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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820113/blastomonas-marina-sp-nov-a-bacteriochlorophyll-containing-bacterium-isolated-from-seawater
#1
Yu-Chen Meng, Hong-Can Liu, Ying-Qian Kang, Yu-Guang Zhou, Man Cai
A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, dark-yellow-pigmented bacterium, named SSR2A-4-2T, was isolated from coastal water in the East China Sea. Cells were ovoid or short rods with peritrichous flagella and contained carotenoid in addition to bacteriochlorophyll a pigment. A phylogenetic dendrogram based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SSR2A-4-2T formed a distinct clade with members of the genus Blastomonas, with Blastomonasnatatoria EY 4220T (=DSM 3183T) (similarity 95.6 %), Blastomonasursincola KR-99T (=DSM 9006T) (95...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813481/method-matters-experimental-evidence-for-shorter-avian-sperm-in-faecal-compared-to-abdominal-massage-samples
#2
Antje Girndt, Glenn Cockburn, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Hanne Løvlie, Julia Schroeder
Birds are model organisms in sperm biology. Previous work in zebra finches, suggested that sperm sampled from males' faeces and ejaculates do not differ in size. Here, we tested this assumption in a captive population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus. We compared sperm length in samples from three collection techniques: female dummy, faecal and abdominal massage samples. We found that sperm were significantly shorter in faecal than abdominal massage samples, which was explained by shorter heads and midpieces, but not flagella...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812258/chromosomal-flhb1-gene-of-the-alphaproteobacterium-azospirillum-brasilense-sp245-is-essential-for-correct-assembly-of-both-constitutive-polar-flagellum-and-inducible-lateral-flagella
#3
Yulia Filip'echeva, Andrei Shelud'ko, Alexei Prilipov, Elizaveta Telesheva, Dmitry Mokeev, Andrei Burov, Lilia Petrova, Elena Katsy
Azospirillum brasilense has the ability of swimming and swarming motility owing to the work of a constitutive polar flagellum and inducible lateral flagella, respectively. The interplay between these flagellar systems is poorly understood. One of the key elements of the flagellar export apparatus is the protein FlhB. Two predicted flhB genes are present in the genome of A. brasilense Sp245 (accession nos. HE577327-HE577333). Experimental evidence obtained here indicates that the chromosomal coding sequence (CDS) AZOBR_150177 (flhB1) of Sp245 is essential for the production of both types of flagella...
August 15, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806147/phase-variation-of-clostridium-difficile-virulence-factors
#4
Brandon R Anjuwon-Foster, Rita Tamayo
Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial infections, causing disease that ranges from mild diarrhea to potentially fatal colitis. A variety of surface proteins, including flagella, enable C. difficile colonization of the intestine. Once in the intestine, toxigenic C. difficile secretes two glucosylating toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which elicit inflammation and diarrheal disease symptoms. Regulation of colonization factors and TcdA and TcdB is an intense area of research in C. difficile biology. A recent publication from our group describes a novel regulatory mechanism that mediates the ON/OFF expression of co-regulated virulence factors of C...
August 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800172/viscous-drag-on-the-flagellum-activates-bacillus-subtilis-entry-into-the-k-state
#5
Christine Diethmaier, Ravi Chawla, Alexandra Canzoneri, Daniel B Kearns, Pushkar P Lele, David Dubnau
Bacillus subtilis flagella are not only required for locomotion but also act as sensors that monitor environmental changes. Although how the signal transmission takes place is poorly understood, it has been shown that flagella play an important role in surface sensing by transmitting a mechanical signal to control the DegS-DegU two-component system. Here we report a role for flagella in the regulation of the K-state, which enables transformability and antibiotic tolerance (persistence). Mutations impairing flagellar synthesis are inferred to increase DegU-P, which inhibits the expression of ComK, the master regulator for the K-state, and reduces transformability...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791602/ultrastructure-alterations-induced-by-gamma-irradiation-in-spermiogenesis-of-the-ground-beetle-blaps-sulcata-reference-to-environmental-radiation-protection
#6
Dalia Kheirallah, Lamia El-Samad, Naglaa Fahmi, Wafaa Osman
Ultrastructure alterations in spermiogenesis of the ground beetle, Blaps sulcata (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were studied in normal adult males and in two male groups irradiated by gamma rays of 3 and 16 μSv/h dose rate. Ultrastructure examination of irradiated sperms revealed many alterations both in the head and in the flagellum regions of mature sperm. Alterations of the head region included nuclei with uncondensed chromatin materials and irregular nuclear envelope. Abnormal flagella contained malformed mitochondrial derivatives and damaged axonemes in addition to the absence of accessory bodies...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791256/in-vivo-host-pathogen-interaction-as-revealed-by-global-proteomic-profiling-of-zebrafish-larvae
#7
Francisco Díaz-Pascual, Javiera Ortíz-Severín, Macarena A Varas, Miguel L Allende, Francisco P Chávez
The outcome of a host-pathogen interaction is determined by the conditions of the host, the pathogen, and the environment. Although numerous proteomic studies of in vitro-grown microbial pathogens have been performed, in vivo proteomic approaches are still rare. In addition, increasing evidence supports that in vitro studies inadequately reflect in vivo conditions. Choosing the proper host is essential to detect the expression of proteins from the pathogen in vivo. Numerous studies have demonstrated the suitability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model to in vivo studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781053/identification-of-chlamydomonas-central-core-centriolar-proteins-reveals-a-role-for-human-wdr90-in-ciliogenesis
#8
Virginie Hamel, Emmanuelle Steib, Romain Hamelin, Florence Armand, Susanne Borgers, Isabelle Flückiger, Coralie Busso, Natacha Olieric, Carlos Oscar S Sorzano, Michel O Steinmetz, Paul Guichard, Pierre Gönczy
Centrioles are evolutionarily conserved macromolecular structures that are fundamental to form cilia, flagella, and centrosomes. Centrioles are 9-fold symmetrical microtubule-based cylindrical barrels comprising three regions that can be clearly distinguished in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii organelle: an ∼100-nm-long proximal region harboring a cartwheel; an ∼250-nm-long central core region containing a Y-shaped linker; and an ∼150-nm-long distal region ending at the transitional plate. Despite the discovery of many centriolar components, no protein has been localized specifically to the central core region in Chlamydomonas thus far...
July 29, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780349/implications-of-coordinated-cell-body-rotations-for-leptospira-motility
#9
Kyosuke Takabe, Akihiro Kawamoto, Hajime Tahara, Seishi Kudo, Shuichi Nakamura
The spirochete Leptospira has a coiled cell body and two periplasmic flagella (PFs) that reside beneath the outer sheath. PFs extend from each end of the cell body and are attached to the right-handed spiral protoplasmic cylinder (PC) via a connection with the flagellar motor embedded in the inner membrane. PFs bend each end of the cell body into left-handed spiral (S) or planar hook (H) shapes, allowing leptospiral cells to swim using combined anterior S-end and posterior H-end gyrations with PC rotations...
August 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769685/differentiation-of-three-common-deep-water-hermit-crabs-crustacea-decapoda-anomura-parapaguridae-from-the-south-african-demersal-abundance-surveys-including-the-description-of-a-new-species-of-paragiopagurus-lemaitre-1996
#10
Jannes Landschoff, Rafael Lemaitre
Deep-water hermit crabs of the family Parapaguridae can be abundant (up to 20 kg or 1000 hermit crab individuals per haul) in the trawl bycatch collected during South African demersal abundance research surveys. Until recently, only two parapagurid species had been recognized in the bycatch; Parapagurus bouvieri Stebbing, 1910, and Sympagurus dimorphus (Studer, 1883). Detailed examination of numerous samples of parapagurid specimens from research surveys revealed the existence of a third, undescribed species previously confounded with S...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769550/differences-in-gluten-protein-composition-between-old-and-modern-durum-wheat-genotypes-in-relation-to-20th-century-breeding-in-italy
#11
Michele A De Santis, Marcella M Giuliani, Luigia Giuzio, Pasquale De Vita, Alison Lovegrove, Peter R Shewry, Zina Flagella
The impact of breeding on grain yields of wheat varieties released during the 20th century has been extensively studied, whereas less information is available on the changes in gluten quality associated with effects on the amount and composition of glutenins and gliadins. In order to explore the effects of breeding during the 20th century on gluten quality of durum wheat for processing and health we have compared a set of old and modern Italian genotypes grown under Mediterranean conditions. The better technological performance observed for the modern varieties was found to be due not only to the introgression of superior alleles of high (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight (LMW-GS) glutenin subunits encoded at Glu-B1 and Glu-B3 loci, but also to differential expression of specific storage proteins...
July 2017: European Journal of Agronomy: the Journal of the European Society for Agronomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765600/combinatorial-metabolic-engineering-of-pseudomonas-putida-kt2440-for-efficient-mineralization-of-1-2-3-trichloropropane
#12
Ting Gong, Xiaoqing Xu, You Che, Ruihua Liu, Weixia Gao, Fengjie Zhao, Huilei Yu, Jingnan Liang, Ping Xu, Cunjiang Song, Chao Yang
An industrial waste, 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), is toxic and extremely recalcitrant to biodegradation. To date, no natural TCP degraders able to mineralize TCP aerobically have been isolated. In this work, we engineered a biosafety Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 for aerobic mineralization of TCP by implantation of a synthetic biodegradation pathway into the chromosome and further improved TCP mineralization using combinatorial engineering strategies. Initially, a synthetic pathway composed of haloalkane dehalogenase, haloalcohol dehalogenase and epoxide hydrolase was functionally assembled for the conversion of TCP into glycerol in P...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758636/the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-dnak-gene-is-involved-in-bacterial-translocation-across-the-intestinal-epithelial-cell-barrier
#13
Jun Okuda, Satoshi Yamane, Syouya Nagata, Chinami Kunikata, Chigusa Suezawa, Masashi Yasuda
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can penetrate through polarized epithelial cell monolayers produced by the human adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. We previously identified genes associated with bacterial translocation through Caco-2 cell monolayers by analysing transposon insertion mutants with dramatically reduced penetration activity relative to that of the wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. In this study, we focused on the dnaK mutant because the association between this gene and penetration activity is unknown...
July 31, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758621/paracoccus-aerius-sp-nov-isolated-from-air
#14
Han Xue, Chun-Gen Piao, Min-Wei Guo, Lai-Fa Wang, Yong Li
Strain 011410T, isolated from air at the foot of Xiangshan Mountain, Beijing, China, was Gram-reaction-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oval-shaped, motile with two flagella and catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth of strain 011410T was observed at 4-41 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 4.5-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and at salinities of 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0-2 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 011410T was a member of the genus Paracoccus and was related most closely to Paracoccus aestuarii B7T (96...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754286/mitochondria-are-not-captive-bacteria
#15
Ajith Harish, Charles G Kurland
Lynn Sagan's conjecture (1967) that three of the fundamental organelles observed in eukaryote cells, specifically mitochondria, plastids and flagella were once free-living primitive (prokaryotic) cells was accepted after considerable opposition. Even though the idea was swiftly refuted for the specific case of origins of flagella in eukaryotes, the symbiosis model in general was accepted for decades as a realistic hypothesis to describe the endosymbiotic origins of eukaryotes. However, a systematic analysis of the origins of the mitochondrial proteome based on empirical genome evolution models now indicates that 97% of modern mitochondrial protein domains as well their homologues in bacteria and archaea were present in the universal common ancestor (UCA) of the modern tree of life (ToL)...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724725/protein-diversity-in-discrete-structures-at-the-distal-tip-of-the-trypanosome-flagellum
#16
Vladimir Varga, Flavia Moreira-Leite, Neil Portman, Keith Gull
The distal end of the eukaryotic flagellum/cilium is important for axonemal growth and signaling and has distinct biomechanical properties. Specific flagellum tip structures exist, yet their composition, dynamics, and functions are largely unknown. We used biochemical approaches to identify seven constituents of the flagella connector at the tip of an assembling trypanosome flagellum and three constituents of the axonemal capping structure at the tips of both assembling and mature flagella. Both tip structures contain evolutionarily conserved as well as kinetoplastid-specific proteins, and component assembly into the structures occurs very early during flagellum extension...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723911/male-reproductive-system-and-spermatogenesis-of-limodromus-assimilis-paykull-1790
#17
Lea F Schubert, Stephanie Krüger, Gerald B Moritz, Veit Schubert
Based on advanced light and electron microscopy, we describe the male reproductive system and sperm development of Limodromus assimilis. The genital tract consists of pairs of uni-follicular testes, spermatic ducts with diverticula regions, seminal vesicles, accessory glands, an unpaired ejaculatory duct and an aedeagus containing an internal sac equipped with sclerotic scales. Based on their morphology, we draw conclusions about their functions. After spermatogenesis within the follicle, the spermatozoa become released from the sperm cysts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723386/foam-adsorption-as-an-ex-situ-capture-step-for-surfactants-produced-by-fermentation
#18
Iva Anic, Arijit Nath, Pedro Franco, Rolf Wichmann
In this report, a method for a simultaneous production and separation of a microbially synthesized rhamnolipid biosurfactant is presented. During the aerobic cultivation of flagella-free Pseudomonas putida EM383 in a 3.1L stirred tank reactor on glucose as a sole carbon source, rhamnolipids are produced and excreted into the fermentation liquid. Here, a strategy for biosurfactant capture from rhamnolipid enriched fermentation foam using hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction was investigated. Five adsorbents were tested independently for the application of this capture technique and the best performing adsorbent was tested in a fermentation process...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721843/treponema-rectale-sp-nov-a-spirochete-isolated-from-the-bovine-rectum
#19
Gareth J Staton, Kerry Newbrook, Simon R Clegg, Richard J Birtles, Nicholas J Evans, Stuart D Carter
A Gram-stain-negative, obligatory anaerobic spirochete, CHPAT, was isolated from the rectal tissue of a Holstein-Friesian cow. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene comparisons, CHPAT was most closely related to the human oral spirochete, Treponema parvum, with 88.8 % sequence identity. Further characterisation on the basis of recA gene sequence analysis, cell morphology, pattern of growth and physiological profiling identified marked differences with respect to other recognised species of the genus Treponema. Microscopically, the helical cells measured approximately 1-5 µm long and 0...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716960/bacterial-tubulin-a-b-exhibit-polarized-growth-mixed-polarity-bundling-and-destabilization-by-gtp-hydrolysis
#20
César Díaz-Celis, Viviana I Risca, Felipe Hurtado, Jessica K Polka, Scott D Hansen, Daniel Maturana, Rosalba Lagos, R Dyche Mullins, Octavio Monasterio
Bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter express homologs of eukaryotic α- and β-tubulin, called BtubA and BtubB, that have been observed to assemble into filaments in presence of GTP. BtubA/B polymers are proposed to be composed in vitro by two to six protofilaments, in contrast to in vivo where they have been reported to form 5-protofilaments tubes named bacterial microtubules (bMTs). The btubAB genes likely entered the Prosthecobacter lineage via horizontal gene transfer and may derive from an early ancestor of the modern eukaryotic microtubule (MT)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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