaye, Emilio Bouza, Olivier Lortholary, Patricia Munoz, Agnès Lefort
Background: Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Candida spp. (PVE-C) is rare and devastating, with international guidelines based on expert recommendations consisting in the combination of surgery and subsequent azole treatment. Methods: PVE-C collected in Spain and France between 2001 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed with a focus on management and outcome. Results: Forty-six cases were followed up for a median of 9 months. Twenty-two (48%) patients had a past history of endocarditis; 30 (65%) cases were nosocomial or healthcare-related, 9 (20%) patients were intravenous drug users...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076804/chain-length-specific-anti-candida-activity-of-cationic-lipo-oxazoles-a-new-class-of-quaternary-ammonium-compounds
#10
Tushar Jain, Pratap Reddy Muktapuram, Satyanarayana Pochampalli, Komal Sharma, Garima Pant, Kalyan Mitra, Surendar Reddy Bathula, Dibyendu Banerjee
PURPOSE: Candida species have become resistant to commonly used anti-fungal drugs like fluconazole and echinocandins. In our screen, a series of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) emerged as an alternative treatment choice for drug-resistant Candida infections. METHODOLOGY: Medium alkyl chain cationic lipo-oxazoles comprising six to thirteen twin carbon chains and a quaternary ammonium unit were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anti-Candida and biofilm inhibition activity...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065462/cinnamic-acid-analogs-as-intervention-catalysts-for-overcoming-antifungal-tolerance
#11
Jong H Kim, Kathleen L Chan, Luisa W Cheng
Disruption of fungal cell wall should be an effective intervention strategy. However, the cell wall-disrupting echinocandin drugs, such as caspofungin (CAS), cannot exterminate filamentous fungal pathogens during treatment. For potency improvement of cell wall-disrupting agents (CAS, octyl gallate (OG)), antifungal efficacy of thirty-three cinnamic acid derivatives was investigated against Saccharomyces cerevisiaeslt2Δ, bck1Δ, mutants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and MAPK kinase kinase, respectively, in cell wall integrity system, and glr1Δ, mutant of CAS-responsive glutathione reductase...
October 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038263/in-vitro-combination-of-isavuconazole-with-echinocandins-against-azole-susceptible-and-resistant-aspergillus-spp
#12
A Raffetin, V Courbin, V Jullien, E Dannaoui
The in vitro combinations of isavuconazole with echinocandins were evaluated against 30 Aspergillus spp. by a two-dimensional checkerboard microdilution method and an agar-based diffusion method. With the checkerboard method, the three combinations showed indifferent interactions for all the strains. With the agar-based method, indifferent interactions were found for all the strains for isavuconazole-micafungin and isavuconazole-anidulafungin. For the isavuconazole-caspofungin combination, indifference was found in 24/30 strains, synergy in 4/30 strains, and antagonism in 2/30 strains...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036964/-initial-therapy-of-invasive-candidiasis-echinocandin-or-fluconazole
#13
Z B Liu, B Cao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027687/filter-adsorption-of-anidulafungin-to-a-polysulfone-based-hemofilter-during-cvvhd-in-vitro
#14
Peter Kolbinger, Michael Gruber, Gabriel Roth, Bernhard M Graf, Karl-Peter Ittner
Candidemia is frequent in critically ill patients, especially in combination with an acute kidney injury (AKI). Echinocandins generally are recommended for therapy of such infections. Recent studies found no need for dosage adjustment in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis, or patients with AKI receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the adsorption of anidulafungin to the surface of the hemofilter during continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) and its effect on anidulafungin concentrations...
October 13, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024057/increasing-candidemia-incidence-from-2004-to-2015-with-a-shift-in-epidemiology-in-patients-pre-exposed-to-antifungals
#15
Berdieke Goemaere, Pierre Becker, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Johan Maertens, Isabel Spriet, Marijke Hendrickx, Katrien Lagrou
BACKGROUND: Candidemia is an important health problem in immunocompromised patients with an epidemiology varying with region, period and patient population involved. OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of candidemia and the associated species distribution over a 12-year period at a large tertiary care centre in Belgium were analysed. The trend in incidence in the intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICUs was investigated as well as the influence of antifungal exposure on the species distribution...
October 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994001/comparison-between-etest-and-broth-microdilution-methods-for-testing-itraconazole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus-susceptibility-to-antifungal-combinations
#16
Laura Bedin Denardi, Jéssica Tairine Keller, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Vanessa Oliveira, Fernanda Baldissera Piasentin, Cecília Bittencourt Severo, Janio Morais Santurio, Sydney Hartz Alves
The checkerboard broth microdilution assay (BMD) is the most frequently used method for the in vitro evaluation of drug combinations. However, its use to evaluate the effect of antifungal drugs on filamentous fungi is sometimes associated with endpoint-reading difficulties, and different degrees of interaction are assigned to the same drug combination. We evaluated combinations of the azoles, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, with the echinocandins, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, against 15 itraconazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical strains via the checkerboard BMD and Etest assay...
October 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993334/choosing-optimal-antifungal-agents-to-prevent-fungal-infections-in-non-neutropenic-critically-ill-patients-trial-sequential-analysis-network-meta-analysis-and-pharmacoeconomic-analysis
#17
Yan Wang, Jiao Xie, Yuanming Xing, Lu Chen, Ying Li, Ti Meng, Weihua Dong, Xue Wang, Yalin Dong
The use of antifungal interventions in critically ill patients prior to invasive fungal infection (IFI) being microbiologically confirmed as well as the preferred drug are still controversial. A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have compared untargeted antifungal treatments applied to non-neutropenic critically ill patients. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and proven IFI rates. A random-effects model was used with trial sequential analyses (TSA), a network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to obtain indirect evidence, and a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model was completed from the patient perspective over a lifetime horizon...
October 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992138/antifungal-susceptibilities-to-amphotericin-b-triazoles-and-echinocandins-of-77-clinical-isolates-of-cryptic-aspergillus-species-in-multicenter-surveillance-in-korea
#18
Eun Jeong Won, Jong Hee Shin, Soo Hyun Kim, Min Ji Choi, Seung A Byun, Mi-Na Kim, Wee-Gyo Lee, Kyungwon Lee, Young Uh, Myung Geun Shin, Soon Pal Suh
We investigated the in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of cryptic Aspergillus species from nine Korean hospitals. Based on the CLSI epidemiological cutoff values, resistance rates to amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin were as follows: A. awamori (34 isolates; all 0%), A. tubingensis (22; 0%, 4.5%, 0%, 0%, and 0%, respectively), A. sydowii (16; 0%, 6.3%, 0%, 0%, and 6.3%), A. lentulus (2; 50%, 0%, 100%, 50%, and 0%), and A. tamarii (2; all 0%). A. calidoustus (one isolate) showed resistance to multiple drugs...
September 12, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992116/in-vitro-activity-of-echinocandins-against-562-clinical-yeast-isolates-from-a-romanian-multicentre-study
#19
Mihai Mares, Bogdan Minea, Valentin Nastasa, Irina Rosca, Andra-Cristina Bostanaru, Iosif Marincu, Vasilica Toma, Violeta Corina Cristea, Carmen Murariu, Mariana Pinteala
The study presents the echinocandin susceptibility profile of a multi-centre collection of pathogenic yeast isolates from Romanian tertiary hospitals. The 562 isolates were identified using ID32C strips, MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequencing. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of caspofungin (CAS), micafungin (MCA), and anidulafungin (ANI) were assessed and interpreted according to EUCAST guidelines. Minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined by plating content from the clear MIC wells. The activity was considered fungicidal at MFC/MIC ≤ 4...
August 4, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988900/biofilm-forming-capacity-of-blood-borne-candida-albicans-strains-and-effects-of-antifungal-agents
#20
Hanni Turan, Müge Demirbilek
Infections related to Candida albicans biofilms and subsequent antifungal resistance have become more common with the increased use of indwelling medical devices. Regimens for preventing fungal biofilm formation are needed, particularly in high-risk patients. In this study, we investigated the biofilm formation rate of multiple strains of Candida albicans (n=162 clinical isolates), their antifungal susceptibility patterns, and the efficacy of certain antifungals for preventing biofilm formation. Biofilm formation was graded using a modified Christensen's 96-well plate method...
October 5, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
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