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Zheng-Fei Yan, Pei Lin, Chang-Tian Li, MooChang Kook, Tae-Hoo Yi
A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, motile, rod- or cocci-shaped bacterium with flagella bacterium (THG-T63T ) was isolated from freshwater mud. Growth occurred at 10-40 °C (optimum, 28-35 °C), at pH 6-8 (optimum, 7) and at 0-6 % NaCl (optimum, 2 %). Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of strain THG-T63T were identified as Nocardioides panacisoli KCTC 19470T (97.5 %), Nocardioides caeni KCTC 19600T (96.4 %), Nocardioides humi KCTC 19265T (96.3 %), Nocardioides kongjuensis KCTC 19054T (96...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Chun-Gon Kim, Jong-Pyo Kang, Yue Huo, Mohan Chokkalingam, Yeon-Ju Kim, Dong-Hyun Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
A novel bacterium, designated DCY114T , was isolated from ginseng-cultivated soil in Gochang-gun, Republic of Korea. This isolate was assigned to the genus Paenibacillus and is closely related to Paenibacillus amylolyticus NRRL NRS-290T (98.3%), P. dongdonensis KUDC0114T (98.0%), P. tylopili MK2T (97.9%), P. tundrae A10bT (97.8%), and P. xylanexedens B22aT (97.5%) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain DCY114T is a Gram-reaction positive, catalase and oxidase positive, facultatively aerobic rod that is motile by peritrichous flagella...
April 20, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Yunho Lee, Che Ok Jeon
A novel orange-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain HR-UT , was isolated from a water sample of the Han River located in the Republic of Korea. Cells were catalase-positive and oxidase-positive, and non-motile curved rods without flagella. The strain grew at 5-35 °C (optimum 25 °C), pH 6-10 (optimum of 7-8) and 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HR-UT formed a tight phylogenic lineage with Siphonobacter aquaeclarae DSM 21668T and 'Siphonobacter intestinalis' 63MJ-2...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yunho Lee, Che Ok Jeon
A yellow-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, catalase-negative and oxidase-positive bacterium, designated strain HR-AYT , was isolated from a water sample of the Han River. Cells were non-motile rods without flagella. Growth was observed at 5-30 °C (optimum, 20 °C), pH 5-9 (optimum, pH 7) and 0 % NaCl. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. Strain HR-AYT did not produce flexirubin-type pigments. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Rikuan Zheng, Shimei Wu, Ning Ma, Chaomin Sun
Mercury-mediated toxicity remains one of the greatest barriers against microbial survival, even though bacterial resistance to mercury compounds can occur. However, the genetic and physiological adaptations of bacteria to mercury stress still remains unclear. Here, we show that the marine bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri 273 is resistant to 50 μM Hg2+ and removes up to 94% Hg2+ from culture. Using gene homologous recombination and complementation, we show that genes encoding Hg2+ -transport proteins MerT, MerP, the mercuric reductase MerA and the regulatory protein MerD are essential for bacterial mercuric resistance when challenged with Hg2+ ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
David Bass, D V Tikhonenkov, R Foster, P Dyal, J Janouskovec, P J Keeling, M Gardner, S Neuhauser, H Hartikainen, A P Mylnikov, C Berney
Rhizarian 'Novel Clade 10' (NC10) is frequently detected by 18S rRNA gene sequencing studies in freshwater planktonic samples. We describe a new genus and two species of eukaryovorous biflagellate protists, Aquavolon hoantrani n. gen. n. sp., and A. dientrani n. gen. n. sp., which represent the first morphologically characterized members of NC10, here named Aquavolonida ord. nov.. The slightly metabolic cells possess naked heterodynamic flagella, whose kinetosomes lie at a right angle to each other and are connected by at least one fibril...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary, Jaisoo Kim
A novel strain K-4-16T was isolated from forest soil of Namsan Mountain, Seoul, South Korea, and was taxonomically characterized by a polyphasic approach. Strain K-4-16T was observed to be a Gram-staining negative, grayish white-coloured, motile with peritrichous flagella, and rod shaped bacterium. It was able to grow at 15-45 °C, at pH 4.5-10.5, and at 0-4% (w/v) NaCl concentration. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain K-4-16T belongs to the genus Acidovorax and is closely related to Acidovorax anthurii CFBP 3232T (98...
April 7, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Shuo Yang, Meiqing Li, Qiliang Lai, Guizhen Li, Zongze Shao
A taxonomic study was carried out on strain MT13131T , which was isolated from deep-sea sediment of the Indian Ocean during the screening of oil-degrading bacteria. The chain length range of n-alkanes (C8 to C32) oxidized by strain MT13131T was determined in this study. The bacterium was Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, single rod shaped, and motile by peritrichous flagella. Growth was observed at salinities of 1-12 % and at temperatures of 10-42 °C. The isolate was capable of Tween 20, 40 and 80 hydrolysis, but incapable of gelatin, cellulose or starch hydrolysis...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Islam S M Khalil, Ahmet Fatih Tabak, Youssef Hamed, Mohamed E Mitwally, Mohamed Tawakol, Anke Klingner, Metin Sitti
Peritrichously flagellated Escherichia coli swim back and forth by wrapping their flagella together in a helical bundle. However, other monotrichous bacteria cannot swim back and forth with a single flagellum and planar wave propagation. Quantifying this observation, a magnetically driven soft two-tailed microrobot capable of reversing its swimming direction without making a U-turn trajectory or actively modifying the direction of wave propagation is designed and developed. The microrobot contains magnetic microparticles within the polymer matrix of its head and consists of two collinear, unequal, and opposite ultrathin tails...
February 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Reinhard Wirth, Manja Luckner, Gerhard Wanner
Newly erupted black smokers (hydrothermal vent chimneys) are sterile during their formation, but house hyperthermophilic microorganisms in substantial amounts in later stages. No direct experimental data exist by which mechanisms hyperthermophiles colonize newly erupted black smokers, but a scenario was proposed recently how this might happen. Here we combine high temperature light microscopy with electron microscopy to show that two hyperthermophilic Archaea, namely Pyrococcus furiosus and Methanocaldococcus villosus are able to adhere onto authentic black smoker material (BSM)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Deepika Pal, Navjot Kaur, Sarabjeet Kour Sudan, Bhawana Bisht, Srinivasan Krishnamurthi, Shanmugam Mayilraj
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic, straw yellow, motile strain, designated KNDSW-TSA6T , belonging to the genus Acidovorax, was isolated from a water sample of the river Ganges, downstream of the city of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. Cells were aerobic, non-endospore-forming and motile with single polar flagella. It differed from its phylogenetically related strains by phenotypic characteristics such as hydrolysis of urea, gelatin, casein and DNA, and the catalase reaction. The major fatty acids were C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Erich A Nigg, Dominik Schnerch, Olivier Ganier
Centrosomes determine the disposition of microtubule networks and thereby contribute to regulate cell shape, polarity, and motility, as well as chromosome segregation during cell division. Additionally, centrioles, the core components of centrosomes, are required for the formation of cilia and flagella. Mutations in genes coding for centrosomal and centriolar proteins are responsible for several human diseases, foremost ciliopathies and developmental disorders resulting in small brains (primary microcephaly) or small body size (dwarfism)...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Frederick N Dong, Amir Amiri-Yekta, Guillaume Martinez, Antoine Saut, Julie Tek, Laurence Stouvenel, Patrick Lorès, Thomas Karaouzène, Nicolas Thierry-Mieg, Véronique Satre, Sophie Brouillet, Abbas Daneshipour, Seyedeh Hanieh Hosseini, Mélanie Bonhivers, Hamid Gourabi, Emmanuel Dulioust, Christophe Arnoult, Aminata Touré, Pierre F Ray, Haiqing Zhao, Charles Coutton
The multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) phenotype is among the most severe forms of sperm defects responsible for male infertility. The phenotype is characterized by the presence in the ejaculate of immotile spermatozoa with severe flagellar abnormalities including flagella being short, coiled, absent, and of irregular caliber. Recent studies have demonstrated that MMAF is genetically heterogeneous, and genes thus far associated with MMAF account for only one-third of cases. Here we report the identification of homozygous truncating mutations (one stop-gain and one splicing variant) in CFAP69 of two unrelated individuals by whole-exome sequencing of a cohort of 78 infertile men with MMAF...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Avi Peretz, Limor Zabari, Nina Pastukh, Nir Avital, Segula Masaphy
We studied the anti-Leishmania activity of a fractionated extract from the mushroom Morchella importuna in an in vitro system. Leishmaniasis is an important infectious disease caused by a range of Leishmania species, which are multihost protozoa parasites transmitted to humans by the sand fly and infecting macrophages. Leishmaniasis is an increasing worldwide health problem, including in the Mediterranean basin. Current chemotherapy treatments are limited by their toxic effects, the need for long-term treatment, and the increasing development of resistance by the parasite cells...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Daria Tashyreva, Galina Prokopchuk, Akinori Yabuki, Binnypreet Kaur, Drahomíra Faktorová, Jan Votýpka, Chiho Kusaka, Katsunori Fujikura, Takashi Shiratori, Ken-Ichiro Ishida, Aleš Horák, Julius Lukeš
Diplonemids were recently found to be the most species-rich group of marine planktonic protists. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences and morphological observations, we report the description of new members of the genus Rhynchopus - R. humris sp. n. and R. serpens sp. n., and the establishment of two new genera - Lacrimia gen. n. and Sulcionema gen. n., represented by L. lanifica sp. n. and S. specki sp. n., respectively. In addition, we describe the organism formerly designated as Diplonema sp...
February 21, 2018: Protist
Tomoharu Inoue, Clive S Barker, Hideyuki Matsunami, Shin-Ichi Aizawa, Fadel A Samatey
Campylobacter jejuni cells have bipolar flagella. Both flagella have similar lengths of about one helical turn, or 3.53±0.52 µm. The flagellar filament is composed of two homologous flagellins: FlaA and FlaB. Mutant strains that express either FlaA or FlaB alone produce filaments that are shorter than those of the wild-type. It is reported that the flaG gene could affect filament length in some species of bacteria, but its function remains unknown. We introduced a flaG-deletion mutation into the C. jejuni wild-type strain and flaA- or flaB-deletion mutant strains, and observed their flagella by microscopy...
March 29, 2018: Microbiology
Bingfang Xu, Stephen D Turner, Barry T Hinton
A fully functional initial segment, the most proximal region of the epididymis, is important for male fertility. Our previous study generated a mouse model to investigate the importance of initial segment function in male fertility. In that model, Pten was conditionally removed from the initial segment epithelium, which resulted in epithelial de-differentiation. When spermatozoa progressed through the de-differentiated epithelial duct, they developed angled flagella, suggesting compromised sperm maturation, which eventually resulted in male infertility...
March 24, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Alexander Michael Abdelnoor, Soha Mcheik, Nayla S Al AKl
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that flagellin, a component of bacterial flagella, engages Toll- Like receptor 5 (TLR-5) causing the activation of the Myeloid Differentiation Factor-88 (MYD-88) pathway that leads to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-12 (IL-12). In physiological levels cytokines can aid in protection against infectious agents. However, excessive production of cytokines can lead to septic shock during sepsis...
March 26, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Alexander A Crofts, Frédéric M Poly, Cheryl P Ewing, Janelle M Kuroiwa, Joanna E Rimmer, Clayton Harro, David Sack, Kawsar R Talaat, Chad K Porter, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Barbara DeNearing, Jessica Brubaker, Renée M Laird, Alexander C Maue, Kayla Jaep, Ashley Alcala, David R Tribble, Mark S Riddle, Amritha Ramakrishnan, Andrea J McCoy, Bryan W Davies, Patricia Guerry, M Stephen Trent
Campylobacter jejuni infections are a leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal illness worldwide, and Campylobacter infections in children are associated with stunted growth and therefore long-term deficits into adulthood. Despite this global impact on health and human capital, how zoonotic C. jejuni responds to the human host remains unclear. Unlike other intestinal pathogens, C. jejuni does not harbour pathogen-defining toxins that explicitly contribute to disease in humans. This makes understanding Campylobacter pathogenesis challenging and supports a broad examination of bacterial factors that contribute to C...
April 2018: Nature Microbiology
Naoki Sudo, Akiko Soma, Sunao Iyoda, Taku Oshima, Yui Ohto, Kenta Saito, Yasuhiko Sekine
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a life-threatening human pathogen worldwide. The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) in EHEC encodes a type three secretion system and effector proteins, all of which are essential for bacterial adherence to host cells. When LEE expression is activated, flagellar gene expression is down-regulated because bacterial flagella induce the immune responses of host cells at the infection stage. Therefore, this inverse regulation is also important for EHEC infection. We report here that a small regulatory RNA (sRNA), Esr41, mediates LEE repression and flagellar gene activation...
March 26, 2018: Microbiology
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