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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046740/draft-genome-sequence-and-characterization-of-commensal-escherichia-coli-strain-bg1-isolated-from-bovine-gastro-intestinal-tract
#1
Audrey Segura, Pauline Auffret, Christophe Klopp, Yolande Bertin, Evelyne Forano
Escherichia coli is the most abundant facultative anaerobic bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals but can be responsible for intestinal infection due to acquisition of virulence factors. Genomes of pathogenic E. coli strains are widely described whereas those of bovine commensal E. coli strains are very scarce. Here, we report the genome sequence, annotation, and features of the commensal E. coli BG1 isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of cattle. Whole genome sequencing analysis showed that BG1 has a chromosome of 4,782,107 bp coding for 4465 proteins and 97 RNAs...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044743/variation-in-the-ssurdna-of-the-genus-protostelium-leads-to-a-new-phylogenetic-understanding-of-the-genus-and-of-the-species-concept-for-p-mycophaga-protosteliida-amoebozoa
#2
John D L Shadwick, Jeffery D Silberman, Frederick W Spiegel
Members of the genus Protostelium (including P. mycophaga, P. nocturnum, and P. okumukumu) are protosteloid amoebae commonly found in terrestrial habitats on dead plant matter. They, along with the closely allied nominal genus Planoprotostelium, containing the single species Pl. aurantium, all have an amoeboid trophic stage with acutely pointed subpseudopodia and orange lipid droplets in the granuloplasm. These amoebae form stalked fruiting bodies topped with a single, usually deciduous spore. The species are identified based on their fruiting body morphologies except for Pl...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037504/an-investigation-of-virulence-factors-of-legionella-pneumophila-environmental-isolates
#3
Elif Özlem Arslan-Aydoğdu, Ayten Kimiran
Nine Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from cooling towers and a standard strain (L. pneumophila serogroup 1, ATCC 33152, Philadelphia 1) were analyzed and compared in terms of motility, flagella structure, ability to form biofilms, enzymatic activities (hemolysin, nucleases, protease, phospholipase A, phospholipase C, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase), hemagglutination capabilities, and pathogenicity in various host cells (Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30234, mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral monocytes)...
July 22, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036553/two-track-control-of-cellular-machinery-for-photomovement-in-spirogyra-varians-streptophyta-zygnematales
#4
Ji Woong Lee, Gwang Hoon Kim
Plants and freshwater algae devoid of flagella evolved various photomovements to optimize their photosynthetic efficiency. The filaments of Spirogyra varians exhibit complex swaying and undulating movement and form a compact mat which enables them to adjust their light exposure. Photomovement of filament fragments (1-10 cells) was analyzed using various photoreceptor and cytoskeleton inhibitors under monochromatic light. Different patterns of movement were observed under red and blue light. The filaments showed positive phototropism under blue light...
September 27, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034851/nitrosopumilus-maritimus-gen-nov-sp-nov-nitrosopumilus-cobalaminigenes-sp-nov-nitrosopumilus-oxyclinae-sp-nov-and-nitrosopumilus-ureiphilus-sp-nov-four-marine-ammonia-oxidizing-archaea-of-the-phylum-thaumarchaeota
#5
Wei Qin, Katherine R Heal, Rasika Ramdasi, Julia N Kobelt, Willm Martens-Habbena, Anthony D Bertagnolli, Shady A Amin, Christopher B Walker, Hidetoshi Urakawa, Martin Könneke, Allan H Devol, James W Moffett, E Virginia Armbrust, Grant J Jensen, Anitra E Ingalls, David A Stahl
Four mesophilic, neutrophilic, and aerobic marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea, designated strains SCM1(T), HCA1(T), HCE1(T) and PS0(T), were isolated from a tropical marine fish tank, dimly lit deep coastal waters, the lower euphotic zone of coastal waters, and near-surface sediment in the Puget Sound estuary, respectively. Cells are straight or slightly curved small rods, 0.15-0.26 µm in diameter and 0.50-1.59 µm in length. Motility was not observed, although strain PS0(T) possesses genes associated with archaeal flagella and chemotaxis, suggesting it may be motile under some conditions...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027584/the-ceratopteris-fern-developing-motile-gamete-walls-contain-diverse%C3%A2-polysaccharides-but-not-pectin
#6
Renee A Lopez, Karen S Renzaglia
Unlike most plant cell walls, the five consecutive walls laid down during spermatogenesis in the model fern Ceratopteris contain sparse cellulose, lack pectin and are enriched with callose and hemicelluloses. Seed-free plants like bryophytes and pteridophytes produce swimming male gametes for sexual reproduction. During spermatogenesis, unique walls are formed that are essential to the appropriate development and maturation of the motile gametes. Other than the detection of callose and general wall polysaccharides in scattered groups, little is known about the sequence of wall formation and the composition of these walls during sperm cell differentiation in plants that produce swimming sperm...
October 13, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025071/the-expression-characteristics-of-fam71d-and-its-association-with-sperm-motility
#7
Qian Ma, Yuchi Li, Manling Luo, Huan Guo, Shouren Lin, Jianbo Chen, Ye Du, Zhimao Jiang, Yaoting Gui
STUDY QUESTION: What are the features of FAM71D (Family with sequence similarity 71, member D) expression and is there an association between FAM71D expression and sperm motility? SUMMARY ANSWER: FAM71D, a novel protein exclusively expressed in the testis, is located in sperm flagella and is functionally involved in sperm motility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Some testis-specific proteins have been reported as potential diagnostic biomarkers to evaluate the spermatogenesis process and sperm quality...
September 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020462/syk-inhibitor-r406-down-regulates-inflammation-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#8
Alaa Alhazmi, Joshua Choi, Marina Ulanova
As Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are characterized by strong inflammation of infected tissues anti-inflammatory therapies in combination with antibiotics have been considered for the treatment of associated diseases. Syk tyrosine kinase is an important regulator of inflammatory responses, and its specific inhibition was explored as a therapeutic option in several inflammatory conditions; however, this has not been studied in bacterial infections. We used a model of in vitro infection of human monocytic cell line THP-1 and lung epithelial cell line H292 with both wild type and flagella-deficient mutant of P...
October 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016611/the-high-pathogenicity-island-hpi-promotes-flagellum-mediated-motility-in-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#9
Giuseppe Magistro, Christiane Magistro, Christian G Stief, Sören Schubert
The key of success of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) to colonize niches outside the intestinal tract and to establish infection is the coordinated action of numerous virulence and fitness factors. The so-called high-pathogenicity island (HPI), responsible for synthesis, secretion and uptake of the siderophore yersiniabactin, proved to be an important virulence determinant. In this study we investigated the interaction of the flagellum-mediated motility and the HPI. The impairment of yersiniabactin production by deletion of irp2 or ybtA affected significantly motility...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985627/anaeramoebidae-fam-nov-a-novel-lineage-of-anaerobic-amoebae-and-amoeboflagellates-of-uncertain-phylogenetic-position
#10
Petr Táborský, Tomáš Pánek, Ivan Čepička
We report discovery of a new lineage of anaerobic marine amoebae and amoeboflagellates, Anaeramoeba gen. nov., represented by six newly described species. The trophic form of Anaeramoeba spp. is an amoeba corresponding to the uncommon flabellate or flamellian morphotype - it is fan-shaped and produces an anterior, flattened hyaline zone and posterior hyaline projections. In contrast to other representatives of these morphotypes, cells of Anaeramoeba spp. possess acristate mitochondrion-related organelles associated with prokaryotic symbionts, and a large acentriolar centrosome...
August 2, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984215/roseomonas-terricola-sp-nov-isolated-from-agricultural-soil
#11
Dong-Uk Kim, Hyosun Lee, Song-Gun Kim, Jong-Ok Ka
A novel strain, designated EM302(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from farmland located in Yesan-gun in the Republic of Korea. The cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile without flagella and coccobacilli-shaped. Colonies were circular with entire edges, convex, opaque and pink. The strain grew at 15-40 ˚C (optimum, 35 ˚C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, 7.0). The strain grew in R2A medium without the addition of NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis, strain EM302(T) was found to be phylogenetically related to Roseomonas wooponensis WW53(T) (96...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983473/extracellular-signals-of-a-human-epithelial-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-caco-2-cell-line-facilitate-the-penetration-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1-strain-through-the-mucin-layer
#12
Naoki Hayashi, Atsushi Yokotani, Masami Yamamoto, Mariko Kososhi, Mayu Morita, Chiaki Fukunishi, Nagisa Nishizawa, Naomasa Gotoh
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can penetrate the layer of mucus formed by host intestinal epithelial cells, often resulting in sepsis in immunocompromised patients. We have previously demonstrated that P. aeruginosa can penetrate the mucin layer by flagellar motility and the degradation of the mucin layer. However, it remains unclear how P. aeruginosa initially recognizes epithelial cells. Using the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cell line, we investigated extracellular signaling that could facilitate the penetration of P...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982539/trepnema-pallidum-flagellins-stimulate-mmp-9-and-mmp-13-expression-via-tlr5-and-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways-in-human-epidermal-keratinocytes
#13
Chuanhao Jiang, Man Xu, Xingxing Kuang, Jinhong Xiao, Manyi Tan, Yafeng Xie, Yongjian Xiao, Feijun Zhao, Yimou Wu
Syphilis is a chronic disease caused by Treponema pallidum and the pathogenesis is still unclear. T. pallidum infection induced inflammatory responses are involved in the immunopathological damage in skin and other tissues. Flagellin, the monomeric subunit of bacterial flagella, is a classic pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that interacts to TLR5 and induces inflammatory responses. Keratinocytes, as immune sentinels recognize the PAMPs via TLRs, play an important role in skin innate immune response...
October 2, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978746/flagellar-swimming-in-viscoelastic-fluids-role-of-fluid-elastic-stress-revealed-by-simulations-based-on-experimental-data
#14
Chuanbin Li, Boyang Qin, Arvind Gopinath, Paulo E Arratia, Becca Thomases, Robert D Guy
Many important biological functions depend on microorganisms' ability to move in viscoelastic fluids such as mucus and wet soil. The effects of fluid elasticity on motility remain poorly understood, partly because the swimmer strokes depend on the properties of the fluid medium, which obfuscates the mechanisms responsible for observed behavioural changes. In this study, we use experimental data on the gaits of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii swimming in Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids as inputs to numerical simulations that decouple the swimmer gait and fluid type in order to isolate the effect of fluid elasticity on swimming...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973904/molecular-architecture-of-the-sheathed-polar-flagellum-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#15
Shiwei Zhu, Tatsuro Nishikino, Bo Hu, Seiji Kojima, Michio Homma, Jun Liu
Vibrio species are Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria that are ubiquitous and often highly motile in aqueous environments. Vibrio swimming motility is driven by a polar flagellum covered with a membranous sheath, but this sheathed flagellum is not well understood at the molecular level because of limited structural information. Here, we use Vibrio alginolyticus as a model system to study the sheathed flagellum in intact cells by combining cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET) and subtomogram analysis with a genetic approach...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973452/salmonella-stm1697-coordinates-flagella-biogenesis-and-virulence-by-restricting-flagellar-master-protein-flhd4c2-from-recruiting-rna-polymerase
#16
Bingqing Li, Yingying Yue, Zenglin Yuan, Fengyu Zhang, Peng Li, Nannan Song, Wei Lin, Yan Liu, Yinlong Yang, Zhihui Li, Lichuan Gu
Salmonella reduces flagella biogenesis to avoid detection within host cells by a largely unknown mechanism. We identified an EAL-like protein STM1697 as required and sufficient for this process. STM1697 surges to a high level after Salmonella enters host cells and restrains the expression of flagellar genes by regulating the function of flagellar switch protein FlhD4C2, the transcription activator of all other flagellar genes. Unlike other anti-FlhD4C2 factors, STM1697 does not prevent FlhD4C2 from binding to target DNA...
September 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971345/successful-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-with-testicular-spermatozoa-from-a-man-with-multiple-morphological-abnormalities-of-the-sperm-flagella-a-case-report
#17
Shenmin Yang, Liang Gao, Wei Wang, Jie Ding, Yongle Xu, Hong Li
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the sperm morphology of a Chinese man affected with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) and observe the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. METHODS: A Chinese man was diagnosed with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella by semen analysis and electron microscopy. Testicular spermatozoa were injected intracytoplasmically, and the following ICSI results were observed...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968917/fleq-regulates-both-the-type-vi-secretion-system-and-flagella-in-pseudomonas-putida
#18
Yuzhou Wang, Ye Li, Jianli Wang, Xiaoyuan Wang
Based on the analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, flagellin FliC and a key member of the type VI secretion system Hcp1 were found to be secreted from Pseudomonas putida KT2442 cells in the late exponential phase, but in the early exponential phase only FliC was secreted. Relevant genes fleQ and rpoN were then individually deleted in P. putida KT2442, and the expression and transcription of fliC and hcp1 in these mutant strains were analyzed. In both △fleQ and △rpoN mutant cells, Hcp1 but not FliC was secreted in the late exponential phase, and it was secreted even in the early exponential phase...
October 2, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967665/biotemplated-synthesis-of-magnetic-filaments
#19
Éva Bereczk-Tompa, Ferenc Vonderviszt, Barnabás Horváth, István Szalai, Mihály Pósfai
With the aim of creating one-dimensional magnetic nanostructures, we genetically engineered flagellar filaments produced by Salmonella bacteria to display iron- or magnetite-binding sites, and used the mutant filaments as templates for both nucleation and attachment of the magnetic iron oxide magnetite. Although nucleation from solution and attachment of nanoparticles to a pre-existing surface are two different processes, non-classical crystal nucleation pathways have been increasingly recognized in biological systems, and in many cases nucleation and particle attachment cannot be clearly distinguished...
October 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964737/intraflagellar-transporter-protein-ift27-an-ift25-binding-partner-is-essential-for-male-fertility-and-spermiogenesis-in-mice
#20
Yong Zhang, Hong Liu, Wei Li, Zhengang Zhang, Xuejun Shang, David Zhang, Yuhong Li, Shiyang Zhang, Junpin Liu, Rex A Hess, Gregory J Pazour, Zhibing Zhang
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. In mice, mutations in IFT proteins have been shown to cause several ciliopathies including retinal degeneration, polycystic kidney disease, and hearing loss. However, little is known about its role in the formation of the sperm tail, which has the longest flagella of mammalian cells. IFT27 is a component of IFT-B complex and binds to IFT25 directly. In mice, IFT27 is highly expressed in the testis...
September 27, 2017: Developmental Biology
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