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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922015/cryoem-structure-of-the-methanospirillum-hungatei-archaellum-reveals-structural-features-distinct-from-the-bacterial-flagellum-and-type-iv-pili
#1
Nicole Poweleit, Peng Ge, Hong H Nguyen, Rachel R Ogorzalek Loo, Robert P Gunsalus, Z Hong Zhou
Archaea use flagella known as archaella-distinct both in protein composition and structure from bacterial flagella-to drive cell motility, but the structural basis of this function is unknown. Here, we report an atomic model of the archaella, based on the cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) structure of the Methanospirillum hungatei archaellum at 3.4 Å resolution. Each archaellum contains ∼61,500 archaellin subunits organized into a curved helix with a diameter of 10 nm and average length of 10,000 nm...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915291/the-landscape-of-microbial-phenotypic-traits-and-associated-genes
#2
Maria Brbić, Matija Piškorec, Vedrana Vidulin, Anita Kriško, Tomislav Šmuc, Fran Supek
Bacteria and Archaea display a variety of phenotypic traits and can adapt to diverse ecological niches. However, systematic annotation of prokaryotic phenotypes is lacking. We have therefore developed ProTraits, a resource containing ∼545 000 novel phenotype inferences, spanning 424 traits assigned to 3046 bacterial and archaeal species. These annotations were assigned by a computational pipeline that associates microbes with phenotypes by text-mining the scientific literature and the broader World Wide Web, while also being able to define novel concepts from unstructured text...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914958/comparative-analysis-of-motility-and-other-properties-of-treponema-denticola-strains
#3
Keiji Nagano, Yoshiaki Hasegawa, Yasuo Yoshida, Fuminobu Yoshimura
The periodontitis-associated pathogen Treponema denticola is a spirochetal bacterium that swims by rotating its cell body like a corkscrew using periplasmic flagella. We compared physiologic and pathogenic properties, including motility, in four strains of T. denticola. Phase-contrast microscopy showed differential motility between the strains; ATCC 35404 showed the highest motility, followed by ATCC 33521, and the remaining two strains (ATCC 35405 and ATCC 33520) showed the lowest motility. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the low motility strains exhibited extracellular flagellar protrusions resulting from elongated flagella...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914543/extract-of-syringa-oblata-a-new-biocontrol-agent-against-tobacco-bacterial-wilt-caused-by-ralstonia-solanacearum
#4
Wanming Bai, Fanyu Kong, Yong Lin, Chengsheng Zhang
Ralstonia solanacearum causes serious wilt disease in tobacco. To effectively control this disease, the antibacterial activity of 95% ethanol extracts from the flower buds of Syringa oblata was examined. Based on GC-MS analysis and an inhibition experiment against R. solanacearum, the main antibacterial component is eugenol. We further determined the effect of eugenol on the physiology, biochemistry, and cellular morphology of R. solanacearum. The results showed that eugenol can destroy wilt bacteria, leading to the disappearance of flagella, the leakage of contents, and the appearance of a cavity...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902430/lateral-typed-flagellin-responsible-for-formation-of-a-polar-flagellum-but-not-of-lateral-flagella-in-sphingomonas-sp-strain-a1
#5
Masahiro Kobayashi, Hidenori Konishi, Yukie Maruyama, Kousaku Murata, Wataru Hashimoto
Alginate-assimilating Sphingomonas sp. strain A1 is the gram-negative bacterium first identified to form a single polar flagellum containing lateral-typed flagellin (p6) in the filament. In addition to the p6 flagellin, two polar-typed flagellins (p5 and p5') are also included in the flagellum. Here we show the significant role of p6 as well as p5/p5' in flagellum formation and cell motility toward alginate. A p6 gene disruptant significantly reduced flagellum formation, and it showed no cell motility, whereas each mutant with a disruption in the p5 or p5' gene exhibited cell motility through the formation of a polar flagellum containing p6...
October 24, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902308/altererythrobacter-soli-sp-nov-isolated-from-desert-sand-sample
#6
Qi Zhao, Hui-Ru Li, Qing-Qing Han, Ao-Lei He, Cong-Yuan Nie, Suo-Min Wang, Jin-Lin Zhang
An alkaliphilic strain designed MN-1T was isolated from a desert sand sample collected from Tengger desert, north-western China. To delineate its taxonomic position, the Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic bacterium, strain MN-1T was subjected to polyphasic taxonomic studies. Growth was observed at temperatures from 4 to 37 ºC (optimum 30 ºC and 32 ºC), at salinities from 0 to 2 % (optimum 1%) and at pH from 6.5 to 12.0 (optimum 7.0-9.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the strain MN-1T was a member of the genus Altererythrobacter and distinguished from the recognized species of this genus...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902304/pseudomonas-canadensis-sp-nov-a-biological-control-agent-isolated-from-a-field-plot-under-long-term-mineral-fertilization
#7
James T Tambong, Renin Xu, Eden Bromfield
The bacterial strain 2-92T isolated from a field plot under long-term (>40 years) mineral fertilization exhibited in vitro antagonistic properties against fungal pathogens. A polyphasic approach was undertaken to verify its taxonomic status. Strain 2-92T is gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, motile by one or more flagella, and oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive. Optimal growth temperature of strain 2-92T is 30 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the strain is related to species of the genus Pseudomonas...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902270/aureimonas-glaciei-sp-nov-isolated-from-ice-core-china
#8
Bixi Guo, Yongqin Liu, Zhengquan Gu, Liang Shen, Keshao Liu, Tingting Xing, Ninglian Wang, Hongcan Liu, Yuguang Zhou, Jiule Li
A bacterial strain, B5-2T, was isolated from an ice core drilled from Muztagh Glacier, China. Strain B5-2T was a Gram-stain-negative, short rod-shaped, motile by polar flagella, aerobic bacterium. The major fatty acids of strain B5-2T were summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c) and iso-C13:0. The G+C content of the DNA from strain B5-2T was 69.3 mol%. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain B5-2T was Q-10. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine (PME), phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine (PDE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), unidentified phospholipid (AL) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG)...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902261/paenibacillus-qinlingensis-sp-nov-an-indole-3-acetic%C3%A2-acid-producing-bacterium-isolated-from-roots-of-sinopodophyllum%C3%A2-hexandrum-royle-ying
#9
Kaiyun Xin, Muhang Li, Chaoqiong Chen, Xu Yang, Qiqi Li, Juanli Cheng, Lei Zhang, Xihui Shen
A novel indole-3-acetic acid-producing bacterium, designated TEGT-2T, was isolated from the roots of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum collected from Qinling Mountains in shaanxi province, Northwestern China, and was subjected to a taxonomic study by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain TEGT-2T were Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, endospore-forming rods and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain TEGT-2T was a member of the genus Paenibacillus, exhibiting the highest sequence similarity to Paenibacillus pectinilyticus KCTC 13222T (97...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902239/mucilaginibacter-psychrotolerans-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-riganqiao-peatlands-on-the-tibetan-plateau
#10
Yongcui Deng, Liang Shen, Baiqin Xu, Yongqin Liu, Zhengquan Gu, Hongcan Liu, Yuguang Zhou
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped without flagella, pink colored, cold-tolerate bacteria strain NH7-4T was isolated from Riganqiao peatlands on the Tibetan Plateau. The novel isolate was classified into the genus Mucilaginibacter. 16S rRNA gene sequence of the novel isolate shares a pairwise similarity ranging from 96.69% to 93.41% with the type strains of the genus Mucilaginibacter. Growth of strain NH7-4T occurred between 0 and 30 °C and at pH 5.0-9.0, with optimum at 20 °C and pH about 7.0. The major isoprenoid quinone is MK-7...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902230/roseitalea-porphyridii-gen-nov-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-red-alga-and-reclassification-of-hoeflea-suaedae-chung-et-al-2013-as-pseudohoeflea-suaedae-gen-nov-comb-nov
#11
Jong Woo Hyeon, Sang Eun Jeong, Kyunghwa Baek, Che Ok Jeon
A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated MA7-20T, was isolated from a marine alga, Porphyridium marinum, in Korea. Cells showing oxidase-positive and catalase-positive activities were motile rods with bipolar flagella. Growth of strain MA7-20T was observed at 15-45 C (optimum, 30-37 C), at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0-7 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %). Strain MA7-20T contained summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c) and 11-methyl-C18:1 ω7c and C18:0 as the major fatty acids and ubiquinone-10 as the sole isoprenoid quinone...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902225/desulfobulbus-oligotrophicus-sp-nov-a-novel-sulfate-reducing-and-propionate-oxidizing-bacterium-isolated-from-a-municipal-anaerobic-sewage-sludge-digester
#12
Abdelaziz El Houari, Magali Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony Ranchou-Peyruse, Adrien Dakdaki, Marion Guignard, Lahcen Idouhammou, Rhizlane Bennisse, Radia Bouterfass, Rémy Guyoneaud, Abdel-Illah Qatibi
A novel, mesophilic, strictly anaerobic, sulfate-reducing and propionate-oxidizing bacterium, strain Prop6T, was enriched and isolated from a municipal anaerobic sewage sludge digester. Cells were Gram-negative, catalase-positive, oval rods, motile by means of amphitrichous flagella, non-spore-forming and contained menaquinone MK-5(H2) as the major respiratory quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content was 51.7 mol%. The optimal NaCl concentration, temperature and pH were 2-5 g l-1, 35°C and 7.6, respectively. Strain Prop6T could only oxidize propionate, lactate and pyruvate (weakly) with sulfate, sulfite or thiosulfate, mainly to acetate...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902214/brevibacillus-halotolerans-sp-nov-isolated-from-saline-soil-sample-collected-from-paddy-field
#13
Jinlong Song, Yanwei Wang, Yi Song, Bingqiang Zhao, Huimin Wang, Shan Zhou, Delong Kong, Xiang Guo, Yanting Li, Mingxiong He, Kedong Ma, Zhiyong Ruan, Yanchun Yan
Two novel aerobic bacteria, designated strains LAM0312T and LAM0313, were isolated from saline soil sample collected from paddy field in Dezhou city, Shandong Province in China. The Cells of these strains were Gram-stain positive, sporogenous, rod-shaped and motile with peritrichous flagella. The optimal growth temperature and pH were 30 ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, repesctively. Strain LAM0312T was found to be able to grow in the presence of 12 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids of strains were identified as anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902208/lysinibacillus-alkalisoli-sp-nov-isolated-from-saline-alkaline-soil
#14
Ji-Quan Sun, Lian Xu, Xiao-Lei Wu
A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic bacterial strain, designated Y2A20T with peritrichous flagella was isolated from the top layer saline-alkaline soil, Hangjin Banner, Inner Mongolia, northern China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Y2A20T formed a stable clade with 'Lysinibacillus jejuensis' N2-5T. Strain Y2A20T shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with 'L. jejuensis' N2-5T (97.4%), while lower 16S rRNA gene similarities with all other type strains (<97...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898036/screening-of-a-haloferax-volcanii-transposon-library-reveals-novel-motility-and-adhesion-mutants
#15
Georgio Legerme, Evan Yang, Rianne N Esquivel, Saija Kiljunen, Harri Savilahti, Mechthild Pohlschroder
Archaea, like bacteria, use type IV pili to facilitate surface adhesion. Moreover, archaeal flagella-structures required for motility-share a common ancestry with type IV pili. While the characterization of archaeal homologs of bacterial type IV pilus biosynthesis components has revealed important aspects of flagellum and pilus biosynthesis and the mechanisms regulating motility and adhesion in archaea, many questions remain. Therefore, we screened a Haloferax volcanii transposon insertion library for motility mutants using motility plates and adhesion mutants, using an adapted air-liquid interface assay...
November 26, 2016: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889167/sonication-reduces-the-attachment-of-salmonella-typhimurium-atcc-14028-cells-to-bacterial-cellulose-based-plant-cell-wall-models-and-cut-plant-material
#16
Michelle S F Tan, Sadequr Rahman, Gary A Dykes
This study investigated the removal of bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, using sonication, and examined its effect on the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells to plant cell walls. S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells were subjected to sonication at 20 kHz to remove surface structures without affecting cell viability. Effective removal of flagella was determined by staining flagella of sonicated cells with Ryu's stain and enumerating the flagella remaining by direct microscopic counting...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883267/translocation-of-tektin-3-to-the-equatorial-segment-of-heads-in-bull-spermatozoa-exposed-to-dibutyryl-camp-and-calyculin-a
#17
Mariko Tsukamoto, Erina Hiyama, Karen Hirotani, Takafumi Gotoh, Tetsuichiro Inai, Hiroshi Iida
Tektins (TEKTs) are filamentous proteins associated with microtubules in cilia, flagella, basal bodies, and centrioles. Five TEKTs (TEKT1, -2, -3, -4, and -5) have been identified as components of mammalian sperm flagella. We previously reported that TKET1 and TEKT3 are also present in the heads of rodent spermatozoa. The present study clearly demonstrates that TEKT2 is present at the acrosome cap whereas TEKT3 resides just beneath the plasma membrane of the post-acrosomal region of sperm heads in unactivated bull spermatozoa, and builds on the distributional differences of TEKT1, -2, and -3 on sperm heads...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880711/fine-tuning-motile-cilia-and-flagella-evolution-of-the-dynein-motor-proteins-from-plants-to-humans-at-high-resolution
#18
Martin Kollmar
The flagellum is a key innovation linked to eukaryogenesis. It provides motility by regulated cycles of bending and bend propagation, which are thought to be controlled by a complex arrangement of seven distinct dyneins in repeated patterns of outer- (OAD) and inner-arm dynein (IAD) complexes. Electron tomography showed high similarity of this axonemal repeat pattern across ciliates, algae, and animals, but the diversity of dynein sequences across the eukaryotes has not yet comprehensively been resolved and correlated with structural data...
December 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876182/colonization-of-black-smokers-by-hyperthermophilic-microorganisms
#19
REVIEW
Reinhard Wirth
Newly erupted black smokers (hydrothermal vent chimneys) are sterile during their formation, but they house hyperthermophiles in substantial amounts in later stages. No hard data exist on the mechanisms by which hyperthermophiles colonize newly erupted black smokers. Here I propose a scenario - based on various experimental data - for how hyperthermophiles colonize black smokers. Hyperthermophiles which are present in cold sea water in minute amounts are transferred by chance to the outside of black smokers and react within seconds to the high temperature by very fast movements...
November 18, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866888/comparative-analysis-of-ciliary-membranes-and-ectosomes
#20
Huan Long, Fan Zhang, Nannan Xu, Gai Liu, Dennis R Diener, Joel L Rosenbaum, Kaiyao Huang
Primary and motile cilia/flagella function as cellular antennae, receiving signals from the environment and subsequently activating signaling pathways that are critical for cellular homeostasis and differentiation [1-3]. Recent work with the green alga Chlamydomonas and the nematode C. elegans demonstrated that ectosomes can be released from the cilium and can mediate the intercellular communication [4-9]. To better understand the function of flagellar ectosomes, we have compared their protein composition to that of the flagellar membrane from which they are derived...
November 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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