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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214488/electron-microscopic-observations-of-prokaryotic-surface-appendages
#1
REVIEW
Ki Woo Kim
Prokaryotic microbes possess a variety of appendages on their cell surfaces. The most commonly known surface appendages of bacteria include flagella, pili, curli, and spinae. Although archaea have archaella (archaeal flagella) and various types of pili that resemble those in bacteria, cannulae, and hami are unique to archaea. Typically involved in cell motility, flagella, the thickest appendages, are 20-26 nm and 10-14 nm wide in bacteria and archaea, respectively. Bacterial and archaeal pili are distinguished by their thin, short, hair-like structures...
December 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208647/cell-type-transcriptomes-of-the-multicellular-green-alga-volvox-carteri%C3%A2-yield-insights-into-the-evolutionary-origins-of-germ-and-somatic-differentiation-programs
#2
Gavriel Y Matt, James G Umen
Germ-soma differentiation is a hallmark of complex multicellular organisms, yet its origins are not well understood. Volvox carteri is a simple multicellular green alga that has recently evolved a simple germ-soma dichotomy with only two cell types: large germ cells called gonidia and small terminally differentiated somatic cells. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterization of the gonidial and somatic transcriptomes of Volvox to uncover fundamental differences between the molecular and metabolic programming of these cell types...
December 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196659/rational-design-and-dynamics-of-self-propelled-colloidal-bead-chains-from-rotators-to-flagella
#3
Hanumantha Rao Vutukuri, Bram Bet, René van Roij, Marjolein Dijkstra, Wilhelm T S Huck
The quest for designing new self-propelled colloids is fuelled by the demand for simple experimental models to study the collective behaviour of their more complex natural counterparts. Most synthetic self-propelled particles move by converting the input energy into translational motion. In this work we address the question if simple self-propelled spheres can assemble into more complex structures that exhibit rotational motion, possibly coupled with translational motion as in flagella. We exploit a combination of induced dipolar interactions and a bonding step to create permanent linear bead chains, composed of self-propelled Janus spheres, with a well-controlled internal structure...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196650/a-polar-bundle-of-flagella-can-drive-bacterial-swimming-by-pushing-pulling-or-coiling-around-the-cell-body
#4
Marius Hintsche, Veronika Waljor, Robert Großmann, Marco J Kühn, Kai M Thormann, Fernando Peruani, Carsten Beta
Bacteria swim in sequences of straight runs that are interrupted by turning events. They drive their swimming locomotion with the help of rotating helical flagella. Depending on the number of flagella and their arrangement across the cell body, different run-and-turn patterns can be observed. Here, we present fluorescence microscopy recordings showing that cells of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida that are decorated with a polar tuft of helical flagella, can alternate between two distinct swimming patterns...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196522/moti-dgra-acts-as-a-molecular-clutch-on-the-flagellar-stator-protein-mota-in-bacillus-subtilis
#5
Sundharraman Subramanian, Xiaohui Gao, Charles E Dann, Daniel B Kearns
Stator elements consisting of MotA4MotB2 complexes are anchored to the cell wall, extend through the cell membrane, and interact with FliG in the cytoplasmic C ring rotor of the flagellum. The cytoplasmic loop of MotA undergoes proton-driven conformational changes that drive flagellar rotation. Functional regulators inhibit motility by either disengaging or jamming the stator-rotor interaction. Here we show that the YcgR homolog MotI (formerly DgrA) of Bacillus subtilis inhibits motility like a molecular clutch that disengages MotA...
December 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189891/coralloluteibacterium-stylophorae-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-member-of-the-family-lysobacteraceae-isolated-from-the-reef-building-coral-stylophora-sp
#6
Wen-Ming Chen, Pei-Bei Xie, Sen-Lin Tang, Shih-Yi Sheu
A bacterial strain, designated Sty a-1T, was isolated from a reef-building coral Stylophora sp., collected off coast of Southern Taiwan and characterized using the polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of strain Sty a-1T were Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate accumulating, motile by means of flagella, non-spore forming, straight rod-shaped and colonies were yellow and circular. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6-10 (optimum, pH 6.5-8) and with 0-7% NaCl (optimum, 2-3%)...
November 30, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186528/conformational-dynamism-for-dna-interaction-in-the-salmonella-rcsb-response-regulator
#7
Patricia Casino, Laura Miguel-Romero, Juanjo Huesa, Pablo García, Francisco García-Del Portillo, Alberto Marina
The RcsCDB phosphorelay system controls an extremely large regulon in Enterobacteriaceae that involves processes such as biofilm formation, flagella production, synthesis of extracellular capsules and cell division. Therefore, fine-tuning of this system is essential for virulence in pathogenic microorganisms of this group. The final master effector of the RcsCDB system is the response regulator (RR) RcsB, which activates or represses multiple genes by binding to different promoter regions. This regulatory activity of RcsB can be done alone or in combination with additional transcriptional factors in phosphorylated or dephosphorylated states...
November 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181743/molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-bacterial-flagella
#8
REVIEW
Akio Kitao, Hiroaki Hata
The bacterial flagellum is a biological nanomachine for the locomotion of bacteria, and is seen in organisms like Salmonella and Escherichia coli. The flagellum consists of tens of thousands of protein molecules and more than 30 different kinds of proteins. The basal body of the flagellum contains a protein export apparatus and a rotary motor that is powered by ion motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane. The filament functions as a propeller whose helicity is controlled by the direction of the torque...
November 27, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180634/transient-locking-of-the-hook-procures-enhanced-motility-to-flagellated-bacteria
#9
Ismaël Duchesne, Tigran Galstian, Simon Rainville
Flagellated bacteria often proliferate in inhomogeneous environments, such as biofilms, swarms and soil. In such media, bacteria are observed to move efficiently only if they can get out of "dead ends" by changing drastically their swimming direction, and even to completely reverse it. Even though these reorientations are ubiquitous, we have only recently begun to describe and understand how they happen. In the present work, we visualized the flagella of bacteria swimming in a soft agar solution. The surprising observation that the filaments do not rotate while being flipped from one side of the cell to the other suggests that reversals are driven directly by the motor rather than by the thrust created by the rotating filament...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177046/the-gene-ontology-of-eukaryotic-cilia-and-flagella
#10
Paola Roncaglia, Teunis J P van Dam, Karen R Christie, Lora Nacheva, Grischa Toedt, Martijn A Huynen, Rachael P Huntley, Toby J Gibson, Jane Lomax
Background: Recent research into ciliary structure and function provides important insights into inherited diseases termed ciliopathies and other cilia-related disorders. This wealth of knowledge needs to be translated into a computational representation to be fully exploitable by the research community. To this end, members of the Gene Ontology (GO) and SYSCILIA Consortia have worked together to improve representation of ciliary substructures and processes in GO. Methods: Members of the SYSCILIA and Gene Ontology Consortia suggested additions and changes to GO, to reflect new knowledge in the field...
2017: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173868/compartmentalized-antimicrobial-defenses-in-response-to-flagellin
#11
REVIEW
Aneesh Vijayan, Martin Rumbo, Christophe Carnoy, Jean-Claude Sirard
Motility is often a pathogenicity determinant of bacteria targeting mucosal tissues. Flagella constitute the machinery that propels bacteria into appropriate niches. Besides motility, the structural component, flagellin, which forms the flagella, targets Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) to activate innate immunity. The compartmentalization of flagellin-mediated immunity and the contribution of epithelial cells and dendritic cells in detecting flagellin within luminal and basal sides are highlighted here, respectively...
November 22, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170928/leishmania-mexicana-differentiation-involves-a-selective-plasma-membrane-autophagic-like-process
#12
Francehuli Dagger, Camila Bengio, Angel Martinez, Carlos Ayesta
Parasites of the Leishmania genus, which are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, display a complex life cycle, from a flagellated form (promastigotes) residing in the midgut of the phlebotomine vector to a non-flagellated form (amastigote) invading the mammalian host. The cellular process for the conversion between these forms is an interesting biological phenomenon involving modulation of the plasma membrane. In this study, we describe a selective autophagic-like process during the in vitro differentiation of Leishmania mexicana promastigote to amastigote-like cells...
November 23, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170397/methylomic-and-phenotypic-analysis-of-the-modh5-phasevarion-of-helicobacter-pylori
#13
Yogitha N Srikhanta, Rebecca J Gorrell, Peter M Power, Kirill Tsyganov, Matthew Boitano, Tyson A Clark, Jonas Korlach, Elizabeth L Hartland, Michael P Jennings, Terry Kwok
The Helicobacter pylori phase variable gene modH, typified by gene HP1522 in strain 26695, encodes a N(6)-adenosine type III DNA methyltransferase. Our previous studies identified multiple strain-specific modH variants (modH1 - modH19) and showed that phase variation of modH5 in H. pylori P12 influenced expression of motility-associated genes and outer membrane protein gene hopG. However, the ModH5 DNA recognition motif and the mechanism by which ModH5 controls gene expression were unknown. Here, using comparative single molecule real-time sequencing, we identify the DNA site methylated by ModH5 as 5'-G(m6)ACC-3'...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160201/aquicoccus-porphyridii-gen-nov-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-small-marine-red-alga-porphyridium-marinum
#14
Tingye Feng, Kyung Hyun Kim, Sang Eun Jeong, Wonyong Kim, Che Ok Jeon
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and aerobic bacterial strain, designated L1 8-17(T), was isolated from a marine alga, Porphyridium marinum, in South Korea. Cells of strain L1 8-17(T) were found to be oxidase- and catalase-positive cocci without flagella. Growth of strain L1 8-17(T) was observed at 20-40 °C (optimum, 37 °C), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0-7 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %). The isoprenoid quinone detected was only ubiquinone-10. Summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0 were detected as major cellular fatty acids...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152435/a-full-blown-case-of-bronchiectasis-kartagener-syndrome-without-infertility-diagnosed-later-in-life
#15
Madeeha Subhan, Waleed Sadiq
Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic ciliary disorder characterized by situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and infertility. KS is associated with ultrastructural anomalies of the cilia in epithelial cells covering the upper and lower respiratory tracts and spermatozoa flagella. This case describes a patient with KS with situs inversus and sudden onset bronchiectasis with a sharp decline in respiratory function presenting later in life but without sinusitis or infertility...
September 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148062/flagellar-incorporation-of-proteins-follows-at-least-two-different-routes-in-trypanosomes
#16
Laetitia Vincensini, Thierry Blisnick, Eloïse Bertiaux, Sebastian Hutchinson, Christina Georgikou, Cher-Pheng Ooi, Philippe Bastin
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are sophisticated organelles composed of several hundreds of proteins that need to be incorporated at the right time and the right place during assembly. RESULTS: Two methods were used to investigate this process in the model protist Trypanosoma brucei: inducible expression of epitope-tagged labelled proteins and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of fluorescent fusion proteins. This revealed that skeletal components of the radial spokes (RSP3), the central pair (PF16) and the outer dynein arms (DNAI1) are incorporated at the distal end of the growing flagellum...
November 16, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147015/structure-of-flgk-reveals-the-divergence-of-the-bacterial-hook-filament-junction-of-campylobacter
#17
Paula V Bulieris, Nausad H Shaikh, Peter L Freddolino, Fadel A Samatey
Evolution of a nano-machine consisting of multiple parts, each with a specific function, is a complex process. A change in one part should eventually result in changes in other parts, if the overall function is to be conserved. In bacterial flagella, the filament and the hook have distinct functions and their respective proteins, FliC and FlgE, have different three-dimensional structures. The filament functions as a helical propeller and the hook as a flexible universal joint. Two proteins, FlgK and FlgL, assure a smooth connectivity between the hook and the filament...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146422/numerical-study-of-the-effect-of-soft-layer-properties-on-bacterial-electroporation
#18
Jeffrey L Moran, Naga Neehar Dingari, Paulo A Garcia, Cullen R Buie
We present a numerical model of electroporation in a gram-positive bacterium, which accounts for the presence of a negatively charged soft polyelectrolyte layer (which may include a periplasmic space, peptidoglycan layer, cilia, flagella, and other surface appendages) surrounding its plasma membrane. We model the ion transport within and outside the soft layer using the soft layer electrokinetics-based Poisson-Nernst-Planck formalism. Additionally, we model the electroporation dynamics on the plasma membrane using the pore nucleation-based electroporation formalism developed by Krassowska and Filev...
September 18, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142162/chloroform-extract-of-turmeric-inhibits-biofilm-formation-eps-production-and-motility-in-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#19
Sumreen Hayat, Anjum N Sabri, Timothy D McHugh
In the form of biofilms, bacteria exhibit more resistance to antibiotics. Biofilm formers can withstand severe conditions and the host's defense system. Therefore, it is necessary to search for effective biofilm inhibitors. In this study, we investigated the effect of a chloroform extract of turmeric on biofilm formation against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence, motility, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production and cell surface hydrophobicity; important attributes of biofilm formation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141156/plasmid-azobr_p1-borne-fabg-gene-for-putative-3-oxoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein-reductase-is-essential-for-proper-assembly-and-work-of-the-dual-flagellar-system-in-the-alphaproteobacterium-azospirillum-brasilense-sp245
#20
Yulia A Filip'echeva, Andrei V Shelud'ko, Alexei G Prilipov, Gennady L Burygin, Elizaveta M Telesheva, Stella S Yevstigneyeva, Marina P Chernyshova, Lilia P Petrova, Elena I Katsy
Azospirillum brasilense can swim and swarm owing to the activity of a constitutive polar flagellum (Fla) and inducible lateral flagella (Laf), respectively. Experimental data on the regulation of the Fla and Laf assembly in azospirilla are scarce. Here, the coding sequence (CDS) AZOBR_p1160043 (fabG1) for a putative 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein (ACP)] reductase was found essential for the construction of both types of flagella. In an immotile leaky Fla- Laf- fabG1::Omegon-Km mutant, Sp245.1610, defects in flagellation and motility were fully complemented by expressing the CDS AZOBR_p1160043 from plasmid pRK415...
November 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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