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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544688/prolonged-denervation-induces-remodeling-of-nasal-mucosa-in-rat-model-of-posterior-nasal-neurectomy
#1
Hironobu Nishijima, Kenji Kondo, Makiko Toma-Hirano, Shu Kikuta, Mizuo Ando, Rumi Ueha, Tatsuya Yamasoba
BACKGROUND: The posterior nasal nerve is the dominant source of the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and sensory fibers that innervate the nasal respiratory mucosa. Therefore, a posterior nasal neurectomy (PNN) induces denervation of the nasal mucosa and relieves the nasal symptoms of intractable rhinitis. PNN depletes nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides in nasal respiratory mucosa, and reduces nasal secretion. However, the histological and symptomatic changes over an extended period after PNN remain unknown...
May 23, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543983/mutation-of-serine-threonine-protein-kinase-36-stk36-causes-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-with-a-central-pair-defect
#2
Christine Edelbusch, Sandra Cindrić, Gerard W Dougherty, Niki T Loges, Heike Olbrich, Joseph Rivlin, Julia Wallmeier, Petra Pennekamp, Israel Amirav, Heymut Omran
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic condition of impaired ciliary beating, characterized by chronic infections of the upper and lower airways and progressive lung failure. Defects of the outer dynein arms are the most common cause of PCD. In about half of the affected individuals, PCD occurs with situs inversus (Kartagener syndrome). A minor PCD subgroup including defects of the radial spokes (RS) and central pair (CP) is hallmarked by the absence of laterality defects, subtle beating abnormalities and unequivocally apparent ultrastructural defects of the ciliary axoneme, making their diagnosis challenging...
May 23, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541401/three-dimensional-structural-labeling-microscopy-of-cilia-and-flagella
#3
Toshiyuki Oda
Locating a molecule within a cell using protein-tagging and immunofluorescence is a fundamental technique in cell biology, whereas in three-dimensional electron microscopy, locating a subunit within a macromolecular complex remains challenging. Recently, we developed a new structural labeling method for cryo-electron tomography by taking advantage of the biotin-streptavidin system, and have intensively used this method to locate a number of proteins and protein domains in cilia and flagella. In this review, we summarize our findings on the three-dimensional architecture of the axoneme, especially the importance of coiled-coil proteins...
May 25, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539406/nek7-is-required-for-g1-progression-and-procentriole-formation
#4
Akshari Gupta, Yuki Tsuchiya, Midori Ohta, Gen Shiratsuchi, Daiju Kitagawa
The decision to commit to the cell cycle is made during G1 through the concerted action of various cyclin-CDK complexes. Not only DNA replication, but also centriole duplication is initiated as cells enter the S phase. The NIMA-related kinase NEK7 is one of the many factors that are required for proper centriole duplication, as well as timely cell cycle progression. However, its specific roles in these events remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that the depletion of NEK7 inhibited progression through the G1 phase in human U2OS cells by the downregulation of various cyclins and CDKs, and also inhibited the earliest stages of procentriole formation...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534617/comparative-proteomics-reveals-timely-transport-into-cilia-of-regulators-or-effectors-as-a-mechanism-underlying-ciliary-disassembly
#5
Limei Wang, Lixiao Gu, Dan Meng, Qiong Wu, Haiteng Deng, Junmin Pan
Primary cilia are assembled and disassembled during cell cycle progression. During ciliary disassembly, ciliary axonemal microtubules (MTs) are depolymerized accompanied with extensive posttranslational protein modifications of ciliary proteins including protein phosphorylation, methylation and ubiquitination. These events are hypothesized to involve transport of effectors or regulators into cilia at the time of ciliary disassembly from the cell body. To prove this hypothesis and identify new proteins involved in ciliary disassembly, we analyzed disassembling flagella in Chlamydomonas using comparative proteomics with TMT labeling...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529994/rapamycin-increases-length-and-mechanosensory-function-of-primary-cilia-in-renal-epithelial-and-vascular-endothelial-cells
#6
Rinzhin T Sherpa, Kimberly F Atkinson, Viviana P Ferreira, Surya M Nauli
Primary cilia arebiophysically-sensitive organelles responsible for sensing fluid-flow and transducing this stimulus into intracellular responses. Previous studies have shown that the primary cilia mediate flow-induced calcium influx, and sensitivity of cilia function to flow is correlated to cilia length. Cells with abnormal cilia length or function can lead to a host of diseases that are collectively termed as ciliopathies. Rapamycin, a potent inhibitor of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), has been demonstrated to be a potential pharmacological agent against the aberrant mTOR signaling seen in ciliopathies such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)...
December 2016: Int Educ Res J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513508/harmful-effects-of-formaldehyde-and-possible-protective-effect-of-nigella-sativa-on-the-trachea-of-rats
#7
E Sapmaz, H I Sapmaz, N Vardi, U Tas, M Sarsilmaz, Y Toplu, A Arici, M Uysal
OBJECTIVE: We aimed in this study to investigate the harmful effects of formaldehyde (FA) inhalation and possible protective effects of Nigella sativa (NS) on rats' trachea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 63 adult male rats were used. Animals were divided into nine groups. Group I was used as control group. All other groups were exposed to FA inhalation. Group III, V, VII, and IX were administered NS by gavage. Tissues were examined histologically, and immunohistochemical examination for Bax and caspase-3 immunoreactivity was carried out...
May 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513435/a-bioactive-peptide-amidating-enzyme-is-required-for-ciliogenesis
#8
Dhivya Kumar, Daniela Strenkert, Ramila S Patel-King, Michael T Leonard, Sabeeha S Merchant, Richard E Mains, Stephen M King, Betty A Eipper
The pathways controlling cilium biogenesis in different cell types have not been fully elucidated. We recently identified peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an enzyme required for generating amidated bioactive signaling peptides, in Chlamydomonas and mammalian cilia. Here, we show that PAM is required for the normal assembly of motile and primary cilia in Chlamydomonas, planaria and mice. Chlamydomonas PAM knockdown lines failed to assemble cilia beyond the transition zone, had abnormal Golgi architecture and altered levels of cilia assembly components...
May 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511651/high-resolution-mucociliary-transport-measurement-in-live-excised-large-animal-trachea-using-synchrotron-x-ray-imaging
#9
Martin Donnelley, Kaye S Morgan, Maged Awadalla, Nigel R Farrow, Chris Hall, David W Parsons
BACKGROUND: The Australian Synchrotron Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) was designed as the world's widest synchrotron X-ray beam, enabling both clinical imaging and therapeutic applications for humans as well as the imaging of large animal models. Our group is developing methods for imaging the airways of newly developed CF animal models that display human-like lung disease, such as the CF pig, and we expect that the IMBL can be utilised to image airways in animals of this size. METHODS: This study utilised samples of excised tracheal tissue to assess the feasibility, logistics and protocols required for airway imaging in large animal models such as pigs and sheep at the IMBL...
May 16, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508746/ciliomotor-circuitry-underlying-whole-body-coordination-of-ciliary-activity-in-the-platynereis-larva
#10
Csaba Verasztó, Nobuo Ueda, Luis A Bezares-Calderón, Aurora Panzera, Elizabeth A Williams, Réza Shahidi, Gáspár Jékely
Ciliated surfaces harbouring synchronously beating cilia can generate fluid flow or drive locomotion. In ciliary swimmers, ciliary beating, arrests, and changes in beat frequency are often coordinated across extended or discontinuous surfaces. To understand how such coordination is achieved, we studied the ciliated larvae of Platynereis dumerilii, a marine annelid. Platynereis larvae have segmental multiciliated cells that regularly display spontaneous coordinated ciliary arrests. We used whole-body connectomics, activity imaging, transgenesis, and neuron ablation to characterize the ciliomotor circuitry...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505409/human-asthmatic-bronchial-cells-are-more-susceptible-to-sub-chronic-repeated-exposures-of-aerosolized-carbon-nanotubes-at-occupationally-relevant-doses-than-healthy-cells
#11
Savvina Chortarea, Hana Barosova, Martin James David Clift, Peter Wick, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Although acute pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been extensively investigated, the knowledge of potential health effects following chronic occupational exposure is currently limited and based only upon in vivo approaches. Our aim was to realistically mimic sub-chronic inhalation of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) in vitro, using the Air-Liquid Interface Cell Exposure system (ALICE) for aerosol exposures onto reconstituted human bronchial tissue from healthy and asthmatic donors. The reliability and sensitivity of the system was validated using crystalline quartz (DQ12), which elicited an increased (pro-)inflammatory response, as reported in vivo...
May 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504201/cilia-the-sensory-antennae-in-the-eye
#12
REVIEW
Helen May-Simera, Kerstin Nagel-Wolfrum, Uwe Wolfrum
Cilia are hair-like projections found on almost all cells in the human body. Originally believed to function merely in motility, the function of solitary non-motile (primary) cilia was long overlooked. Recent research has demonstrated that primary cilia function as signalling hubs that sense environmental cues and are pivotal for organ development and function, tissue hoemoestasis, and maintenance of human health. Cilia share a common anatomy and their diverse functional features are achieved by evolutionarily conserved functional modules, organized into sub-compartments...
May 11, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502641/insights-in-luteovirid-structural-biology-guided-by-chemical-cross-linking-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#13
Mariko M Alexander, Jared P Mohr, Stacy L DeBlasio, Juan D Chavez, Veronique Ziegler-Graff, Veronique Brault, James E Bruce, Michelle Cilia
Interactions between plant pathogenic viruses in the family Luteoviridae and their plant hosts and insect vectors are governed by the topology of the viral capsid, which is the sole vehicle for long distance movement of the viral genome. Previous application of a mass spectrometry-compatible cross-linker to preparations of the luteovirid Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) revealed a detailed network of interactions between viral structural proteins and enabled generation of the first cross-linking guided coat protein models...
May 11, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500304/microgravity-induces-inhibition-of-osteoblastic-differentiation-and-mineralization-through-abrogating-primary-cilia
#14
Wengui Shi, Yanfang Xie, Jinpeng He, Jian Zhou, Yuhai Gao, Wenjun Wei, Nan Ding, Huiping Ma, Cory J Xian, Keming Chen, Jufang Wang
It is well documented that microgravity in space environment leads to bone loss in astronauts. These physiological changes have also been validated by human and animal studies and modeled in cell-based analogs. However, the underlying mechanisms are elusive. In the current study, we identified a novel phenomenon that primary cilia (key sensors and functioning organelles) of rat calvarial osteoblasts (ROBs) gradually shrank and disappeared almost completely after exposure to simulated microgravity generated by a random positioning machine (RPM)...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500222/energy-requirements-of-odor-transduction-in-the-chemosensory-cilia-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons-rely-on-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-glycolytic-processing-of-extracellular-glucose
#15
Pablo S Villar, Ricardo Delgado, Cecilia Vergara, Juan G Reyes, Juan Bacigalupo
The mechanisms that power the physiological events occuring in cilia, flagella and microvilli are of fundamental importance for the functions of these important and ubicuous organelles. The olfactory epithelium (OE) is mostly populated by ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and surrounding sustentacular cells (SCs) with apical microvilli. The only OSN dendrite extends to the surface forming a knob projecting several chemosensory cilia of approximately 50 x 0.2 μm, devoid of inner membranes embedded in a mucus layer...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500065/loss-of-mpdz-impairs-ependymal-cell-integrity-leading-to-perinatal-onset-hydrocephalus-in-mice
#16
Anja Feldner, M Gordian Adam, Fabian Tetzlaff, Iris Moll, Dorde Komljenovic, Felix Sahm, Tobias Bäuerle, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Horst Schroten, Thomas Korff, Ilse Hofmann, Hartwig Wolburg, Andreas von Deimling, Andreas Fischer
Hydrocephalus is a common congenital anomaly. LCAM1 and MPDZ (MUPP1) are the only known human gene loci associated with non-syndromic hydrocephalus. To investigate functions of the tight junction-associated protein Mpdz, we generated mouse models. Global Mpdz gene deletion or conditional inactivation in Nestin-positive cells led to formation of supratentorial hydrocephalus in the early postnatal period. Blood vessels, epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and cilia on ependymal cells, which line the ventricular system, remained morphologically intact in Mpdz-deficient brains...
May 12, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499171/quinazoline-based-%C3%AE-1-adrenoreceptor-antagonists-with-potent-antiproliferative-activity-in-human-prostate-cancer-cell-lines
#17
Valentina Maestri, Andrea Tarozzi, Elena Simoni, Antonio Cilia, Elena Poggesi, Marina Naldi, Benedetta Nicolini, Letizia Pruccoli, Michela Rosini, Anna Minarini
New α1-adrenoreceptor (α1-AR) antagonists related to prazosin and doxazosin were synthesized by replacing piperazine ring with (S)- or (R)-3-aminopiperidine. Binding studies indicated that the S configuration at the 3-C position of the piperidine ring is crucial for an optimal interaction of the compounds at all three α1-AR subtypes. Quinazolines 9 and 10, bearing a quinone ring on the lateral chain, exhibited also potent antiproliferative activity in LNCaP androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell lines, higher than that of doxazosin...
May 4, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498859/usp9x-counteracts-differential-ubiquitination-of-nphp5-by-march7-and-bbs11-to-regulate-ciliogenesis
#18
Arindam Das, Jin Qian, William Y Tsang
Ciliogenesis is a fundamental biological process central to human health. Precisely how this process is coordinated with the cell cycle remains an open question. We report that nephrocystin-5 (NPHP5/IQCB1), a positive regulator of ciliogenesis, is a stable and low turnover protein subjected to cycles of ubiquitination and deubiquitination. NPHP5 directly binds to a deubiquitinating enzyme USP9X/FAM and two E3 ubiquitin ligases BBS11/TRIM32 and MARCH7/axotrophin. NPHP5 undergoes K63 ubiquitination in a cell cycle dependent manner and K48/K63 ubiquitination upon USP9X depletion or inhibition...
May 12, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495971/cilia-and-flagella-associated-protein-69-regulates-olfactory-transduction-kinetics-in-mice
#19
Anna K Talaga, Frederick N Dong, Johannes Reisert, Haiqing Zhao
Animals detect odorous chemicals through specialized olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that transduce odorants into neural electrical signals. We identify a novel and evolutionarily conserved protein, CFAP69, in mice that regulates olfactory transduction kinetics. In the olfactory epithelium CFAP69 is enriched in OSN cilia, where olfactory transduction occurs. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that a large portion of CFAP69 can form Armadillo-type α-helical repeats, which may mediate protein-protein interaction...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495666/how-to-use-nasal-nitric-oxide-in-a-child-with-suspected-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#20
Kim Simpson, Malcolm Brodlie
Measuring nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is increasingly used as part of testing for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The diagnosis of PCD is often delayed until after bronchiectasis is established and auditory damage has occurred. It is important that all paediatricians are aware of clinical features that are suggestive of PCD that should prompt diagnostic testing. nNO levels are recognised to be low in people with PCD and results generated by static chemiluminescence analysers using velum closure technique in older children have good sensitivity and specificity...
May 11, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
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