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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636823/how-bacteria-respond-to-material-stiffness-during-attachment-a-role-of-escherichia-coli-flagellar-motility
#1
Fangchao Song, Megan E Brasch, Hao Wang, James H Henderson, Karen Sauer, Dacheng Ren
Material stiffness has been shown to have potent effects on bacterial attachment and biofilm formation, but the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, response to material stiffness by Escherichia coli during attachment was investigated with biofilm assays and cell tracking using the Automated Contour-base Tracking for In Vitro Environments (ACTIVE) computational algorithm. By comparing the movement of E. coli cells attached on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces of different Young's moduli (0.1 and 2...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634473/toxic-effects-of-prodigiosin-secreted-by-hahella-sp-ka22-on-harmful-alga-phaeocystis-globosa
#2
Huajun Zhang, Hui Wang, Wei Zheng, Zhiyuan Yao, Yun Peng, Su Zhang, Zhong Hu, Zhen Tao, Tianling Zheng
Application of algicidal compounds secreted by bacteria is a promising and environmentally friendly strategy to control harmful algal blooms (HABs). Years ago prodigiosin was described as an efficient algicidal compound, but the details about the effect of prodigiosin on algal cells are still elusive. Prodigiosin shows high algicidal activity on Phaeocystis globosa, making it a potential algicide in HAB control. When P. globosa were treated with prodigiosin at 5 μg/mL, algae cells showed cytoplasmic hypervacuolization, chloroplast and nucleus rupture, flagella missing, and cell fracture, when observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630429/marine-diatoms-change-their-gene-expression-profile-when-exposed-to-microscale-turbulence-under-nutrient-replete-conditions
#3
Alberto Amato, Gianluca Dell'Aquila, Francesco Musacchia, Rossella Annunziata, Ari Ugarte, Nicolas Maillet, Alessandra Carbone, Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalà, Remo Sanges, Daniele Iudicone, Maria I Ferrante
Diatoms are a fundamental microalgal phylum that thrives in turbulent environments. Despite several experimental and numerical studies, if and how diatoms may profit from turbulence is still an open question. One of the leading arguments is that turbulence favours nutrient uptake. Morphological features, such as the absence of flagella, the presence of a rigid exoskeleton and the micrometre size would support the possible passive but beneficial role of turbulence on diatoms. We demonstrate that in fact diatoms actively respond to turbulence in non-limiting nutrient conditions...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630322/tcte1-is-a-conserved-component-of-the-dynein-regulatory-complex-and-is-required-for-motility-and-metabolism-in-mouse-spermatozoa
#4
Julio M Castaneda, Rong Hua, Haruhiko Miyata, Asami Oji, Yueshuai Guo, Yiwei Cheng, Tao Zhou, Xuejiang Guo, Yiqiang Cui, Bin Shen, Zibin Wang, Zhibin Hu, Zuomin Zhou, Jiahao Sha, Renata Prunskaite-Hyyrylainen, Zhifeng Yu, Ramiro Ramirez-Solis, Masahito Ikawa, Martin M Matzuk, Mingxi Liu
Flagella and cilia are critical cellular organelles that provide a means for cells to sense and progress through their environment. The central component of flagella and cilia is the axoneme, which comprises the "9+2" microtubule arrangement, dynein arms, radial spokes, and the nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC). Failure to properly assemble components of the axoneme leads to defective flagella and in humans leads to a collection of diseases referred to as ciliopathies. Ciliopathies can manifest as severe syndromic diseases that affect lung and kidney function, central nervous system development, bone formation, visceral organ organization, and reproduction...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629495/noviherbaspirillum-denitrificans-sp-nov-a-denitrifying-bacterium-isolated-from-rice-paddy-soil-and-noviherbaspirillum-autotrophicum-sp-nov-a-denitrifying-facultatively-autotrophic-bacterium-isolated-from-rice-paddy-soil-and-proposal-to-reclassify-herbaspirillum
#5
Satoshi Ishii, Naoaki Ashida, Hiroki Ohno, Takahiro Segawa, Shuhei Yabe, Shigeto Otsuka, Akira Yokota, Keishi Senoo
Thirty-nine denitrifying bacterial strains closely related to one another, represented by strains TSA40T and TSA66T, were isolated from rice paddy soils. Strains TSA40T and TSA66T were Gram-stain-negative, slightly curved rod-shaped, and motile by means of polar flagella. They were able to reduce nitrate, nitrite and nitrous oxide, but unable to fix atmospheric N2. While strain TSA66T was able to grow autotrophically by H2-dependent denitrification, strain TSA40T could not. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that they belong to the family Oxalobacteraceae, the order Burkholderiales in the class Betaproteobacteria...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615489/ovarian-fluid-impacts-flagellar-beating-and-biomechanical-metrics-of-sperm-between-alternative-reproductive-tactics
#6
Ian A E Butts, Galina Prokopchuk, Vojtěch Kašpar, Jacky Cosson, Trevor E Pitcher
Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are prevalent in nature, where smaller parasitic males typically have better sperm quality than larger territorial guard males. At present, it is unclear what is causing this phenomenon. Our objective was to gain insights into sperm form and function by examining flagellar beating patterns (beat frequency, wave amplitude, bend length, bend angle, wave velocity) and biomechanical sperm metrics (velocity, hydrodynamic power output, propulsive efficiency) of wild spawning Chinook salmon ARTs...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613253/terpenoids-from-platostoma-rotundifolium-briq-a-j-paton-alter-the-expression-of-quorum-sensing-related-virulence-factors-and-the-formation-of-biofilm-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#7
Tsiry Rasamiravaka, Jérémie Ngezahayo, Laurent Pottier, Sofia Oliveira Ribeiro, Florence Souard, Léonard Hari, Caroline Stévigny, Mondher El Jaziri, Pierre Duez
Platostoma rotundifolium (Briq.) A. J. Paton aerial parts are widely used in Burundi traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. In order to investigate their probable antibacterial activities, crude extracts from P. rotundifolium were assessed for their bactericidal and anti-virulence properties against an opportunistic bacterial model, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Whereas none of the tested extracts exert bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal proprieties, the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts exhibit anti-virulence properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 characterized by an alteration in quorum sensing gene expression and biofilm formation without affecting bacterial viability...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607468/clostridium-difficile-flagella-induce-a-pro-inflammatory-response-in-intestinal-epithelium-of-mice-in-cooperation-with-toxins
#8
Jameel Batah, Hussein Kobeissy, Phuong Trang Bui Pham, Cécile Denève-Larrazet, Sarah Kuehne, Anne Collignon, Claire Janoir-Jouveshomme, Jean-Christophe Marvaud, Imad Kansau
Clostridium difficile is the most important enteropathogen involved in gut nosocomial post-antibiotic infections. The emergence of hypervirulent strains has contributed to increased mortality and morbidity of CDI. The C. difficile toxins contribute directly to CDI-associated lesions of the gut, but other bacterial factors are needed for the bacteria to adhere and colonize the intestinal epithelium. The C. difficile flagella, which confer motility and chemotaxis for successful intestinal colonization, could play an additional role in bacterial pathogenesis by contributing to the inflammatory response of the host and mucosal injury...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606056/comparative-genome-and-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-distinctive-surface-characteristics-and-unique-physiological-potentials-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-atcc-27853
#9
Huiluo Cao, Yong Lai, Salim Bougouffa, Zeling Xu, Aixin Yan
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was isolated from a hospital blood specimen in 1971 and has been widely used as a model strain to survey antibiotics susceptibilities, biofilm development, and metabolic activities of Pseudomonas spp.. Although four draft genomes of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 have been sequenced, the complete genome of this strain is still lacking, hindering a comprehensive understanding of its physiology and functional genome. RESULTS: Here we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of P...
June 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605078/morphology-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-three-novel-naegleria-isolated-from-freshwaters-on-jeju-island-korea-during-the-winter-period
#10
Woo Jun Khwon, Jong Soo Park
The genus Naegleria is one of the best known heterolobosean groups, and is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This group is rarely studied in temperate regions during winter. Here, three novel Naegleria were isolated from freshwaters on Jeju Island, Korea, during winter. Two isolates were amoeboflagellates, and one of the three amoebae did not undergo enflagellation. All amoebae had eruptive pseudopodia, and the layer of refractile granules around a large nucleus. They formed a cyst with ~2 pores in the cyst stage...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603807/bdm-mediated-regulation-of-flagellar-biogenesis-in-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#11
Jaejin Lee, Dae-Jun Kim, Ji-Hyun Yeom, Kangseok Lee
Synthesis of the flagellar apparatus in Escherichia coli is mediated via complex regulatory pathways. A previous study indicated that the protein encoded by the biofilm-dependent modulation (bdm) gene is linked closely with a regulatory pathway for flagellar assembly. However, the specific role of Bdm in flagellar biogenesis remains unknown. Herein, we showed that Bdm interacts with FlgM and inhibits its function as an anti-σ28 factor, which induces the transcription of flagellar late-class genes in E. coli...
June 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602841/a-unique-role-of-flagellar-function-in-aliivibrio-salmonicida-pathogenicity-not-related-to-bacterial-motility-in-aquatic-environments
#12
Simen Foyn Nørstebø, Erik Paulshus, Ane Mohn Bjelland, Henning Sørum
Aliivibrio salmonicida is the causative agent of cold-water vibriosis, a septicemia of farmed salmonid fish. The mechanisms of disease are not well described, and few virulence factors have been identified. However, a requirement for motility in the pathogenesis has been reported. Al. salmonicida is motile by the means of lophotrichous polar flagella, consisting of multiple flagellin subunits that are expressed simultaneously. Here we show that flagellin subunit FlaA, but not FlaD, is of major importance for motility in Al...
June 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592860/role-of-flagella-and-type-four-pili-in-the-co-migration-of-burkholderia-terrae-bs001-with-fungal-hyphae-through-soil
#13
Pu Yang, Miaozhi Zhang, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Burkholderia terrae BS001 has previously been found to be able to disperse along with growing fungal hyphae in soil, with the type-3 secretion system having a supportive role in this movement. In this study, we focus on the role of two motility- and adherence-associated appendages, i.e. type-4 pili (T4P) and flagella. Electron microcopy and motility testing revealed that strain BS001 produces polar flagella and can swim on semi-solid R2A agar. Flagellum- and T4P-negative mutants were then constructed to examine the ecological roles of the respective systems...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591848/comparative-genomics-of-free-living-gamma-proteobacteria-pathogenesis-related-genes-or-interaction-related-genes
#14
Mirna Vázquez-Rosas-Landa, Gabriel Yaxal Ponce-Soto, Luis E Eguiarte, V Souza
Bacteria have numerous strategies to interact with them and with their environment. However, genes associated with these interactions are usually cataloged as pathogenic. To understand the role that these genes have not only in pathogenesis but also in bacterial interactions, we compared the genomes of eight bacteria from human-impacted environments with free-living bacteria from the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB), a relatively pristine oligotrophic site. Fifty-one genomes from CCB bacteria, including Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Photobacterium, and Aeromonas were analyzed...
June 7, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588224/the-salicylidene-acylhydrazide-inp0341-attenuates-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-virulence-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Pia Uusitalo, Ulrik Hägglund, Elin Rhöös, Henrik Scherman Norberg, Mikael Elofsson, Charlotta Sundin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can be very hard to treat because of high resistance to different antibiotics and alternative treatment regimens are greatly needed. An alternative or a complement to traditional antibiotic is to inhibit virulence of the bacteria. The salicylidene acylhydrazide, INP0341, belongs to a class of compounds that has previously been shown to inhibit virulence in a number of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the virulence blocking effect of INP0341 on P...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582680/evolutionary-relationship-of-the-scale-bearing-kraken-incertae-sedis-monadofilosa-cercozoa-rhizaria-combining-ultrastructure-data-and-a-two-gene-phylogeny
#16
Kenneth Dumack, Alexander P Mylnikov, Michael Bonkowski
The genus Kraken represents a distinct lineage of filose amoebae within the Cercozoa. Currently a single species, Kraken carinae, has been described. SSU rDNA phylogeny showed an affiliation to the Cercomonadida, branching with weak support at its base, close to Paracercomonas, Metabolomonas, and Brevimastigomonas. Light microscopical analyses showed several unique features of the genus Kraken, but ultrastructure data were lacking. In this study, K. carinae has been studied by electron microscopy, these data conjoined with a two-gene phylogeny were used to give more insight into the evolutionary relationship of the genus Kraken within Cercozoa...
July 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577616/dnah1-gene-mutations-and-their-potential-association-with-dysplasia-of-the-sperm-fibrous-sheath-and-infertility-in-the-han-chinese-population
#17
Yanwei Sha, Xiaoyu Yang, Libin Mei, Zhiyong Ji, Xu Wang, Lu Ding, Ping Li, Shenmin Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 1 (DNAH1) gene mutations that may be associated with dysplasia of the sperm fibrous sheath (DFS) and infertility in the Han Chinese population. DESIGN: Dysfunction of DNAH1 is known to cause multiple morphologic abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF), DFS, and infertility. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in DFS subjects and the healthy control subjects. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Twenty-one patients of Han ethnicity with primary infertility and diagnosed with asthenozoospermia and MMAF, but without primary ciliary dyskinesia...
June 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576883/crystal-structure-of-tubulin-tyrosine-ligase-like-3-reveals-essential-architectural-elements-unique-to-tubulin-monoglycylases
#18
Christopher P Garnham, Ian Yu, Yan Li, Antonina Roll-Mecak
Glycylation and glutamylation, the posttranslational addition of glycines and glutamates to genetically encoded glutamates in the intrinsically disordered tubulin C-terminal tails, are crucial for the biogenesis and stability of cilia and flagella and play important roles in metazoan development. Members of the diverse family of tubulin tyrosine ligase-like (TTLL) enzymes catalyze these modifications, which are part of an evolutionarily conserved and complex tubulin code that regulates microtubule interactions with cellular effectors...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574207/human-dna-helicase-ruvbl1-and-its-chlamydomonas-homologue-crruvbl1-plays-an-important-role-in-ciliogenesis
#19
Damayanti Tammana, Trinadh Venkata Satish Tammana
Several nuclear and nucleic acid-binding proteins were detected in the proteomic analyses of ciliary fractions from various organisms. Yet very little is known about the role of these proteins in ciliogenesis and ciliary signaling. In an attempt to characterize the role of these nuclear proteins, we identified a hypothetical protein from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrRuvBL1, which is homologous to human DNA helicase, HsRuvBL1. CrRuvBL1 localizes to flagella and nucleus in vegetative Chlamydomonas cells. It accumulates in the nucleus specifically during initial stages of flagellar assembly and cell division indicating its role in these processes...
June 2, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571803/in-brucella-selective-pressure-may-turn-some-genes-on-instead-of-default-off-position
#20
Gamal Wareth, Falk Melzer, Heinrich Neubauer
Brucellosis is a major zoonosis with worldwide prevalence; more than half a million new human cases are expected every year. The genus Brucella (B) encompasses 12 accepted nomo-species and brucellae were described as Gram negative, aerobic, non-motile and non-haemolytic facultative intracellular bacteria. The Brucella genome contains flagella-specific genes and various hemolysins, but no flagella are formed and nor hemolysis is seen. Selective pressure can cause accumulation of mutations that turn those genes on instead of default off position and provoked the motile and hemolytic phenotypes...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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