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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735418/gap-junction-communication-between-chromaffin-cells-the-hidden-face-of-adrenal-stimulus-secretion-coupling
#1
REVIEW
Nathalie C Guérineau
From birth to death, catecholamine secretion undergoes continuous adjustments, allowing the organism to adapt to homeostasis changes. To cope with these stressful conditions, the neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla play an immediate and crucial role. Chromaffin cell-driven catecholamine release is chiefly controlled by a neurogenic command that arises from the sympathetic nervous system, which releases acetylcholine at the splanchnic nerve terminal-chromaffin cell synapses. In addition to receiving several synaptic inputs individually, chromaffin cells are coupled by gap junctions...
July 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697655/functional-ulnar-nerve-paraganglioma-first-documented-occurrence-in-the-extremity-with-hitherto-undescribed-associated-extensive-glomus-cell-hyperplasia-and-tumorlet-formation
#2
Louis Tsun Cheung Chow, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Simon Kwok Chuen Wong
Extra-adrenal paraganglioma has never been described in the extremities. A 34-year-old woman complained of an enlarging mass in the right forearm for 18 months. Imaging showed a circumscribed vascular tumor attached to the ulnar nerve; biopsy revealed features of paraganglioma. The resected tumor consisted of zellballen pattern of chief cells staining positively for chromogranin with surrounding S100-positive sustentacular cells. The chief cells contained many neurosecretory granules and mitochondria, whereas the sustentacular cells contained a large amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and some microfilaments...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678348/nacl-and-osmolarity-produce-different-responses-in-organum-vasculosum-of-the-lamina-terminalis-neurons-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure
#3
Brian J Kinsman, Kirsteen N Browning, Sean D Stocker
Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606950/pathophysiology-of-takotsubo-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Francesco Pelliccia, Juan Carlos Kaski, Filippo Crea, Paolo G Camici
Originally described by Japanese authors in the 1990s, Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) generally presents as an acute myocardial infarction characterized by severe left ventricular dysfunction. TTS, however, differs from an acute coronary syndrome because patients have generally a normal coronary angiogram and left ventricular dysfunction, which extends beyond the territory subtended by a single coronary artery and recovers within days or weeks. The prognosis was initially thought to be benign, but subsequent studies have demonstrated that both short-term mortality and long-term mortality are higher than previously recognized...
June 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471119/recurrence-of-non-cardiogenic-pulmonary-edema-and-sustained-hypotension-shock-in-cystic-pheochromocytoma
#5
Jin Dai, Shen-Jie Chen, Bing-Sheng Yang, Shu-Min Lü, Min Zhu, Yi-Fei Xu, Jie Chen, Hong-Wen Cai, Wei Mao
Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor which derives from chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland or relevant to sympathetic nerves and ganglia. The clinical features of pheochromocytoma are various. Paroxysmal episodes of serious hypertension, headache, palpitation, and diaphoresis are the typical manifestations (Bravo, 2004). Hypotension shock, pulmonary edema, and acute coronary syndrome induced by pheochromocytoma are uncommon (Malindretos et al., 2008; Batisse-Lignier et al., 2015). In this study, we present a rare case of cystic pheochromocytoma causing recurrent hypotension shock, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and acute coronary syndrome, and the possible mechanisms are discussed...
May 2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173996/perifornical-hypothalamic-pathway-to-the-adrenal-gland-role-for-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-glucose-counter-regulatory-response
#6
A Sabetghadam, W S Korim, A J M Verberne
Adrenaline is an important counter-regulatory hormone that helps restore glucose homeostasis during hypoglycaemia. However, the neurocircuitry that connects the brain glucose sensors and the adrenal sympathetic outflow to the chromaffin cells is poorly understood. We used electrical microstimulation of the perifornical hypothalamus (PeH) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) combined with adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) recording to examine the relationship between the RVLM, the PeH and ASNA...
February 2, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054557/kilohertz-frequency-nerve-block-enhances-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#7
Yogi A Patel, Tarun Saxena, Ravi V Bellamkonda, Robert J Butera
Efferent activation of the cervical vagus nerve (cVN) dampens systemic inflammatory processes, potentially modulating a wide-range of inflammatory pathological conditions. In contrast, afferent cVN activation amplifies systemic inflammatory processes, leading to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic nervous system through the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN), and elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ideally, to clinically implement anti-inflammatory therapy via cervical vagus nerve stimulation (cVNS) one should selectively activate the efferent pathway...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895193/organum-vasculosum-of-the-lamina-terminalis-detects-nacl-to-elevate-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure
#8
Brian J Kinsman, Sarah S Simmonds, Kirsteen N Browning, Sean D Stocker
High-salt diet elevates NaCl concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid to increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in salt-sensitive hypertension. The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) resides along the rostral wall of the third ventricle, lacks a complete blood-brain barrier, and plays a pivotal role in body fluid homeostasis. Therefore, the present study used a multifaceted approach to examine whether OVLT neurons of Sprague-Dawley rats are intrinsically sensitive to changes in extracellular NaCl concentrations and mediate the sympathoexcitatory responses to central NaCl loading...
January 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826897/interactions-between-%C3%AE-adrenergic-vasodilation-and-cervical-sympathetic-nerves-are-mediated-by-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-in-the-rat-masseter-muscle
#9
Hisayoshi Ishii, Toshiya Sato
Neural and humoral autonomic mechanisms may be important in the maintenance of blood flow in the masseter muscle (MBF). However, their interactions remain unclear. In this study, we examined interactions between neural and humoral regulation of MBF and investigated the mechanisms mediating these interactions in urethane-anesthetized rats. Stimulation of the adrenal nerve (AN) projecting to the adrenal medulla increased MBF, and this increase was mediated by β-adrenoceptors. Sectioning of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) significantly inhibited increases in MBF induced by AN stimulation during high activity in the CST, but not during low activity...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755119/sympathetic-nerves-and-hypertension-in-stress-sleep-apnea-and-caregiving
#10
Michael G Ziegler, Milos Milic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) mediates short-term increases in blood pressure. Evidence that psychosocial stress leads to chronic hypertension is mixed. The SNS activation found in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), caregiving for a severely demented spouse, and obesity more specifically address whether SNS activation might lead to the metabolic syndrome and hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is associated with both increased SNS electrical activity and plasma norepinephrine...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754153/os-29-05-renal-denervation-attenuates-aldosterone-expression-and-associated-cardiovascular-pathophysiology-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#11
Xiaodong Li, Mona Hong, Dingliang Zhu, Pingjin Gao
OBJECTIVE: The sympathetic nervous system interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributing to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we sought to determine if renal denervation (RDN) inhibits aldosterone expression and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: Bilateral RDN or SHAM operation was performed before chronic 14-day Ang II infusion (200 ng/kg/min) in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661131/renal-denervation-attenuates-aldosterone-expression-and-associated-cardiovascular-pathophysiology-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#12
Mo-Na Hong, Xiao-Dong Li, Dong-Rui Chen, Cheng-Chao Ruan, Jian-Zhong Xu, Jing Chen, Yong-Jie Wu, Yu Ma, Ding-Liang Zhu, Ping-Jin Gao
The sympathetic nervous system interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributing to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we sought to determine if renal denervation (RDN) inhibits aldosterone expression and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. Bilateral RDN or SHAM operation was performed before chronic 14-day Ang II subcutaneous infusion (200ng/kg/min) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Bilateral RDN blunted Ang II-induced hypertension and ameliorated the mesenteric vascular dysfunction...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643083/os-29-05-renal-denervation-attenuates-aldosterone-expression-and-associated-cardiovascular-pathophysiology-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#13
Xiaodong Li, Mona Hong, Dingliang Zhu, Pingjin Gao
OBJECTIVE: The sympathetic nervous system interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributing to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we sought to determine if renal denervation (RDN) inhibits aldosterone expression and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: Bilateral RDN or SHAM operation was performed before chronic 14-day Ang II infusion (200 ng/kg/min) in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597763/spatial-and-activity-dependent-catecholamine-release-in-rat-adrenal-medulla-under-native-neuronal-stimulation
#14
Kyle Wolf, Georgy Zarkua, Shyue-An Chan, Arun Sridhar, Corey Smith
Neuroendocrine chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla in rat receive excitatory synaptic input through anterior and posterior divisions of the sympathetic splanchnic nerve. Upon synaptic stimulation, the adrenal medulla releases the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine into the suprarenal vein for circulation throughout the body. Under sympathetic tone, catecholamine release is modest. However, upon activation of the sympathoadrenal stress reflex, and increased splanchnic firing, adrenal catecholamine output increases dramatically...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485039/the-sympathetic-nervous-system-affects-the-susceptibility-and-course-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#15
Eduardo Roggero, Ana Rosa Pérez, Natalia Pollachini, Silvina Raquel Villar, Johannes Wildmann, Hugo Besedovsky, Adriana Del Rey
Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is an intracellular parasite that causes Chagas' disease, a major health problem in Latin America. Using a murine model of infection with this parasite, we have previously shown that corticosterone blood levels are markedly elevated during the course of the disease in C57Bl/6 male mice and that this increase is protective for the host by restricting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Since the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis usually operates in a concerted way with the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), we have now studied whether noradrenergic nerves can affect the course of T...
November 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377300/the-splanchnic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-could-it-be-the-efferent-arm-of-the-inflammatory-reflex
#16
D Martelli, D G S Farmer, S T Yao
What is the topic of this review? We review the current literature on the neural reflex termed the 'inflammatory reflex' that inhibits an excessive release of inflammatory mediators in response to an immune challenge. What advances does it highlight? The original model proposed that the inflammatory reflex is a vago-vagal reflex that controls immune function. We posit that, in the endotoxaemic animal model, the vagus nerves do not appear to play a role. The evidence suggests that the efferent motor pathway, termed here the 'splanchnic anti-inflammatory pathway', is purely sympathetic, travelling via the greater splanchnic nerves to regulate the ensuing inflammatory response to immune challenges...
October 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371683/endogenous-nitric-oxide-derived-from-nos-i-or-ii-in-thoracic-spinal-cord-exerts-opposing-tonic-modulation-on-sympathetic-vasomotor-tone-via-disparate-mechanisms-in-anesthetized-rats
#17
Yan-Yuen Poon, Ching-Yi Tsai, Chung-Dar Cheng, Alice Y W Chang, Samuel H H Chan
The sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the thoracic spinal cord regulate vasomotor tone via norepinephrine released from sympathetic terminals and adrenal medulla. We assessed the hypothesis that nitric oxide synthase I (NOS I)- and NOS II-derived nitric oxide (NO) in the thoracic spinal cord differentially modulate sympathetic outflow and that the adrenal medulla may be involved in those modulatory actions. In Sprague-Dawley rats, NOS I immunoreactivity was distributed primarily in the perikaryon, proximal dendrites, or axons of SPN, and small clusters of NOS II immunoreactivity impinged mainly on the circumference of SPN...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260669/does-mw-radiation-affect-gene-expression-apoptotic-level-and-cell-cycle-progression-of-human-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#18
Handan Kayhan, Meric Arda Esmekaya, Atiye Seda Yar Saglam, Mehmed Zahid Tuysuz, Ayşe Gulnihal Canseven, Abdullah Munci Yagci, Nesrin Seyhan
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a cancer that occurs in sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts and nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord. It is an embryonal malignancy and affects infants and children. In this study, we investigated the effects of microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic activity, cell viability, and cell cycle progression in human SH-SY5Y NB cells which can give information about MW radiation effects on neural cells covering the period from the embryonic stages to infants...
June 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166979/stretching-the-stress-boundary-linking-air-pollution-health-effects-to-a-neurohormonal-stress-response
#19
REVIEW
Urmila P Kodavanti
Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred to here as a systemic response produced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis) has been implicated in a variety of psychological and physical stresses, which involves immune and metabolic homeostatic mechanisms affecting all organs in the body...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27094431/mir-124-is-differentially-expressed-in-derivatives-of-the-sympathoadrenal-cell-lineage-and-promotes-neurite-elongation-in-chromaffin-cells
#20
Stella Shtukmaster, Priyanka Narasimhan, Tehani El Faitwri, Jutta Stubbusch, Uwe Ernsberger, Hermann Rohrer, Klaus Unsicker, Katrin Huber
The neural-crest-derived sympathoadrenal cell lineage gives rise to sympathetic neurons and to endocrine chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Both cell types express a largely overlapping set of genes, including those coding for the molecular machinery related to the synthesis and exocytotic release of catecholamines. During their early development, sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells rely on a shared transcription factor network that controls the establishment of these common features. Despite many similarities, mature sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells significantly differ regarding their morphology and function...
August 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
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