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Zabiholah Zarei, Mehdi Mohebali, Khadijeh Khanaliha, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Afsaneh Motevalli Haghi, Zahra Heidari, Tahereh Rezaeian, Mostafa Rezaeian
Background: Trichomonas muris is one of the most common protozoa diagnosed in rodents. The trichomonads are generally described as presenting only trophozoite form while pseudocyst is another morphological form of trichomonads identified among gastrointestinal and genitourinary trichomonads. We identified and described different shapes of T. muris pseudocysts and trophozoite in stool samples were collected from rodents including Merinos persicus , Mus musculus and Cricetulus migratorius ...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Carolina Cogo, Julieta Pérez-Giménez, Chandrasekar B Rajeswari, María F Luna, Aníbal R Lodeiro
Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens , a soybean N2 -fixing symbiont, constitutes the basic input in one of the most prominent inoculant industries worldwide. This bacterium may be cultured with D-mannitol or L-arabinose as carbon-plus-energy source (C-source) with similar specific growth rates, but with higher biomass production with D-mannitol. To better understand the bacterium's carbon metabolism, we analyzed, by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (MS), the whole set of proteins obtained from cells grown on each C-source...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Patricia Tran, Arthi Ramachandran, Ola Khawasek, Beatrix E Beisner, Milla Rautio, Yannick Huot, David A Walsh
Northern lakes are ice-covered for a large part of the year, yet our understanding of microbial diversity and activity during winter lags behind that of the ice-free period. In this study, we investigated under-ice diversity and metabolism of Verrucomicrobia in seasonally ice-covered lakes in temperate and boreal regions of Quebec, Canada using 16S rRNA sequencing, metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. Verrucomicrobia, particularly the V1, V3 and V4 subdivisions, were abundant during ice-covered periods. A diversity of Verrucomicrobia genomes were reconstructed from Quebec lake metagenomes...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Karolina Ivičak-Kocjan, Vida Forstnerič, Gabriela Panter, Roman Jerala, Mojca Benčina
TLRs sense conserved and essential molecular components of microbes that invade multicellular organisms. The wide range of TLR agonists, differing in size and shape, is recognized either through a single or a pair of binding sites on the ectodomains of TLRs. TLR5 recognizes bacterial flagellin through two distinct binding sites on the ectodomain, the first facilitating primary binding of flagellin and the second guiding receptor dimerization necessary for signaling. The regions of flagellin recognized by TLR5 encompass key functional regions within the D1 domain of flagellin, which is also required for the assembly of functional flagella...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Lei Shi, Xuezhen Shi, Yuan Shen
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a bi-directional process by which particles are carried within the cilia or flagella. This process is essential for ciliary growth and functional maintenance. The IFT complex B (IFTB) is linked to a kinesin motor for anterograde transport towards the ciliary tip. The IFT complex A (IFTA) is connected to a dynein motor for retrograde transport towards the ciliary basis. This study focuses on IFT46, an IFTB member that participates in this process. In Paramecium, a GFP-labelled IFT46 protein was found in basal bodies and in some cilia, mostly those undergoing biogenesis...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qiulan Luo, Wenwen Song, Yajun Li, Chaogang Wang, Zhangli Hu
WD40-repeat (WDR) domain-containing proteins are subunits of multi-protein E3 ligase complexes regulating various cellular and developmental activities in eukaryotes. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii serves as a model organism to study lipid metabolism in microalgae. Under nutrition deficient conditions, C. reinhardtii accumulates lipids for survival. The proteins in C. reinhardtii flagella have diverse functions, such as controlling the motility and cell cycle, and environment sensing. Here, we characterized the function of CrFAP89, a flagella-associated WDR-containing protein, which was identified from C...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ricardo Nascimento Dos Santos, Shahid Khan, Faruck Morcos
Bacterial flagellar motility, an important virulence factor, is energized by a rotary motor localized within the flagellar basal body. The rotor module consists of a large framework (the C-ring), composed of the FliG, FliM and FliN proteins. FliN and FliM contacts the FliG torque ring to control the direction of flagellar rotation. We report that structure-based models constrained only by residue coevolution can recover the binding interface of atomic X-ray dimer complexes with remarkable accuracy (approx. 1 Å RMSD)...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jennifer C Lück, Dmytro Puchkov, Florian Ullrich, Thomas J Jentsch
Spermatogenesis is a highly complex developmental process that occurs primarily in seminiferous tubules of the testes and requires additional maturation steps in the epididymis and beyond. Mutations in many different genes can lead to defective spermatozoa and hence to male infertility. Some of these genes encode for ion channels and transporters that play roles in various processes such as cellular ion homeostasis, signal transduction, sperm motility, and the acrosome reaction. Here we show that germ cell-specific, but not Sertoli cell-specific, disruption of Lrrc8a leads to abnormal sperm and male infertility in mice...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Huawei Gu, Haonan Qi, Shuyi Chen, Kan Shi, Haiying Wang, Jufang Wang
The carbon storage regulator CsrA is a global regulator that controls multiple virulence-associated processes including host cell invasion, virulence secretion, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and motility in many pathogenic bacteria. However, the roles of CsrA in Clostridium difficile have been unclear. In this study, a C. difficile strain overexpressing csrA was constructed to investigate its effects on multiple virulence associated processes. Overexpression of csrA resulted in flagella defect and poor motility in C...
May 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Brittany Jack, Prachee Avasthi
Flagella of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are nearly identical to cilia of vertebrate cells and provide an excellent model to study ciliogenesis. Cilia and flagella are important organelles used for motility and sensing the extracellular environment. Abnormalities in cilia structure or ciliary dysfunction can have devastating consequences ranging from diabetes and obesity to polycystic kidney disease and mental retardation. Small-molecule inhibitor libraries can be used to screen for flagellum-associated phenotypes in assembly, length, motility, deflagellation, and cellular toxicity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yanyun Zhu, Baoyu Ren, Huafen Li, Zhiqing Lin, Gary Bañuelos, Li Li, Guishen Zhao, Yanbin Guo
Rahnella aquatilis HX2 (proteobacteria) shows tolerance to selenium (Se). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of selenomethionine (Se-Met), selenite [Se (IV)], and selenate [Se (VI)] to HX2 are 4.0, 85.0, and 590.0 mM, respectively. HX2 shows the ability to reduce Se (IV) and Se (VI) to elemental Se nanoparticles (SeNPs). The maximum production of SeNPs by HX2 strain is 1.99 and 3.85 mM in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth with 5 mM Se (IV) and 10 mM Se (VI), respectively. The morphology of SeNPs and cells were observed by transmission electron microscope, environmental scanning electron microscope, and selected area electric diffraction detector...
May 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Aaron R Gall, Annie E Hegarty, Kirill A Datsenko, Richard P Westerman, Phillip SanMiguel, Laszlo N Csonka
We found that mutations that increased the transcription of the mgtCBR (Mg2+ transport-related) operon conferred increased thermotolerance on this organism. The 5' leader of the mgtCBR mRNA contains two short open reading frames (ORFs), mgtM and mgtP, whose translation regulates the expression of the mgtCBR operon by a mechanism that is similar to attenuation in amino acid biosynthetic operons. We obtained two types of mutations that resulted in elevated transcription of the operon: defects in the mgtM ribosome-binding site, impairing the translation of this ORF, and deletions encompassing the stop codon of mgtM that extend the translation of this ORF across a downstream Rho termination site...
May 26, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Krista Giglio, Colleen Keohane, Paul Stodghill, Andrew Steele, Christian Fetzer, Stephan Sieber, Melanie Filiatrault, William M Wuest
Promysalin, a secondary metabolite produced by P. putida RW10S1, is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic that targets P. aeruginosa over other Pseudomonas spp. P. putida KT2440, a non-producing strain, displays increased swarming motility and decreased pyoverdine production in the presence of exogenous promysalin. Herein, proteomic and transcriptomic experiments were used to provide insight about how promysalin elicits responses in PPKT2440 and rationalize its species-selectivity. RNA-sequencing results suggest that promysalin affects PPKT2440 by 1) increasing swarming in a flagella-independent manner; 2) causing cells to behave as if they were experiencing an iron-deficient environment, and 3) shifting metabolism away from glucose conversion to pyruvate via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway...
May 25, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Xiaopu Wang, Chengzhi Hu, Lukas Schurz, Carmela De Marco, Xiangzhong Chen, Salvador Pané, Bradley J Nelson
Magnetic helical microswimmers, also known as artificial bacterial flagella (ABFs), perform 3D navigation in various liquids under low-strength rotating magnetic fields by converting rotational motion to translational motion. ABFs have been widely studied as carriers for targeted delivery and release of drugs and cells. For in vivo/in vitro therapeutic applications, control over individual groups of swimmers within a swarm is necessary for several biomedical applications such as drug delivery or small-scale surgery...
May 25, 2018: ACS Nano
Pavla Hanousková, Petr Táborský, Ivan Čepička
We report the discovery of a new genus of heterolobosean flagellates, Dactylomonas gen. nov., with two species, D. venusta sp. nov. and D. crassa sp. nov. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA gene showed that Dactylomonas is closely related to the amoeba Selenaion, the deepest-branching lineage of Tetramitia. Dactylomonads possess two flagella, and ultrastructural studies revealed an unexpected organization of the flagellar apparatus, which resembled Pharyngomonada (the second lineage of Heterolobosea) instead of Tetramitia: basal bodies were orthogonal to each other and a putative root R1 was present in the mastigont...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Matthew J Reynolds, Tanaporn Phetruen, Rebecca L Fisher, Ke Chen, Brian T Pentecost, George Gomez, Puey Ounjai, Haixin Sui
Eukaryotic motile cilia/flagella play vital roles in various physiological processes in mammals and some protists. Defects in cilia formation underlie multiple human disorders, known as ciliopathies. The detailed processes of cilia growth and development are still far from clear despite extensive studies. In this study, we characterized the process of cilium formation (ciliogenesis) by investigating the newly developed motile cilia of deciliated protists using complementary techniques in electron microscopy and image analysis...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Justin Wiedeman, Kojo Mensa-Wilmot
The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei sp. cause diseases in humans and animals. Studies of T. brucei cell biology have revealed unique features, such as major endocytic events being limited to a single region, and mitochondrial genome segregation mediated via basal bodies. Further understanding of trypanosome cell biology can be facilitated with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. Lack of a plasma membrane probe for fixed trypanosomes remains a persistent problem in need of a working solution. Herein, we report protocols developed using mCLING in super-resolution structured illumination fluorescence microscopy (SR-SIM)...
2018: PloS One
Adeel Nasir, Aude Le Bail, Viktor Daiker, Janine Klima, Peter Richter, Michael Lebert
Flagellated cells are of great evolutionary importance across animal and plant species. Unlike higher plants, flagellated cells are involved in reproduction of macro-algae as well as in early diverging land plants. Euglena gracilis is an emerging flagellated model organism. The current study reports that a specific calmodulin (CaM2) involved in gravitaxis of E. gracilis interacts with an evolutionary conserved flagellar protein, EgPCDUF4201. The subsequent molecular analysis showed clearly that EgPCDUF4201 is also involved in gravitaxis...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ziyi Zhao, Yifan Zhao, Xiang-Yu Zhuang, Wei-Chang Lo, Matthew A B Baker, Chien-Jung Lo, Fan Bai
The bacterial flagellum is a large extracellular protein organelle that extrudes from the cell surface. The flagellar filament is assembled from tens of thousands of flagellin subunits that are exported through the flagellar type III secretion system. Here, we measure the growth of Escherichia coli flagella in real time and find that, although the growth rate displays large variations at similar lengths, it decays on average as flagella lengthen. By tracking single flagella, we show that the large variations in growth rate occur as a result of frequent pauses...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Chao Wang, Sitong Liu, Xiaochen Xu, Yongzhao Guo, Fenglin Yang, Dong Wang
The intracellular cyclic diguanylate acid (c-di-GMP) has emerged as a prominent second signal molecule that coordinates sessile-motile transition and biofilm formation in many bacteria. Herein, we study the role of c-di-GMP in affecting microbial community shifts at different pH levels during simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification process (SNAD) in integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor. The results demonstrated that the contents of c-di-GMP notably decreased in suspended sludge, whereas the contents of c-di-GMP in biofilm had no significant change as pH gradually increased from 7...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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