keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Flagella

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430876/ift25-an-intraflagellar-transporter-protein-dispensable-for-ciliogenesis-in-somatic-cells-is-essential-for-sperm-flagella-formation
#1
Hong Liu, Wei Li, Yong Zhang, Zhengang Zhang, Xuejun Shang, Ling Zhang, Shiyang Zhang, Yanwei Li, Andres V Somoza, Brandon Delpi, George L Gerton, James A Foster, Rex A Hess, Gregory J Pazour, Zhibing Zhang
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. However, IFT25, a component of the IFT complex is not required for the formation of cilia in somatic tissues. In mice, the gene is highly expressed in the testis, and its expression is up-regulated during the final phase when sperm flagella are formed. To investigate the role of IFT25 in sperm flagella formation, the gene was specifically disrupted in male germ cells. All homozygous knockout mice survived to adulthood and did not show any gross abnormalities...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428954/uncovering-the-roles-of-septins-in-cilia
#2
REVIEW
Oliva Palander, Maha El-Zeiry, William S Trimble
Septins are a family of GTP-binding proteins that associate with cellular membranes and the cytoskeleton. Their ability to polymerize into filamentous structures permits them to serve as diffusion barriers for membrane proteins and as multi-molecular scaffolds that recruit components of signaling pathways. At the cellular level, septins contribute to the regulation of numerous processes, including cytokinesis, cell polarity, cell migration, and many others. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence for roles of mammalian septins in the biogenesis and function of flagella and cilia, and how this may impact human diseases such as ciliopathies...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428259/rabl2-interacts-with-the-ift-b-complex-and-cep19-and-participates-in-ciliary-assembly
#3
Yuya Nishijima, Yohei Hagiya, Tomohiro Kubo, Ryota Takei, Yohei Katoh, Kazuhisa Nakayama
Proteins localized to the basal body and the centrosome play crucial roles in ciliary assembly and functions. Although RABL2 and CEP19 are conserved in ciliated organisms and have been implicated in ciliary/flagellar functions, their roles were poorly understood. We here showed that RABL2 interacts with CEP19 and is recruited to the mother centriole and basal body in a CEP19-dependent manner, and that CEP19 is recruited to the centriole probably via its binding to the centrosomal protein FGFR1OP. Disruption of the RABL2 gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resulted in the non-flagellated phenotype, suggesting a crucial role of RABL2 in ciliary/flagellar assembly...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427964/scanning-electron-microscopic-studies-on-antenna-of-hemipyrellia-ligurriens-wiedemann-1830-diptera-calliphoridae-a-blow-fly-species-of-forensic-importance
#4
Garima Hore, Aniruddha Maity, Atanu Naskar, Waliza Ansar, Shyamasree Ghosh, Goutam Kumar Saha, Dhriti Banerjee
Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are one of the foremost organisms amongst forensic insects to colonize corpses shortly after death, thus are of immense importance in the domain of forensic entomology. The blow fly Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is considered as a forensically important fly species globally and is also known for its medical and veterinary importance. In the present study, we report for the first time scanning electron microscopic studies on the morphology of sensilla of antenna of adult male and female of H...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427876/polar-n-terminal-residues-conserved-in-type-2-secretion-pseudopilins-determine-subunit-targeting-and-membrane-extraction-steps-during-fibre-assembly
#5
Javier Santos-Moreno, Alexandra East, Ingrid Guilvout, Nathalie Nadeau, Peter J Bond, Guy Tran Van Nhieu, Olivera Francetic
Bacterial type 2 secretion systems (T2SS), type 4 pili (T4P) and archaeal flagella assemble fibres from initially membrane-embedded pseudopilin and pilin subunits. Fibre subunits are made as precursors with positively charged N-terminal anchors, whose cleavage via the prepilin peptidase, essential for pilin membrane extraction and assembly, is followed by N-methylation of the mature (pseudo)pilin N-terminus. The conserved Glu residue at position 5 (E5) of mature (pseudo)pilins is essential for assembly. Unlike T4 pilins, where E5 residue substitutions also abolish N-methylation, the E5A variant of T2SS pseudopilin PulG remains N-methylated, but is affected in interaction with the T2SS component PulM...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424932/inverse-relationship-of-ca-2-dependent-flagellar-response-between-animal-sperm-and-prasinophyte-algae
#6
Kogiku Shiba, Kazuo Inaba
Symmetry/asymmetry conversion of eukaryotic flagellar waveform is caused by the changes in intracellular Ca(2+). Animal sperm flagella show symmetric or asymmetric waveform at lower or higher concentration of intracellular Ca(2+), respectively. In Chlamydomonas, high Ca(2+) induces conversion of flagellar waveform from asymmetric to symmetry, resulting in the backward movement. This mirror image relationship between animal sperm and Chlamydomonas could be explained by the distinct calcium sensors used to regulate the outer arm dyneins (Inaba 2015)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417161/ift54-regulates-ift20-stability-but-is-not-essential-for-tubulin-transport-during-ciliogenesis
#7
Xin Zhu, Yinwen Liang, Feng Gao, Junmin Pan
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is required for ciliogenesis by ferrying ciliary components using IFT complexes as cargo adaptors. IFT54 is a component of the IFT-B complex and is also associated with cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs). Loss of IFT54 impairs cilia assembly as well as cytoplasmic MT dynamics. The N-terminal calponin homology (CH) domain of IFT54 interacts with tubulins/MTs and has been proposed to transport tubulin during ciliogenesis, whereas the C-terminal coiled-coil (CC) domain binds IFT20. However, the precise function of these domains in vivo is not well understood...
April 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414739/an-in-silico-pan-genomic-probe-for-the-molecular-traits-behind-lactobacillus-ruminis-gut-autochthony
#8
Ravi Kant, Airi Palva, Ingemar von Ossowski
As an ecological niche, the mammalian intestine provides the ideal habitat for a variety of bacterial microorganisms. Purportedly, some commensal genera and species offer a beneficial mix of metabolic, protective, and structural processes that help sustain the natural digestive health of the host. Among these sort of gut inhabitants is the Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus ruminis, a strict anaerobe with both pili and flagella on its cell surface, but also known for being autochthonous (indigenous) to the intestinal environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405357/nonlinear-amplitude-dynamics-in-flagellar-beating
#9
David Oriola, Hermes Gadêlha, Jaume Casademunt
The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive cross-linkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402881/stability-and-conformation-of-a-chemoreceptor-hamp-domain-chimera-correlates-with-signaling-properties
#10
Nattakan Sukomon, Joanne Widom, Peter P Borbat, Jack H Freed, Brian R Crane
HAMP domains are dimeric, four-helix bundles that transduce conformational signals in bacterial receptors. Genetic studies of the Escherichia coli serine receptor (Tsr) provide an opportunity to understand HAMP conformational behavior in terms of functional output. To increase its stability, the Tsr HAMP domain was spliced into a poly-HAMP unit from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aer2 receptor. Within the chimera, the Tsr HAMP undergoes a thermal melting transition at a temperature much lower than that of the Aer2 HAMP domains...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400753/the-helicobacter-pylori-j99-jhp0106-gene-under-the-control-of-the-csra-rpon-regulatory-system-modulates-flagella-formation-and-motility
#11
Cheng-Yen Kao, Jenn-Wei Chen, Shuying Wang, Bor-Shyang Sheu, Jiunn-Jong Wu
CsrA has been shown to positively control the expression of flagella-related genes, including flaA and flaB, through regulating expression of an alternative sigma factor RpoN in Helicobacter pylori J99. Here, we aimed to characterize the CsrA regulatory system by comparative transcriptomic analysis carried out with RNA-seq on strain J99 and a csrA mutant. Fifty-three genes in the csrA mutant were found to be differentially expressed compared with the wild-type. Among CsrA-regulated genes, jhp0106, with unclear function, was found located downstream of flaB in the J99 genome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398840/the-ntry-ntrx-system-of-sinorhizobium-meliloti-gr4-regulates-motility-eps-i-production-and-nitrogen-metabolism-but-is-dispensable-for-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation
#12
Nieves Calatrava-Morales, Joaquina Nogales, Kinia Ameztoy, Bart van Steenbergen, María José Soto
Sinorhizobium meliloti can translocate over surfaces. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that control this trait and its relevance for establishing symbiosis with alfalfa plants. To gain insights into this field, we isolated Tn5 mutants of S. meliloti GR4 with impaired surface motility. In mutant strain GRS577, the transposon interrupted the ntrY gene encoding the sensor kinase of the NtrY/NtrX two-component regulatory system. GRS577 is impaired in flagella synthesis, and overproduces succinoglycan which is responsible for increased biofilm formation...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389964/ion-selectivity-of-the-flagellar-motors-derived-from-the-alkaliphilic-bacillus-and-paenibacillus-species
#13
Yuka Takahashi, Masahiro Ito
Many bacteria can swim using their flagella, which are filamentous organelles that extend from the cell surface. The flagellar motor is energized by either a proton (H(+)) or sodium ion (Na(+)) as the motive force. MotAB-type stators use protons, whereas MotPS- and PomAB-type stators use Na(+) as the coupling ions. Recently, alkaliphilic Bacillus alcalophilus was shown to use potassium ions (K(+)) and rubidium ions (Rb(+)) for flagellar rotation, and the flagellar motor from Paenibacillus sp. TCA-20 uses divalent cations such as magnesium ions (Mg(2+)), calcium ions (Ca(2+)), and strontium ions (Sr(2+)) for coupling...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389962/purification-of-fla2-flagella-of-rhodobacter-sphaeroides
#14
Javier de la Mora, Laura Camarena, Georges Dreyfus
The photosynthetic bacterium R. sphaeroides expresses two flagellar systems that are encoded by two complete gene clusters that have distinct phylogenetic origins. The isolation and purification of the Filament-Hook Basal Body (F-HBB) or the Hook Basal Body (HBB) structure is a troublesome task given the complexity of this nano-machine that is composed of multiple loosely bound substructures that can be lost during the isolation and purification procedure. A successful procedure requires adjustments to the standard method established for Salmonella...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389959/motility-of-spirochetes
#15
Shuichi Nakamura, Md Shafiqul Islam
Spirochetes are bacteria distinguished by an undulate or helical cell body and intracellular flagellar called periplasmic flagella or endoflagella. Spirochetes translate by rotating the cell body. In this chapter, we show a method for simultaneous measurement of the cell body rotation and swimming speed in individual spirochete cells. We also describe a simple chemotaxis assay capable of observing the response of spirochete in real time under a microscope and quantitatively evaluating the response magnitude to attractants and repellents...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389945/dynamic-measures-of-flagellar-gene-expression
#16
Santosh Koirala, Christopher V Rao
Many genes are required to assemble flagella. These genes encode not only the structural elements of the flagellum but also a number of regulators that control how the flagellar genes are temporally expressed during the assembly process. These regulators also specify the likelihood that a given cell will express the flagellar genes. In particular, not all cells express the flagellar genes, resulting in mixed populations of motile and non-motile cells. Nutrients provide one signal that specifies the motile fraction...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389943/fluorescent-microscopy-techniques-to-study-hook-length-control-and-flagella-formation
#17
Marc Erhardt
The bacterial flagellum is a sophisticated motility device made of about 30 different proteins and consists of three main structural parts: (1) a membrane-embedded basal body, (2) a flexible linking structure (the hook) that connects the basal body to, (3) the rigid filament that extends up to 10 μm from the cell surface. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the hook structure is controlled to a length of 55 nm by a molecular ruler protein, FliK. Only upon hook completion, FliK induces a switch in substrate specificity of the flagellar export apparatus, which allows secretion of filament-type substrates, such as flagellin...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389538/pumilacidin-like-lipopeptides-derived-from-marine-bacterium-bacillus-sp-suppress-the-motility-of-vibrio-alginolyticus
#18
Pengyuan Xiu, Rui Liu, Dechao Zhang, Chaomin Sun
Bacterial motility is a crucial factor during the invasion and colonization processes of pathogens, which makes it an attractive therapeutic drug target. Here, we isolated a marine bacterium (Vibrio alginolyticus 178) from a seamount in the tropical West Pacific that exhibits vigorous motility on agar plates and severe pathogenicity to zebrafish. We found that V. alginolyticus 178 motility was significantly suppressed by another marine bacterium Bacillus sp. 176 isolated from the same niche. We isolated, purified, and characterized two different cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) from Bacillus sp...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389272/characterization-of-ciliobrevin-a-mediated-dynein-atpase-inhibition-on-flagellar-motility-of-leishmania-donovani
#19
G Srinivas Reddy, Aakash Gautam Mukhopadhyay, Chinmoy Sankar Dey
Axonemal dyneins are members of AAA+ proteins involved in force generation and are responsible for flagellar motility in eukaryotes. In this study, we characterized the effects of ciliobrevin A (CbA), a dynein ATPase inhibitor, on flagella driven motility of the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Using fast-capture video microscopy, we observed that CbA decreased flagellar beat frequency of swimming parasites in a concentration-dependent manner. Beat frequency of live and reactivated L. donovani decreased by approximately 89% and 41% respectively in the presence of 250μM CbA...
April 5, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387711/descriptive-analysis-of-lap1-distribution-and-that-of-associated-proteins-throughout-spermatogenesis
#20
Joana B Serrano, Filipa Martins, João C Sousa, Cátia D Pereira, Ans M M van Pelt, Sandra Rebelo, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva
Spermatogenesis comprises highly complex differentiation processes. Nuclear envelope (NE) proteins have been associated with these processes, including lamins, lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP) 2 and the lamin B-receptor. LAP1 is an important NE protein whose function has not been fully elucidated, but several binding partners allow predicting putative LAP1 functions. To date, LAP1 had not been associated with spermatogenesis. In this study, LAP1 expression and cellular/subcellular localization during spermatogenesis in human and mouse testes is established for the first time...
April 7, 2017: Membranes
keyword
keyword
5313
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"