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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087224/5-ht6-receptor-blockade-regulates-primary-cilia-morphology-in-striatal-neurons
#1
Matthew Brodsky, Adam J Lesiak, Alex Croicu, Nathalie Cohenca, Jane M Sullivan, John F Neumaier
The 5-HT6 receptor has been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes including habitual behaviors, learning, and memory. It is found almost exclusively in the brain, is expressed abundantly in striatum, and localizes to neuronal primary cilia. Primary cilia are antenna-like, sensory organelles found on most neurons that receive both chemical and mechanical signals from other cells and the surrounding environment; however, the effect of 5-HT6 receptor function on cellular morphology has not been examined...
January 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077622/ciliary-entry-of-kif17-is-dependent-on-its-binding-to-the-ift-b-complex-via-ift46-ift56-as-well-as-on-its-nuclear-localization-signal
#2
Teruki Funabashi, Yohei Katoh, Saki Michisaka, Masaya Terada, Maho Sugawa, Kazuhisa Nakayama
Cilia function as cellular antennae to sense and transduce extracellular signals. A number of proteins are specifically localized in cilia. Anterograde and retrograde ciliary protein trafficking are mediated by the IFT-B and IFT-A complexes in concert with kinesin-2 and dynein-2 motors, respectively. However, the role of KIF17, a homodimeric kinesin-2 protein, in protein trafficking has not been fully understood in vertebrate cilia. In this study, we first demonstrated by taking advantage of the visible immunoprecipitation assay, that KIF17 interacts with the IFT46-IFT56 dimer in the IFT-B complex through its C-terminal sequence located immediately upstream of the nuclear localization signal (NLS)...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073502/lethal-effects-of-ichthyotoxic-raphidophytes-chattonella-marina-c-antiqua-and-heterosigma-akashiwo-on-post-embryonic-stages-of-the-japanese-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata-martensii
#3
Leila Basti, Kiyohito Nagai, Jiyoji Go, Sho Okano, Tatsuya Oda, Yuji Tanaka, Satoshi Nagai
The inimical effects of the ichthyotoxic harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and Chattonella antiqua on the early-life stages of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii were studied. Fertilized eggs and developing embryos were not affected following exposure to the harmful raphidophytes; however, all three algal species severely affected trochophores and D-larvae, early-stage D-larvae, and late-stage pre-settling larvae. Exposure to C. marina (5×10(2)cellsml(-1)), C...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073453/the-use-of-a-mucus-trap-by-dinophysis-acuta-for-the-capture-of-mesodinium-rubrum-prey-under-culture-conditions
#4
Gemma Giménez Papiol, Veronica Beuzenberg, Andrew I Selwood, Lincoln MacKenzie, Michael A Packer
A capture mechanism observed in a culture of the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta when preying on the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum (also sometimes referred to as Myrionecta rubra) is described. The dinoflagellate released cohesive clumps of mucilage into the culture media. When M. rubrum cells came into contact with this mucilage, they were immediately immobilized, but remained alive for a short period of time. Observations of D. acuta cells 'visiting and probing' trapped M. rubrum cells were made and at a critical point D...
September 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069795/intraflagellar-transport-88-ift88-is-crucial-for-craniofacial-development-in-mice-and-is-a-candidate-gene-for-human-cleft-lip-and-palate
#5
Hua Tian, Jifan Feng, Jingyuan Li, Thach-Vu Ho, Yuan Yuan, Yang Liu, Frederick Brindopke, Jane C Figueiredo, William Magee, Pedro A Sanchez-Lara, Yang Chai
Ciliopathies are pleiotropic human diseases resulting from defects of the primary cilium, and these patients often have cleft lip and palate. IFT88 is required for the assembly and function of the primary cilia, which mediate the activity of key developmental signaling pathways. Through whole exome sequencing of a family of three affected siblings with isolated cleft lip and palate, we discovered that they share a novel missense mutation in IFT88 (c.915G>C, p.E305D), suggesting this gene should be considered a candidate for isolated orofacial clefting...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069794/brain-ventriculomegaly-in-down-syndrome-mice-is-caused-by-pcp4-dose-dependent-cilia-dysfunction
#6
Matthieu Raveau, Takashi Nakahari, Sachie Asada, Keiichi Ishihara, Kenji Amano, Atsushi Shimohata, Haruhiko Sago, Kazuhiro Yamakawa
Down syndrome is a leading cause of congenital intellectual disability caused by an additional copy of the chromosome 21. Patients display physiological and morphological changes affecting the brain and its function. Previously we showed that Ts1Cje and Ts2Cje, Down syndrome mouse models carrying overlapping trisomic segments of different length, show similar ventriculomegaly and neurogenesis dysfunction leading to the hypothesis of a cause-consequence relationship between these phenotypes. However, we here discovered that Ts1Rhr Down syndrome model, carrying an even shorter trisomic segment, was sufficient to trigger ventricular enlargement and ependymal cilia beating deficiency without affecting neurogenesis...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067220/bi-and-uniciliated-ependymal-cells-define-continuous-floor-plate-derived-tanycytic-territories
#7
Zaman Mirzadeh, Yael Kusne, Maria Duran-Moreno, Elaine Cabrales, Sara Gil-Perotin, Christian Ortiz, Bin Chen, Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo, Nader Sanai, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla
Multiciliated ependymal (E1) cells line the brain ventricles and are essential for brain homeostasis. We previously identified in the lateral ventricles a rare ependymal subpopulation (E2) with only two cilia and unique basal bodies. Here we show that E2 cells form a distinct biciliated epithelium extending along the ventral third into the fourth ventricle. In the third ventricle floor, apical profiles with only primary cilia define an additional uniciliated (E3) epithelium. E2 and E3 cells' ultrastructure, marker expression and basal processes indicate that they correspond to subtypes of tanycytes...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062565/the-biology-of-ciliary-dynamics
#8
Kuo-Shun Hsu, Jen-Zen Chuang, Ching-Hwa Sung
The cilium is an evolutionally conserved apical membrane protrusion that senses and transduces diverse signals to regulate a wide range of cellular activities. The cilium is dynamic in length, structure, and protein composition. Dysregulation of ciliary dynamics has been linked with ciliopathies and other human diseases. The cilium undergoes cell-cycle-dependent assembly and disassembly, with ciliary resorption linked with G1-S transition and cell-fate choice. In the resting cell, the cilium remains sensitive to environmental cues for remodeling during tissue homeostasis and repair...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062487/alcohol-drives-s-nitrosylation-and-redox-activation-of-protein-phosphatase-1-causing-bovine-airway-cilia-dysfunction
#9
Michael Earl Price, Jacqueline A Pavlik, Miao Liu, Shi-Jian Ding, Todd A Wyatt, Joseph H Sisson
Individuals with alcohol (ethanol) use disorders are at increased risk for lung infections in part due to defective mucociliary clearance driven by motile cilia in the airways. We recently reported that isolated demembranated bovine cilia (axonemes) are capable of producing nitric oxide (∙NO) when exposed to biologically relevant concentrations of alcohol. This increased presence of ∙NO can lead to protein S-nitrosylation, a posttranslational modification signaling mechanism involving reversible adduction of nitrosium cations or ⋅NO to thiolate or thiyl groups, respectively, of proteins forming S-nitrosothiols...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059168/shg-specificity-of-cellular-rootletin-filaments-enables-na%C3%A3-ve-imaging-with-universal-conservation
#10
Toshihiro Akiyama, Akihito Inoko, Yuichi Kaji, Shigenobu Yonemura, Kisa Kakiguchi, Hiroki Segawa, Kei Ishitsuka, Masaki Yoshida, Osamu Numata, Philippe Leproux, Vincent Couderc, Tetsuro Oshika, Hideaki Kano
Despite growing demand for truly naïve imaging, label-free observation of cilium-related structure remains challenging, and validation of the pertinent molecules is correspondingly difficult. In this study, in retinas and cultured cells, we distinctively visualized Rootletin filaments in rootlets in the second harmonic generation (SHG) channel, integrated in custom coherent nonlinear optical microscopy (CNOM) with a simple, compact, and ultra-broadband supercontinuum light source. This SHG signal was primarily detected on rootlets of connecting cilia in the retinal photoreceptor and was validated by colocalization with anti-Rootletin staining...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057532/odorant-receptor-proteins-in-the-mouse-main-olfactory-epithelium-and-olfactory-bulb
#11
Victoria F Low, Peter Mombaerts
In the mouse, odorant receptor proteins (ORs) are G-protein-coupled receptors expressed in mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). ORs mediate odorant reception at the level of the OSN cilia. Most ∼1100 OR genes in the mouse genome are expressed, at the RNA level, in mature OSNs. The literature on antibodies against ORs is limited, and most reports are with antibodies that are not commercially available. Here we have screened 40 commercial antibodies against human and mouse ORs by immunofluorescence staining of coronal cryosections of the MOE of 21-day-old C57BL/6J mice...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053034/simultaneous-loss-of-nckx4-and-cng-channel-desensitization-impairs-olfactory-sensitivity
#12
Christopher H Ferguson, Haiqing Zhao
: In vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), Ca(2+) plays key roles in both mediating and regulating the olfactory response. Ca(2+) enters OSN cilia during the response through the olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel and stimulates a depolarizing chloride current by opening the olfactory Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel to amplify the response. Ca(2+) also exerts negative regulation on the olfactory transduction cascade, through mechanisms that include reducing the CNG current by desensitizing the CNG channel via Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM), to reduce the response...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048952/adherens-junctions-modulate-diffusion-between-epithelial-cells-in-trichoplax-adhaerens
#13
Carolyn L Smith, Thomas S Reese
Trichoplax adhaerens is the sole named member of Placozoa, an ancient metazoan phylum. This coin-shaped animal glides on ventral cilia to find and digest algae on the substrate. It has only six cell types, all but two of which are incorporated into the epithelium that encloses it. The upper epithelium is thin, composed of a pavement of relatively large polygonal disks, each bearing a cilium. The lower epithelium is thick and composed primarily of narrow ciliated cells that power locomotion. Interspersed among these cells are two different secretory cells: one containing large lipophilic granules that, when released, lyse algae under the animal; the other, less abundant, is replete with smaller secretory granules containing neuropeptides...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041793/motile-cilia-mediated-flow-improves-sensitivity-and-temporal-resolution-of-olfactory-computations
#14
Ingrid Reiten, Fazil Emre Uslu, Stephanie Fore, Robbrecht Pelgrims, Christa Ringers, Carmen Diaz Verdugo, Maximillian Hoffman, Pradeep Lal, Koichi Kawakami, Kerem Pekkan, Emre Yaksi, Nathalie Jurisch-Yaksi
Motile cilia are actively beating hair-like structures that cover the surface of multiple epithelia. The flow that ciliary beating generates is utilized for diverse functions and depends on the spatial location and biophysical properties of cilia. Here we show that the motile cilia in the nose of aquatic vertebrates are spatially organized and stably beat with an asymmetric pattern, resulting in a robust and stereotypical flow around the nose. Our results demonstrate that these flow fields attract odors to the nose pit and facilitate detection of odors by the olfactory system in stagnant environments...
December 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041644/mutations-in-pih1d3-cause-x-linked-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-with-outer-and-inner-dynein-arm-defects
#15
Tamara Paff, Niki T Loges, Isabella Aprea, Kaman Wu, Zeineb Bakey, Eric G Haarman, Johannes M A Daniels, Erik A Sistermans, Natalija Bogunovic, Gerard W Dougherty, Inga M Höben, Jörg Große-Onnebrink, Anja Matter, Heike Olbrich, Claudius Werner, Gerard Pals, Miriam Schmidts, Heymut Omran, Dimitra Micha
Defects in motile cilia and sperm flagella cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), characterized by chronic airway disease, infertility, and left-right body axis disturbance. Here we report maternally inherited and de novo mutations in PIH1D3 in four men affected with PCD. PIH1D3 is located on the X chromosome and is involved in the preassembly of both outer (ODA) and inner (IDA) dynein arms of cilia and sperm flagella. Loss-of-function mutations in PIH1D3 lead to absent ODAs and reduced to absent IDAs, causing ciliary and flagellar immotility...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040470/establishment-and-characterization-of-an-in-vitro-human-small-airway-model-smallair%C3%A2
#16
Song Huang, Bernadett Boda, Jimmy Vernaz, Emilie Ferreira, Ludovic Wiszniewski, Samuel Constant
We report here the establishment and characterization of an in vitro human small airway model (SmallAir™). The epithelial cells were isolated from the distal lungs by enzymatic digestion. After amplification, the cells were seeded on the microporous membrane of Transwell inserts. Once confluent, the cultures were switched to air-liquid interface. After 3 weeks of culture, the epithelium became fully differentiated, with morphology of columnar epithelium, and a thickness of 10-15 μm. Most significantly, CC-10, a specific marker of Club cells, was highly expressed in SmallAir™...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039530/application-of-focused-ultrasound-assisted-extraction-for-the-quantification-of-persistent-organic-pollutions-in-liver-tissue-of-giant-toad-rhinella-marina
#17
R Flores-Ramírez, G Espinosa-Reyes, V G Cilia-López, D J González-Mille, M Rodríguez-Aguilar, L Díaz de León-Martínez, F Díaz-Barriga
A simple and rapid focused ultrasound extraction method was developed for the determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in liver tissue obtained of giant toad (Rhinella marina) using a gas chromatography coupled to a mass detector with electron impact ionization. The performed method for POPs, was validated in fortified matrix, showing linearity from the LOQ up to 100 ng/mL; LODs and LOQs for each compound were between 1.7 and 4.8 and 3.5-7.5 ng/mL, respectively. Recovery rates were among 79%-116% for POPs determined...
December 30, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036211/load-response-of-the-flagellar-beat
#18
Gary S Klindt, Christian Ruloff, Christian Wagner, Benjamin M Friedrich
Cilia and flagella exhibit regular bending waves that perform mechanical work on the surrounding fluid, to propel cellular swimmers and pump fluids inside organisms. Here, we quantify a force-velocity relationship of the beating flagellum, by exposing flagellated Chlamydomonas cells to controlled microfluidic flows. A simple theory of flagellar limit-cycle oscillations, calibrated by measurements in the absence of flow, reproduces this relationship quantitatively. We derive a link between the energy efficiency of the flagellar beat and its ability to synchronize to oscillatory flows...
December 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035124/your-epoch-is-not-for-trying-it-s-for-living-and-for-dying
#19
Leonid P Churilov
The article is devoted to biographies of three Russian physicians of the Silver Age (a period in the History of Russian culture between 1890 and 1917). They made early, significant and internationally recognized contribution into medical science and became eponymous, although social disasters of the twentieth century caused deep impact on their subsequent lives and careers, so their role was shadowed from global medical community. The article analyzes biographies and academic achievements of A-F.K. Siewert (aka: Zivert, Ziwert, von Siewert) (1872-1922), known for first description of the hereditary dyskinesia of cilia (as a triad of: situs inversus of the viscera, abnormal frontal sinuses producing sinusitis and bronchiectasis); S...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029746/respiratory-manifestations-in-38-patients-with-alstr%C3%A3-m-syndrome
#20
Caroline Boerwinkle, Jan D Marshall, Joy Bryant, William A Gahl, Kenneth N Olivier, Meral Gunay-Aygun
OBJECTIVES: Alström syndrome (AS) is a rare, multi-system condition characterized by retinal degeneration, sensorineural hearing loss, obesity, insulin-resistant diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, cardiomyopathy, hepatorenal disease, and recurrent respiratory infections. It belongs to a group of genetic disorders known as primary ciliopathies, which includes autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases, as well as Joubert and Bardet-Biedl syndromes. Prior studies have suggested phenotypic overlap between primary ciliopathies affecting the non-motile, sensory cilia, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a motile ciliopathy characterized by respiratory tract disease...
December 28, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
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