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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895193/organum-vasculosum-of-the-lamina-terminalis-detects-nacl-to-elevate-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure
#1
Brian J Kinsman, Sarah S Simmonds, Kirsteen N Browning, Sean D Stocker
High-salt diet elevates NaCl concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid to increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in salt-sensitive hypertension. The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) resides along the rostral wall of the third ventricle, lacks a complete blood-brain barrier, and plays a pivotal role in body fluid homeostasis. Therefore, the present study used a multifaceted approach to examine whether OVLT neurons of Sprague-Dawley rats are intrinsically sensitive to changes in extracellular NaCl concentrations and mediate the sympathoexcitatory responses to central NaCl loading...
November 28, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826897/interactions-between-%C3%AE-adrenergic-vasodilation-and-cervical-sympathetic-nerves-are-mediated-by-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-in-the-rat-masseter-muscle
#2
Hisayoshi Ishii, Toshiya Sato
Neural and humoral autonomic mechanisms may be important in the maintenance of blood flow in the masseter muscle (MBF). However, their interactions remain unclear. In this study, we examined interactions between neural and humoral regulation of MBF and investigated the mechanisms mediating these interactions in urethane-anesthetized rats. Stimulation of the adrenal nerve (AN) projecting to the adrenal medulla increased MBF, and this increase was mediated by β-adrenoceptors. Sectioning of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) significantly inhibited increases in MBF induced by AN stimulation during high activity in the CST, but not during low activity...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755119/sympathetic-nerves-and-hypertension-in-stress-sleep-apnea-and-caregiving
#3
Michael G Ziegler, Milos Milic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) mediates short-term increases in blood pressure. Evidence that psychosocial stress leads to chronic hypertension is mixed. The SNS activation found in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), caregiving for a severely demented spouse, and obesity more specifically address whether SNS activation might lead to the metabolic syndrome and hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is associated with both increased SNS electrical activity and plasma norepinephrine...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754153/os-29-05-renal-denervation-attenuates-aldosterone-expression-and-associated-cardiovascular-pathophysiology-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#4
Xiaodong Li, Mona Hong, Dingliang Zhu, Pingjin Gao
OBJECTIVE: The sympathetic nervous system interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributing to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we sought to determine if renal denervation (RDN) inhibits aldosterone expression and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: Bilateral RDN or SHAM operation was performed before chronic 14-day Ang II infusion (200 ng/kg/min) in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661131/renal-denervation-attenuates-aldosterone-expression-and-associated-cardiovascular-pathophysiology-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#5
Mo-Na Hong, Xiao-Dong Li, Dong-Rui Chen, Cheng-Chao Ruan, Jian-Zhong Xu, Jing Chen, Yong-Jie Wu, Yu Ma, Ding-Liang Zhu, Ping-Jin Gao
The sympathetic nervous system interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributing to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we sought to determine if renal denervation (RDN) inhibits aldosterone expression and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. Bilateral RDN or SHAM operation was performed before chronic 14-day Ang II subcutaneous infusion (200ng/kg/min) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Bilateral RDN blunted Ang II-induced hypertension and ameliorated the mesenteric vascular dysfunction...
September 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643083/os-29-05-renal-denervation-attenuates-aldosterone-expression-and-associated-cardiovascular-pathophysiology-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#6
Xiaodong Li, Mona Hong, Dingliang Zhu, Pingjin Gao
OBJECTIVE: The sympathetic nervous system interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributing to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we sought to determine if renal denervation (RDN) inhibits aldosterone expression and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: Bilateral RDN or SHAM operation was performed before chronic 14-day Ang II infusion (200 ng/kg/min) in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597763/spatial-and-activity-dependent-catecholamine-release-in-rat-adrenal-medulla-under-native-neuronal-stimulation
#7
Kyle Wolf, Georgy Zarkua, Shyue-An Chan, Arun Sridhar, Corey Smith
Neuroendocrine chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla in rat receive excitatory synaptic input through anterior and posterior divisions of the sympathetic splanchnic nerve. Upon synaptic stimulation, the adrenal medulla releases the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine into the suprarenal vein for circulation throughout the body. Under sympathetic tone, catecholamine release is modest. However, upon activation of the sympathoadrenal stress reflex, and increased splanchnic firing, adrenal catecholamine output increases dramatically...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485039/the-sympathetic-nervous-system-affects-the-susceptibility-and-course-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#8
Eduardo Roggero, Ana Rosa Pérez, Natalia Pollachini, Silvina Raquel Villar, Johannes Wildmann, Hugo Besedovsky, Adriana Del Rey
Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is an intracellular parasite that causes Chagas' disease, a major health problem in Latin America. Using a murine model of infection with this parasite, we have previously shown that corticosterone blood levels are markedly elevated during the course of the disease in C57Bl/6 male mice and that this increase is protective for the host by restricting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Since the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis usually operates in a concerted way with the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), we have now studied whether noradrenergic nerves can affect the course of T...
November 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377300/the-splanchnic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-could-it-be-the-efferent-arm-of-the-inflammatory-reflex
#9
D Martelli, D G S Farmer, S T Yao
What is the topic of this review? We review the current literature on the neural reflex termed the 'inflammatory reflex' that inhibits an excessive release of inflammatory mediators in response to an immune challenge. What advances does it highlight? The original model proposed that the inflammatory reflex is a vago-vagal reflex that controls immune function. We posit that, in the endotoxaemic animal model, the vagus nerves do not appear to play a role. The evidence suggests that the efferent motor pathway, termed here the 'splanchnic anti-inflammatory pathway', is purely sympathetic, travelling via the greater splanchnic nerves to regulate the ensuing inflammatory response to immune challenges...
October 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371683/endogenous-nitric-oxide-derived-from-nos-i-or-ii-in-thoracic-spinal-cord-exerts-opposing-tonic-modulation-on-sympathetic-vasomotor-tone-via-disparate-mechanisms-in-anesthetized-rats
#10
Yan-Yuen Poon, Ching-Yi Tsai, Chung-Dar Cheng, Alice Y W Chang, Samuel H H Chan
The sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the thoracic spinal cord regulate vasomotor tone via norepinephrine released from sympathetic terminals and adrenal medulla. We assessed the hypothesis that nitric oxide synthase I (NOS I)- and NOS II-derived nitric oxide (NO) in the thoracic spinal cord differentially modulate sympathetic outflow and that the adrenal medulla may be involved in those modulatory actions. In Sprague-Dawley rats, NOS I immunoreactivity was distributed primarily in the perikaryon, proximal dendrites, or axons of SPN, and small clusters of NOS II immunoreactivity impinged mainly on the circumference of SPN...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260669/does-mw-radiation-affect-gene-expression-apoptotic-level-and-cell-cycle-progression-of-human-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#11
Handan Kayhan, Meric Arda Esmekaya, Atiye Seda Yar Saglam, Mehmed Zahid Tuysuz, Ayşe Gulnihal Canseven, Abdullah Munci Yagci, Nesrin Seyhan
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a cancer that occurs in sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts and nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord. It is an embryonal malignancy and affects infants and children. In this study, we investigated the effects of microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic activity, cell viability, and cell cycle progression in human SH-SY5Y NB cells which can give information about MW radiation effects on neural cells covering the period from the embryonic stages to infants...
June 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166979/stretching-the-stress-boundary-linking-air-pollution-health-effects-to-a-neurohormonal-stress-response
#12
Urmila P Kodavanti
Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred to here as a systemic response produced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis) has been implicated in a variety of psychological and physical stresses, which involves immune and metabolic homeostatic mechanisms affecting all organs in the body...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27094431/mir-124-is-differentially-expressed-in-derivatives-of-the-sympathoadrenal-cell-lineage-and-promotes-neurite-elongation-in-chromaffin-cells
#13
Stella Shtukmaster, Priyanka Narasimhan, Tehani El Faitwri, Jutta Stubbusch, Uwe Ernsberger, Hermann Rohrer, Klaus Unsicker, Katrin Huber
The neural-crest-derived sympathoadrenal cell lineage gives rise to sympathetic neurons and to endocrine chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Both cell types express a largely overlapping set of genes, including those coding for the molecular machinery related to the synthesis and exocytotic release of catecholamines. During their early development, sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells rely on a shared transcription factor network that controls the establishment of these common features. Despite many similarities, mature sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells significantly differ regarding their morphology and function...
August 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059884/anti-inflammatory-properties-of-the-vagus-nerve-potential-therapeutic-implications-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#14
Bruno Bonaz, Valérie Sinniger, Sonia Pellissier
Brain and viscera interplay within the autonomic nervous system where the vagus nerve (VN), containing approximately 80% afferent and 20% efferent fibres, plays multiple key roles in the homeostatic regulations of visceral functions. Recent data have suggested the anti-inflammatory role of the VN. This vagal function is mediated through several pathways, some of them still debated. The first one is the anti-inflammatory hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which is stimulated by vagal afferent fibres and leads to the release of cortisol by the adrenal glands...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26971699/intragastric-injection-of-lactobacillus-casei-strain-shirota-suppressed-spleen-sympathetic-activation-by-central-corticotrophin-releasing-factor-or-peripheral-2-deoxy-d-glucose-in-anesthetized-rats
#15
Mamoru Tanida, Mai Takada, Akito Kato-Kataoka, Mitsuhisa Kawai, Kouji Miyazaki, Toshishige Shibamoto
Intragastric (IG) administration of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) decreases the sympathetic nerve outflow of anesthetized rats in a tissue-specific manner. In the present study, we examined the effects of IG administration of LcS on sympathetic activation induced by an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and an intravenous (IV) injection of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) or interleukin (IL)-1β in urethane-anesthetized rats. The IG administration of LcS differently affected the stimulatory responses of sympathetic nerve outflow to CRF...
April 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26946268/distribution-of-catecholaminergic-presympathetic-premotor-neurons-in-the-rat-lower-brainstem
#16
H Nam, I A Kerman
We previously characterized the organization of presympathetic-premotor neurons (PSPMNs), which send descending poly-synaptic projections with collaterals to skeletal muscle and the adrenal gland. Such neurons may play a role in shaping integrated adaptive responses, and many of them were found within well-characterized regions of noradrenergic cell populations suggesting that some of the PSPMNs are catecholaminergic. To address this issue, we used retrograde trans-synaptic tract-tracing with attenuated pseudorabies virus (PRV) recombinants combined with multi-label immunofluorescence to identify PSPMNs expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)...
June 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913456/behavioural-changes-induced-by-a-conditional-disruption-of-bone-formation
#17
Andreas Zimmer, David-Marian Otte, Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, Samar Muhammad Armin, Itai Bab
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the brain regulates bone remodelling through sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibres. However, it is unclear if signals from the skeleton also influence brain functions and animal behaviours. METHODS: Bone formation was conditionally disrupted by daily injections of aciclovir (10 mg/kg) to transgenic mice expressing a herpes-simplex-virus thymidine kinase under the control of the osteoblast-specific promoter of the Bglap gene...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26851510/gpcrs-of-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-catecholamines-the-plot-thickens
#18
Anastasios Lymperopoulos, Ava Brill, Katie A McCrink
The circulating catecholamines (CAs) epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) derive from two major sources in the whole organism: the sympathetic nerve endings, which release NE on effector organs, and the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, which are cells that synthesize, store and release Epi (mainly) and NE. All of the Epi in the body and a significant amount of circulating NE derive from the adrenal medulla. The secretion of CAs from adrenal chromaffin cells is regulated in a complex way by a variety of membrane receptors, the vast majority of which are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including adrenergic receptors (ARs), which act as "presynaptic autoreceptors" in this regard...
August 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26768678/-prp-systemic-deposition-disease-clinical-and-pathological-characteristics-of-novel-familial-prion-disease-with-2-bp-deletion-in-codon-178
#19
K Matsuzono, H Honda, K Sato, R Morihara, K Deguchi, N Hishikawa, T Yamashita, S Kono, Y Ohta, T Iwaki, K Abe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A novel TYPE of prion disease associated mainly with autonomic-sensory polyneuropathy was reported by us previously. METHODS: Here the autopsy pathology for patient 1 (the sister) and the clinical characteristics of her younger brother (patient 2) are newly reported. Polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the prion protein gene (PRNP) was performed on both patients and their father (normal control)...
January 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26465969/central-integration-and-neural-control-of-blood-pressure-during-the-cold-pressor-test-a-comparison-between-hydrochlorothiazide-and-aliskiren
#20
Sara S Jarvis, Yoshiyuki Okada, Benjamin D Levine, Qi Fu
Individuals with hypertension and sympathetic overactivity are at risk for cardiovascular events. Renin inhibitors are new while thiazide diuretics are first-class drugs used for treatment of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 6 months of treatment with aliskiren (ALSK) or hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) would alter blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) indices in older mild hypertensives during a cold pressor test (CPT). We hypothesized that the ALSK group would demonstrate a blunted response compared to HCTZ...
September 14, 2015: Physiological Reports
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