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sympathetic nerve adrenal

Mamoru Tanida, Zhang Tao, Lingling Sun, Jie Song, Wei Yang, Yuichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Toshishige Shibamoto
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether anaphylaxis affects sympathetic outflows to the brown adipose tissue (BAT) and adrenal grand is not known. Moreover, it is unknown whether anaphylaxis affects some brain areas in association with sympathetic regulation. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that sympathoexcitatory responses to anaphylaxis regionally occurred in the kidney and adrenal grand, but not in the thermogenesis-related BAT. Further, anaphylactic hypotension also caused increase in c-fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic and medullary areas...
March 10, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Mark J Bucsek, Thejaswini Giridharan, Cameron R MacDonald, Bonnie L Hylander, Elizabeth A Repasky
Stress in patients and pre-clinical research animals plays a critical role in disease progression Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) by stress results in secretion of the catecholamines epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) from the adrenal gland and sympathetic nerve endings. Adrenergic receptors for catecholamines are present on immune cells and their activity is affected by stress and the accompanying changes in levels of these neurotransmitters. In this short review, we discuss how this adrenergic stress impacts two categories of immune responses, infections and autoimmune diseases...
March 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Eric A Schmidt, Fabien Despas, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Zofia Czosnyka, John D Pickard, Kamal Rahmouni, Atul Pathak, Jean M Senard
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure within the cranium . ICP rise compresses brain vessels and reduces cerebral blood delivery. Massive ICP rise leads to cerebral ischemia, but it is also known to produce hypertension, bradycardia and respiratory irregularities due to a sympatho-adrenal mechanism termed Cushing response. One still unresolved question is whether the Cushing response is a non-synaptic acute brainstem ischemic mechanism or part of a larger physiological reflex for arterial blood pressure control and homeostasis regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
K Terziyski, A Draganova
Characterized by periodic crescendo-decrescendo pattern of breathing alternating with central apneas, Central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes Breathing represents a highly prevalent, yet underdiagnosed comorbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF). A diverse body of evidence demonstrates increased morbidity and mortality in the presence of CSB. CSB has been described in both CHF patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction, regardless of drug treatment. Risk factors for CSB are older age, male gender, high BMI, atrial fibrillation and hypocapnia...
February 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Nevim Aygun
Neuroblastoma derived from primitive cells of the sympathetic nervous system typically develops in the adrenal medulla or paraspinal ganglia. Neuroblastoma usually occurs sporadically, but familial cases are also observed. ALK and PHOX2B germline mutations can cause hereditary neuroblastoma, while a common genetic variation in chromosome 6p22 is associated to sporadic neuroblastoma. However, the aetiology of sporadic neuroblastoma is not exactly known. This embryonic malignancy generally represents the second most common solid tumour after central nervous system tumours throughout the world in childhood...
January 28, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
Anna Orlowska, Pallale Tharushi Perera, Mohammad Al Kobaisi, Andre Dias, Huu Khuong Duy Nguyen, Shahram Ghanaati, Vladimir Baulin, Russell J Crawford, Elena P Ivanova
Cellular attachment plays a vital role in the differentiation of pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PC12 cells are noradrenergic clonal cells isolated from the adrenal medulla of Rattus norvegicus and studied extensively as they have the ability to differentiate into sympathetic neuron-like cells. The effect of several experimental parameters including (i) the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF); (ii) substratum coatings, such as poly-L-lysine (PLL), fibronectin (Fn), and laminin (Lam); and (iii) double coatings composed of PLL/Lam and PLL/Fn on the differentiation process of PC12 cells were studied...
December 31, 2017: Materials
Balyssa B Bell, Shannon M Harlan, Donald A Morgan, Deng-Fu Guo, Kamal Rahmouni
OBJECTIVES: The autonomic nervous system is critically involved in mediating the control by leptin of many physiological processes. Here, we examined the role of the leptin receptor (LepR) in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in mediating the effects of leptin on regional sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity. METHODS: We analyzed how deletion of the LepR in POMC neurons (POMCCre/LepRfl/fl mice) or AgRP neurons (AgRPCre/LepRfl/fl mice) affects the ability of leptin to increase sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity...
December 18, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
Bruno Bonaz, Valérie Sinniger, Sonia Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Maritza Paola Garrido, Daniela Fernandois, Mauricio Venegas, Alfonso Paredes
Recently, the influence of adrenergic activity over ovarian function, and thus fertility, has begun to gain importance. Previous studies have shown that adrenergic activity through norepinephrine (NE) participates in the control of follicular development and steroidal secretion from the ovary, among other functions. To examine this phenomenon, the denervation of the gonad has been widely used to observe changes in the ovary's performance. Nevertheless, the effect of the absence of adrenergic nerves in the ovary has only been studied in short times periods...
November 21, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Colin A Nurse, Shaima Salman, Angela L Scott
Adrenal catecholamine (CAT) secretion is a general physiological response of animals to environmental stressors such as hypoxia. This represents an important adaptive mechanism to maintain homeostasis and protect vital organs such as the brain. In adult mammals, CAT secretory responses are triggered by activation of the sympathetic nervous system that supplies cholinergic innervation of adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMC) via the splanchnic nerve. In the neonate, the splanchnic innervation of AMC is immature or absent, yet hypoxia stimulates a non-neurogenic CAT secretion that is critical for adaptation to extra-uterine life...
October 19, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Nolan D Hartley, Kyle J Horning, Kevin P M Currie
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) are the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system and key mediators of the physiological stress response. Acetylcholine (ACh) released from preganglionic splanchnic nerves activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on chromaffin cells causing membrane depolarization, opening voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC), and exocytosis of catecholamines and neuropeptides. The serotonin transporter is expressed in ACCs and interacts with 5-HT1A receptors to control secretion...
October 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
Manuel Criado
In the adrenal gland, acetylcholine released on stimulation of the sympathetic splanchnic nerve activates neuronal-type nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in chromaffin cells and triggers catecholamine secretion. At least two subtypes of nAChRs have been described in bovine chromaffin cells. The main subtype, a heteromeric assembly of α3, β4 and perhaps α5 subunits, is involved in the activation step of the catecholamine secretion process and is not blocked by the snake toxin α-bungarotoxin. The other is α-bungarotoxin-sensitive, and its functional role has not yet been well defined...
August 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Christopher J Lingle, Pedro L Martinez-Espinosa, Laura Guarina, Emilio Carbone
Adrenal chromaffin cells (CCs) are the main source of circulating catecholamines (CAs) that regulate the body response to stress. Release of CAs is controlled neurogenically by the activity of preganglionic sympathetic neurons through trains of action potentials (APs). APs in CCs are generated by robust depolarization following the activation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors that are highly expressed in CCs. Bovine, rat, mouse, and human CCs also express a composite array of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) channels that regulate the resting potential, shape the APs, and set the frequency of AP trains...
August 3, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Masumi Inoue, Hidetada Matsuoka, Keita Harada, Lung-Sen Kao
Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells in mammals are innervated by sympathetic preganglionic nerve fibers, as are sympathetic ganglion neurons. Acetylcholine in the ganglion neurons is well established as mediating fast and slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials through nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), respectively. The role of muscarinic AChRs during neuronal transmission in chromaffin cells varies among different mammals. Furthermore, the ion channel mechanisms associated with the muscarinic AChR-mediated increase in excitability of chromaffin cells are complicated and different from the excitation of ganglion neurons, which has been ascribed to the inhibition of M-type K(+) channels...
July 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Nathalie C Guérineau
From birth to death, catecholamine secretion undergoes continuous adjustments, allowing the organism to adapt to homeostasis changes. To cope with these stressful conditions, the neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla play an immediate and crucial role. Chromaffin cell-driven catecholamine release is chiefly controlled by a neurogenic command that arises from the sympathetic nervous system, which releases acetylcholine at the splanchnic nerve terminal-chromaffin cell synapses. In addition to receiving several synaptic inputs individually, chromaffin cells are coupled by gap junctions...
July 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Louis Tsun Cheung Chow, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Simon Kwok Chuen Wong
Extra-adrenal paraganglioma has never been described in the extremities. A 34-year-old woman complained of an enlarging mass in the right forearm for 18 months. Imaging showed a circumscribed vascular tumor attached to the ulnar nerve; biopsy revealed features of paraganglioma. The resected tumor consisted of zellballen pattern of chief cells staining positively for chromogranin with surrounding S100-positive sustentacular cells. The chief cells contained many neurosecretory granules and mitochondria, whereas the sustentacular cells contained a large amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and some microfilaments...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Brian J Kinsman, Kirsteen N Browning, Sean D Stocker
KEY POINTS: Changes in extracellular osmolarity stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion through a central osmoreceptor; however, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater sympathoexcitatory and pressor response than infusion of hypertonic mannitol/sorbitol. Neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) sense changes in extracellular osmolarity and NaCl. In this study, we discovered that intracerebroventricular infusion or local OVLT injection of hypertonic NaCl increases lumbar sympathetic nerve activity, adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure whereas equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol did not alter any variable...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Francesco Pelliccia, Juan Carlos Kaski, Filippo Crea, Paolo G Camici
Originally described by Japanese authors in the 1990s, Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) generally presents as an acute myocardial infarction characterized by severe left ventricular dysfunction. TTS, however, differs from an acute coronary syndrome because patients have generally a normal coronary angiogram and left ventricular dysfunction, which extends beyond the territory subtended by a single coronary artery and recovers within days or weeks. The prognosis was initially thought to be benign, but subsequent studies have demonstrated that both short-term mortality and long-term mortality are higher than previously recognized...
June 13, 2017: Circulation
Jin Dai, Shen-Jie Chen, Bing-Sheng Yang, Shu-Min Lü, Min Zhu, Yi-Fei Xu, Jie Chen, Hong-Wen Cai, Wei Mao
Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor which derives from chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland or relevant to sympathetic nerves and ganglia. The clinical features of pheochromocytoma are various. Paroxysmal episodes of serious hypertension, headache, palpitation, and diaphoresis are the typical manifestations (Bravo, 2004). Hypotension shock, pulmonary edema, and acute coronary syndrome induced by pheochromocytoma are uncommon (Malindretos et al., 2008; Batisse-Lignier et al., 2015). In this study, we present a rare case of cystic pheochromocytoma causing recurrent hypotension shock, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and acute coronary syndrome, and the possible mechanisms are discussed...
May 2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
A Sabetghadam, W S Korim, A J M Verberne
Adrenaline is an important counter-regulatory hormone that helps restore glucose homeostasis during hypoglycaemia. However, the neurocircuitry that connects the brain glucose sensors and the adrenal sympathetic outflow to the chromaffin cells is poorly understood. We used electrical microstimulation of the perifornical hypothalamus (PeH) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) combined with adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) recording to examine the relationship between the RVLM, the PeH and ASNA...
March 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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