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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908937/the-centrosome-a-multitalented-renaissance-organelle
#1
REVIEW
Anastassiia Vertii, Heidi Hehnly, Stephen Doxsey
The centrosome acts as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) from the G1 to G2 phases of the cell cycle; it can mature into a spindle pole during mitosis and/or transition into a cilium by elongating microtubules (MTs) from the basal body on cell differentiation or cell cycle arrest. New studies hint that the centrosome functions in more than MT organization. For instance, it has recently been shown that a specific substructure of the centrosome-the mother centriole appendages-are required for the recycling of endosomes back to the plasma membrane...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906968/structural-and-functional-recovery-of-sensory-cilia-in-c-elegans-ift-mutants-upon-aging
#2
Astrid Cornils, Ashish K Maurya, Lauren Tereshko, Julie Kennedy, Andrea G Brear, Veena Prahlad, Oliver E Blacque, Piali Sengupta
The majority of cilia are formed and maintained by the highly conserved process of intraflagellar transport (IFT). Mutations in IFT genes lead to ciliary structural defects and systemic disorders termed ciliopathies. Here we show that the severely truncated sensory cilia of hypomorphic IFT mutants in C. elegans transiently elongate during a discrete period of adult aging leading to markedly improved sensory behaviors. Age-dependent restoration of cilia morphology occurs in structurally diverse cilia types and requires IFT...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904881/sfr1-a-tetrahymena-thermophila-sfi1-repeat-protein-modulates-the-production-of-cortical-row-basal-bodies
#3
Westley Heydeck, Alexander J Stemm-Wolf, Janin Knop, Christina C Poh, Mark Winey
Basal bodies are essential microtubule-based structures that template, anchor, and orient cilia at the cell surface. Cilia act primarily in the generation of directional fluid flow and sensory reception, both of which are utilized for a broad spectrum of cellular processes. Although basal bodies contribute to vital cell functions, the molecular contributors of their assembly and maintenance are poorly understood. Previous studies of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila revealed important roles for two centrin family members in basal body assembly, separation of new basal bodies, and stability...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903126/potential-evolution-of-neurosurgical-treatment-paradigms-for-craniopharyngioma-based-on-genomic-and-transcriptomic-characteristics
#4
Leslie C Robinson, Sandro Santagata, Todd C Hankinson
The recent genomic and transcriptomic characterization of human craniopharyngiomas has provided important insights into the pathogenesis of these tumors and supports that these tumor types are distinct entities. Critically, the insights provided by these data offer the potential for the introduction of novel therapies and surgical treatment paradigms for these tumors, which are associated with high morbidity rates and morbid conditions. Mutations in the CTNNB1 gene are primary drivers of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) and lead to the accumulation of β-catenin protein in a subset of the nuclei within the neoplastic epithelium of these tumors...
December 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900292/hypoxia-inhibits-primary-cilia-formation-and-reduces-cell-mediated-contraction-in-stress-deprived-rat-tail-tendon-fascicles
#5
Michael Lavagnino, Anna N Oslapas, Keri L Gardner, Steven P Arnoczky
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia, which is associated with chronic tendinopathy, has recently been shown to decrease the mechanosensitivity of some cells. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hypoxia on the formation of elongated primary cilia (a mechanosensing organelle of tendon cells) in vitro and to determine the effect of hypoxia on cell-mediated contraction of stress-deprived rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTfs). METHODS: Tendon cells isolated from RTTfs were cultured under normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic (1% O2) conditions for 24 hours...
April 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896006/ultrahigh-speed-phase-sensitive-full-field-interferometric-confocal-microscopy-for-quantitative-microscale-physiology
#6
Ikbal Sencan, Brendan K Huang, Yong Bian, Emily Mis, Mustafa K Khokha, Hui Cao, Michael Choma
We developed ultra-high-speed, phase-sensitive, full-field reflection interferometric confocal microscopy (FFICM) for the quantitative characterization of in vivo microscale biological motions and flows. We demonstrated 2D frame rates in excess of 1 kHz and pixel throughput rates up to 125 MHz. These fast FFICM frame rates were enabled by the use of a low spatial coherence, high-power laser source. Specifically, we used a dense vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array that synthesized low spatial coherence light through a large number of narrowband, mutually-incoherent emitters...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889058/mutations-in-reep6-cause-autosomal-recessive-retinitis-pigmentosa
#7
Gavin Arno, Smriti A Agrawal, Aiden Eblimit, James Bellingham, Mingchu Xu, Feng Wang, Christina Chakarova, David A Parfitt, Amelia Lane, Thomas Burgoyne, Sarah Hull, Keren J Carss, Alessia Fiorentino, Matthew J Hayes, Peter M Munro, Ralph Nicols, Nikolas Pontikos, Graham E Holder, Chinwe Asomugha, F Lucy Raymond, Anthony T Moore, Vincent Plagnol, Michel Michaelides, Alison J Hardcastle, Yumei Li, Catherine Cukras, Andrew R Webster, Michael E Cheetham, Rui Chen
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most frequent form of inherited retinal dystrophy. RP is genetically heterogeneous and the genes identified to date encode proteins involved in a wide range of functional pathways, including photoreceptor development, phototransduction, the retinoid cycle, cilia, and outer segment development. Here we report the identification of biallelic mutations in Receptor Expression Enhancer Protein 6 (REEP6) in seven individuals with autosomal-recessive RP from five unrelated families...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888644/myrtol-standardized-affects-mucociliary-clearance
#8
Ying Ying Li, Jing Liu, Chun Wei Li, Somasundaram Subramaniam, Siew Shuen Chao, Feng Gang Yu, Noam A Cohen, Shi Li, Yun Wang
BACKGROUND: Myrtol standardized (Gelomyrtol forte) has been shown to be effective in controlling nasal symptoms of rhinosinusitis by promoting mucociliary clearance. Our aim was to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of myrtol on ciliated columnar cells and goblet cells in an in-vitro setting. METHODS: Nasal epithelial cells were harvested (42 days) from an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of human nasal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (hNESPCs), which was derived from biopsies of nasal inferior turbinate mucosa...
November 26, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883267/translocation-of-tektin-3-to-the-equatorial-segment-of-heads-in-bull-spermatozoa-exposed-to-dibutyryl-camp-and-calyculin-a
#9
Mariko Tsukamoto, Erina Hiyama, Karen Hirotani, Takafumi Gotoh, Tetsuichiro Inai, Hiroshi Iida
Tektins (TEKTs) are filamentous proteins associated with microtubules in cilia, flagella, basal bodies, and centrioles. Five TEKTs (TEKT1, -2, -3, -4, and -5) have been identified as components of mammalian sperm flagella. We previously reported that TKET1 and TEKT3 are also present in the heads of rodent spermatozoa. The present study clearly demonstrates that TEKT2 is present at the acrosome cap whereas TEKT3 resides just beneath the plasma membrane of the post-acrosomal region of sperm heads in unactivated bull spermatozoa, and builds on the distributional differences of TEKT1, -2, and -3 on sperm heads...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881449/primary-cilia-and-mammalian-hedgehog-signaling
#10
Fiona Bangs, Kathryn V Anderson
It has been a decade since it was discovered that primary cilia have an essential role in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in mammals. This discovery came from screens in the mouse that identified a set of genes that are required for both normal Hh signaling and for the formation of primary cilia. Since then, dozens of mouse mutations have been identified that disrupt cilia in a variety of ways and have complex effects on Hedgehog signaling. Here, we summarize the genetic and developmental studies used to deduce how Hedgehog signal transduction is linked to cilia and the complex effects that perturbation of cilia structure can have on Hh signaling...
November 23, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880959/morphology-and-ciliary-motion-of-the-middle-ear-mucosa-of-neonatal-and-adult-gerbils
#11
Jun Li, Huizhan Liu, Nancy T He, Na Shen, Yi Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Since the middle ear cavity plays an important role in middle ear effusion, the goal of this study is to examine the morphological and functional development of the middle ear mucosa in neonatal and adult gerbils. METHODS: Gerbils aged between postnatal day 1 (P1) and P26 were used for the experiments. The morphological development of the middle ear cavity was measured by using the celloidin embedding method and scanning electronic microscope. Ciliary motion was determined and calibrated by a photodiode-based measurement system...
November 24, 2016: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880711/fine-tuning-motile-cilia-and-flagella-evolution-of-the-dynein-motor-proteins-from-plants-to-humans-at-high-resolution
#12
Martin Kollmar
The flagellum is a key innovation linked to eukaryogenesis. It provides motility by regulated cycles of bending and bend propagation, which are thought to be controlled by a complex arrangement of seven distinct dyneins in repeated patterns of outer- (OAD) and inner-arm dynein (IAD) complexes. Electron tomography showed high similarity of this axonemal repeat pattern across ciliates, algae, and animals, but the diversity of dynein sequences across the eukaryotes has not yet comprehensively been resolved and correlated with structural data...
December 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876848/novel-structure-in-sciaenid-fish-skulls-indicates-continuous-production-of-the-cephalic-neuromast-cupula
#13
Maíra Pombo, Alexander Turra
The presence of a conspicuous and frequent but never-described structure in the skull cavities of sciaenid fish was noted during population studies in an urbanized bay. The ultrastructure closely resembles the cupula of neuromasts, an organ associated with the perception of the environment in teleost fish. The bodies were recorded detached in both preserved and freshly sampled individuals and without associated cilia. Prominent characteristics are acellularity, the elliptic-conic shape composed of stack-like protein lamellas, and a mesh-like appearance in cross section...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875681/subdistal-appendages-stabilize-the-ups-and-downs-of-ciliary-life
#14
Domenico F Galati, Brian J Mitchell, Chad G Pearson
Centrioles acquire subdistal appendages (sDAPs) during primary cilium formation. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Mazo et al. (2016) demonstrate that sDAPs keep cilia submerged within deep membrane invaginations. When sDAPs and centrosome cohesion are disrupted, cilia surface to the plasma membrane, which may alter mechanical and chemical signal transduction.
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872140/primary-cilia-are-increased-in-number-and-demonstrate-structural-abnormalities-in-human-cancer
#15
Binnaz Yasar, Kim Linton, Christian Slater, Richard Byers
AIMS: Primary cilia play an important role in the regulation of cell signalling pathways and are thought to have a role in cancer but have seldom been studied in human cancer samples. METHODS: Primary cilia were visualised by dual immunofluorescence for anti-CROCC (ciliary rootlet coiled-coil) and anti-tubulin in a range of human cancers (including carcinomas of stomach, pancreas, prostate, lung and colon, lobular and ductal breast cancers and follicular lymphoma) and in matched normal tissue (stomach, pancreas, lung, large and small intestines, breast and reactive lymph nodes) samples using a tissue microarray; their frequency, association with proliferation, was measured by Ki-67 staining and their structure was analysed...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866888/comparative-analysis-of-ciliary-membranes-and-ectosomes
#16
Huan Long, Fan Zhang, Nannan Xu, Gai Liu, Dennis R Diener, Joel L Rosenbaum, Kaiyao Huang
Primary and motile cilia/flagella function as cellular antennae, receiving signals from the environment and subsequently activating signaling pathways that are critical for cellular homeostasis and differentiation [1-3]. Recent work with the green alga Chlamydomonas and the nematode C. elegans demonstrated that ectosomes can be released from the cilium and can mediate the intercellular communication [4-9]. To better understand the function of flagellar ectosomes, we have compared their protein composition to that of the flagellar membrane from which they are derived...
November 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864379/foxn4-promotes-gene-expression-required-for-multiple-motile-cilia-formation
#17
Evan P Campell, Ian K Quigley, Chris Kintner
Multiciliated cell (MCC) differentiation involves extensive organelle biogenesis required to extend hundreds of motile cilia. Key transcriptional regulators have been identified that drive gene expression required for organelle biogenesis during MCC differentiation, which are activated by, and act downstream, of two related, small coiled-coil proteins, Multicilin and Gemc1. Here we identify foxn4 as a new downstream target of Multicilin required for MCC differentiation in the Xenopus skin. When Foxn4 activity is inhibited in Xenopus embryos, MCCs show transient ciliogenesis defects similar to those observed in mutants in Foxj1, a known key regulator of genes required for motile ciliation...
November 18, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864314/cilia-and-mucociliary-clearance
#18
Ximena M Bustamante-Marin, Lawrence E Ostrowski
Mucociliary clearance (MCC) is the primary innate defense mechanism of the lung. The functional components are the protective mucous layer, the airway surface liquid layer, and the cilia on the surface of ciliated cells. The cilia are specialized organelles that beat in metachronal waves to propel pathogens and inhaled particles trapped in the mucous layer out of the airways. In health this clearance mechanism is effective, but in patients with primary cilia dyskinesia (PCD) the cilia are abnormal, resulting in deficient MCC and chronic lung disease...
November 18, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861880/the-multifaceted-roles-of-primary-cilia-in-the-regulation-of-stem-cell-properties-and-functions
#19
REVIEW
Rui Lyu, Jun Zhou
Stem cells are a unique class of cells that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple lineages. An increasing number of studies have suggested that both embryonic and adult stem cells possess primary cilia, antenna-like structures protruding from cell surfaces that are critical for sensing and transducing environmental cues. The primary cilium appears to regulate stem cells in multiple aspects, such as lineage specification and stemness maintenance. Understanding the role of primary cilia in the control of stem cell behavior could lead to the identification of new targets for regenerative therapies...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859258/motile-and-non-motile-cilia-in-human-pathology-from-function-to-phenotypes
#20
REVIEW
Hannah M Mitchison, Enza Maria Valente
Ciliopathies are inherited human disorders caused by both motile and non-motile cilia dysfunction that form an important and rapidly expanding disease category. Ciliopathies are complex conditions to diagnose, being multisystem disorders characterised by extensive genetic heterogeneity and clinical variability with high levels of lethality. There is marked phenotypic overlap among distinct ciliopathy syndromes that presents a major challenge for their recognition, diagnosis, clinical management, in addition to posing an on-going task to develop the most appropriate family counselling...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Pathology
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