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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223384/tolerance-to-caspofungin-in-candida-albicans-is-associated-with-at-least-three-distinctive-mechanisms-that-govern-expression-of-fks-genes-and-cell-wall-remodeling
#1
Feng Yang, Lulu Zhang, Hironao Wakabayashi, Jason Myers, Yuanying Jiang, Yongbing Cao, Cristina Jimenez-Ortigosa, David S Perlin, Elena Rustchenko
Expanding echinocandin use to prevent or treat invasive fungal infections has led to an increase in the number of breakthrough infections due to resistant Candida species. Although uncommon, echinocandin resistance is well documented for Candida albicans, which is among the most prevalent bloodstream organisms. A better understanding is needed to assess the cellular factors that promote tolerance and predispose infecting cells for clinical breakthrough. We have previously showed that some mutants adapted to growth in the presence of toxic sorbose due to loss of one chromosome 5 (Ch5) also became more tolerant to caspofungin...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219330/empiric-treatment-against-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-febrile-neutropenic-patients-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#2
Ken Chen, Qi Wang, Roy A Pleasants, Long Ge, Wei Liu, Kangning Peng, Suodi Zhai
BACKGROUND: The most optimal antifungal agent for empiric treatment of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in febrile neutropenia is controversial. Our objective was evaluate the relative efficacy of antifungals for all-cause mortality, fungal infection-related mortality and treatment response in this population. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two reviewers performed the quality assessment and extracted data independently...
February 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204565/effect-of-peritoneal-dialysis-fluids-on-activity-of-echinocandins-against-candida-spp-biofilm
#3
Selma Tobudic, Nicole Harrison, Christina Forstner, Manuel Kussman, Heinz Burgmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188094/catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-caused-by-kodamaea-ohmeri-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Yoshiaki Kanno, Yoshitaka Wakabayashi, Mahoko Ikeda, Keita Tatsuno, Yoshiki Misawa, Tomoaki Sato, Shintaro Yanagimoto, Shu Okugawa, Kyoji Moriya, Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi
Kodamaea ohmeri is a rare yeast pathogen that has recently emerged as an important cause of fungemia in immunocompromised patients. However, appropriate therapy for this infection remains unclear. We report a case of catheter-related blood stream infection caused by K. ohmeri in a 58-year-old patient who improved after removal of the central venous catheter and administration of micafungin. Considering the antibiotic susceptibility of this pathogen and reviewing literature, echinocandins may be the first choice for an empiric therapy for this pathogen...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188050/successful-treatment-with-caspofungin-of-candiduria-in-a-child-with-wilms-tumor-review-of-literature
#5
M S Rezai, A Vaezi, H Fakhim, A Soleimani, H Mohammad Jafari, S Mohseni, H Badali
Symptomatic candiduria often occurs in patients with indwelling bladder catheters or immunocompromised host. Isolation of Candida in urine in high-risk patients should primarily be considered as a marker for candidemia. Hematological and genitourinary malignancies are one of the main risk factors associated with Candida urinary tract infections (CUTI). Fluconazole is a choice for initial treatment of CUTI, but it is fluctuate depending on the patient's condition including renal failure, site of urinary infection and Candida species...
February 7, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180946/new-developments-and-directions-in-the-clinical-application-of-the-echinocandins
#6
REVIEW
C C Chang, M A Slavin, S C-A Chen
The echinocandins-caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin-are semi-synthetic cyclic hexapeptide antimicrobial agents with modified N-linked acyl lipid side chains which anchor the compounds to the phospholipid bilayer of the fungal cell membrane, thereby inhibiting synthesis of fungal cell wall glucan. Over the last 10 years, echinocandins have become the first-line antifungal treatment of candidaemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis (IC). Echinocandins are generally well tolerated, but their use is limited by their requirement for daily intravenous dosing, lack of oral formulation and limited spectrum...
February 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158577/in-vitro-activity-of-the-novel-echinocandin-cd101-at-ph-7-and-4-against-candida-spp-isolates-from-patients-with-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#7
Dina A Boikov, Jeffrey B Locke, Kenneth D James, Ken Bartizal, Jack D Sobel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154553/identification-and-antifungal-susceptibility-profiles-of-candida-nivariensis-and-candida-bracarensis-in-a-multi-center-chinese-collection-of-yeasts
#8
Xin Hou, Meng Xiao, Sharon C-A Chen, He Wang, Shu-Ying Yu, Xin Fan, Fanrong Kong, Ying-Chun Xu
Candida nivariensis and C. bracarensis are two emerging cryptic species within the C. glabrata complex. Thirteen of these isolates from 10 hospitals in China were studied for their species identification and antifungal susceptibilities. Phenotypic and molecular [rDNA ITS sequencing, D1/D2 sequencing and ITS sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE)] and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS identification methods were compared for their performance in species identification...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150341/invasive-infections-due-to-saprochaete-and-geotrichum-species-report-of-23-cases-from-the-fungiscope-registry
#9
Luisa Durán Graeff, Danila Seidel, Maria J G T Vehreschild, Axel Hamprecht, Anupma Kindo, Zdenek Racil, Judit Demeter, Sybren De Hoog, Ute Aurbach, Maren Ziegler, Hilmar Wisplinghoff, Oliver A Cornely
Saprochaete and Geotrichum spp. are rare emerging fungi causing invasive fungal diseases in immunosuppressed patients and scarce evidence is available for treatment decisions. Among 505 cases of rare IFD from the FungiScope(™) registry, we identified 23 cases of invasive infections caused by these fungi reported from 10 countries over a 12-year period. All cases were adults and previous chemotherapy with associated neutropenia was the most common co-morbidity. Fungaemia was confirmed in 14 (61%) cases and deep organ involvement included lungs, liver, spleen, central nervous system and kidneys...
February 2, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137817/pharmacokinetics-of-the-novel-echinocandin-cd101-in-multiple-animal-species
#10
Voon Ong, Kenneth D James, Steven Smith, B Radha Krishnan
CD101 is a novel semi-synthetic echinocandin with antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus spp. The PK of CD101 administered intravenously to mice, rats, dogs, cynomolgus monkeys, and chimpanzees are presented. CD101 consistently exhibited very low clearance, modest volume of distribution, and long half-life across all species tested. In mouse, rat, dog, cynomolgus monkey, and chimpanzee, CD101 clearance [mL/min/kg] was 0.10, 0.47, 0.30, 0.41, and 0.06; Vss [mL/kg] was 206, 1390, not determined, 597, and 400; and t1/2 [h] was 25, 39, 53, 40, and 81, respectively...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133894/seven-cases-of-saccharomyces-fungaemia-related-to-use-of-probiotics
#11
Ujjwayini Roy, Laxman G Jessani, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Ram Gopalakrishnan, Soma Dutta, Chandrashish Chakravarty, Joseph Jillwin, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Probiotics are increasingly used in critically ill patients without enough safety data. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of probiotics with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungaemia. Seven patients with S. cerevisiae fungaemia were reported at two hospitals in India between July 2014 and September 2015. Detailed clinical history of patients was recorded. Besides the seven patient isolates, three probiotics sachets used in those patients and five unrelated clinical isolates were used for association study by Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP)...
January 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131716/nosocomial-fungemia-by-candida-auris-first-four-reported-cases-in-continental-europe
#12
Alba Cecilia Ruiz Gaitán, Ana Moret, José Luis López Hontangas, José Miguel Molina, Ana Isabel Aleixandre López, Alicia Hernández Cabezas, Juan Mollar Maseres, Rabat Chouman Arcas, María Dolores Gómez Ruiz, Miguel Ángel Chiveli, Emilia Cantón, Javier Pemán
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that can cause invasive infections and is associated with high mortality. It is typically resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole and, some cases, also to echinocandins and amphotericin B. This species, phylogenetically related to Candida haemulonii, is frequently misidentified by commercial identification techniques in clinical laboratories; therefore, the real prevalence of C. auris infections may be underestimated...
January 25, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124963/-evaluation-of-pna-fish-method-for-direct-identification-of-candida-species-in-blood-culture-samples-and-its-potential-impact-on-guidance-of-antifungal-therapy
#13
Özlem Doğan, Ahmet Çağkan İnkaya, Dolunay Gülmez, Ömrüm Uzun, Murat Akova, Sevtap Arıkan Akdağlı
Early antifungal therapy has a major influence on survival in candidemia. Rapid identification of the species has importance for the treatment, prediction of the species-specific primary resistance and variable antifungal susceptibility. Recently, molecular-based methods attempt to reduce the time between the positive signal of a blood culture and identification of the fungus. PNA-FISH (Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay distinguishes a number of frequently isolated Candida species in groups following the growth in blood culture...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115353/in-vitro-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-of-candida-isolates-with-the-eucast-methodology
#14
J Meletiadis, I Curfs-Breuker, J F Meis, J W Mouton
The in vitro susceptibility of 1119 molecularly identified clinical Candida isolates against 8 antifungal drugs was determined using the EUCAST microdilution method. A new simple, objective and mathematically solid method for ECOFF determination was developed by derivatizing the MIC distribution and determining a dECOFF as the highest MIC with the maximum second derivative giving similar results (95% agreement within 1 dilution) with the "eyeball" method. Overall, low non-wild type/resistant rates were found with the highest found for azoles with C...
January 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104387/impact-of-echinocandin-on-prognosis-of-proven-invasive-candidiasis-in-icu-a-post-hoc-causal-inference-model-using-the-amarcand2-study
#15
Sébastien Bailly, Olivier Leroy, Elie Azoulay, Philippe Montravers, Jean-Michel Constantin, Hervé Dupont, Didier Guillemot, Olivier Lortholary, Jean-Paul Mira, Pierre-François Perrigault, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Jean-François Timsit
OBJECTIVE: guidelines recommend first-line systemic antifungal treatment (SAT) with echinocandins in invasive candidiasis (IC), especially in critically ill patients. This study aimed at assessing the impact of echinocandins compared to azoles as initial SAT on the 28-day prognosis in adult ICU patients. METHODS: From the prospective multicenter AmarCAND2 cohort (835 patients), we selected those with documented IC and treated with echinocandins (ECH) or azoles (AZO)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099778/pseudozyma-and-other-non-candida-opportunistic-yeast-bloodstream-infections-in-a-large-stem-cell-transplant-center
#16
Anupam Pande, Lemuel R Non, Rizwan Romee, Carlos A Q Santos
INTRODUCTION: Non-Candida opportunistic yeasts are emerging causes of bloodstream infection (BSI) in immunocompromised hosts. However, their clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients are not well described. CASE REPORT AND REVIEW: We report the first case to our knowledge of Pseudozyma BSI in a SCT recipient. He had evidence of cutaneous involvement, which has not been previously described in the literature. He became infected while neutropenic and receiving empiric micafungin, which is notable because Pseudozyma is reported to be resistant to echinocandins...
January 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096163/large-scale-evaluation-of-in-vitro-amphotericin-b-triazole-and-echinocandin-activity-against-coccidioides-species-from-united-states-institutions
#17
George R Thompson, Bridget M Barker, Nathan P Wiederhold
Large-scale testing of Coccidioides isolates has not previously been performed, nor has the frequency of clinical isolates with elevated amphotericin B or triazole MICs been evaluated. Coccidioides isolates (n=581) underwent antifungal susceptibility testing. Elevated MIC values were observed for: fluconazole (MIC ≥16 μg/ml, 37.3% of isolates; ≥32 μg/ml, 7.9%), itraconazole (1.0% ≥2 μg/ml), posaconazole (1.0% ≥1 μg/ml), and voriconazole (1.2% ≥2 μg/ml). However mould-active triazoles exhibited low MICs for the majority of isolates tested...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080986/clinical-implications-of-globally-emerging-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#18
REVIEW
Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary, Johanna L Rhodes, Matthew C Fisher, Paul E Verweij
Aspergillus fungi are the cause of an array of diseases affecting humans, animals and plants. The triazole antifungal agents itraconazole, voriconazole, isavuconazole and posaconazole are treatment options against diseases caused by Aspergillus However, resistance to azoles has recently emerged as a new therapeutic challenge in six continents. Although de novo azole resistance occurs occasionally in patients during azole therapy, the main burden is the aquisition of resistance through the environment. In this setting, the evolution of resistance is attributed to the widespread use of azole-based fungicides...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072553/decreased-killing-activity-of-micafungin-against-candida-guilliermondii-candida-lusitaniae-and-candida-kefyr-in-the-presence-of-human-serum
#19
Qasem Saleh, Renátó Kovács, Gábor Kardos, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Tamás Kardos, Aliz Bozó, László Majoros
Currently, echinocandins are first-line drugs for treatment of invasive candidiasis. However, data on how serum influences killing activity of echinocandins against uncommon Candida species are limited. Therefore, the killing activity of micafungin in RPMI-1640 and in 50% serum was compared against Candida guilliermondii, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida kefyr. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges in RPMI-1640 were 0.5-1, 0.12-0.25, and 0.06-0.12 mg/L, respectively. In 50% serum, MICs increased 32- to 256-fold...
January 10, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065893/pan-azole-resistant-candida-tropicalis-carrying-homozygous-erg11-mutations-at-position-k143r-a-new-emerging-superbug
#20
Mariana I D S Xisto, Rita D F Caramalho, Débora A S Rocha, Antonio Ferreira-Pereira, Bettina Sartori, Eliana Barreto-Bergter, Maria L Junqueira, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Michaela Lackner
OBJECTIVES: Candidaemia is a public health problem mainly in hospitalized individuals worldwide. In Brazil, Candida albicans is the most prevalent species that causes candidaemia, followed by Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis Few data on the abundance of antifungal resistance are available for Latin America. METHODS: We analysed the frequency of azole and echinocandin resistance in Candida isolates (n = 75) collected between 2012 and 2014 at the University Hospital of Federal University of Juiz de Fora (Brazil)...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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