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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751028/role-of-c1-neurons-in-anti-inflammatory-reflex-mediation-between-afferents-and-efferents
#1
REVIEW
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue
Neuroimmune communication, the connection between the autonomic regulatory pathway and immune cells, has been implicated in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The role of afferents (vagal afferent and somatic sensory nerves) and efferents (autonomic nervous and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems) in the inflammatory reflex has been well studied; however, the central pathway remains unknown. C1 neurons include both catecholaminergic and glutamatergic neurons, which are located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652832/sympathetic-nerve-hyperactivity-in-the-spleen-causal-for-nonpathogenic-driven-chronic-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-imids
#2
REVIEW
Denise L Bellinger, Dianne Lorton
Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs) is a descriptive term coined for an eclectic group of diseases or conditions that share common inflammatory pathways, and for which there is no definitive etiology. IMIDs affect the elderly most severely, with many older individuals having two or more IMIDs. These diseases include, but are not limited to, type-1 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjőgren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644036/pulmonary-paraganglioma-in-a-10-year-old-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Tracy R Geoffrion, Linde DeKeyzer, Gopi Shah, Suja J Nair, Timothy J Pirolli, Kemp Kernstine
Paraganglioma is a rare extra-adrenal tumor of the paraganglia often found in association with sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. The case presented is of a 10-year-old boy with hemoptysis who was found to have an obstructive bronchial mass. He underwent surgical resection and biopsy confirmed primary pulmonary paraganglioma. He was subsequently found to have an associated genetic syndrome. This is the first case report describing a primary pulmonary paraganglioma in a child.
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524326/anaphylactic-hypotension-causes-renal-and-adrenal-sympathoexcitaion-and-induces-c-fos-in-the-hypothalamus-and-medulla-oblongata
#4
Mamoru Tanida, Tao Zhang, Lingling Sun, Jie Song, Wei Yang, Yuichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Toshishige Shibamoto
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether anaphylaxis affects sympathetic outflows to the brown adipose tissue (BAT) and adrenal gland and whether anaphylaxis affects some brain areas in association with sympathetic regulation. What is the main finding and its importance? Sympathoexcitatory responses to anaphylaxis occurred regionally in the kidney and adrenal gland, but not in the thermogenesis-related BAT. Further, anaphylactic hypotension also caused increase in c-fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic and medullary areas...
March 10, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498310/an-overview-of-the-role-of-sympathetic-regulation-of-immune-responses-in-infectious-disease-and-autoimmunity
#5
Mark J Bucsek, Thejaswini Giridharan, Cameron R MacDonald, Bonnie L Hylander, Elizabeth A Repasky
Stress in patients and pre-clinical research animals plays a critical role in disease progression Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) by stress results in secretion of the catecholamines epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) from the adrenal gland and sympathetic nerve endings. Adrenergic receptors for catecholamines are present on immune cells and their activity is affected by stress and the accompanying changes in levels of these neurotransmitters. In this short review, we discuss how this adrenergic stress impacts two categories of immune responses, infections and autoimmune diseases...
March 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472865/intracranial-pressure-is-a-determinant-of-sympathetic-activity
#6
Eric A Schmidt, Fabien Despas, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Zofia Czosnyka, John D Pickard, Kamal Rahmouni, Atul Pathak, Jean M Senard
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure within the cranium . ICP rise compresses brain vessels and reduces cerebral blood delivery. Massive ICP rise leads to cerebral ischemia, but it is also known to produce hypertension, bradycardia and respiratory irregularities due to a sympatho-adrenal mechanism termed Cushing response. One still unresolved question is whether the Cushing response is a non-synaptic acute brainstem ischemic mechanism or part of a larger physiological reflex for arterial blood pressure control and homeostasis regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411336/central-sleep-apnea-with-cheyne-stokes-breathing-in-heart-failure-from-research-to-clinical-practice-and-beyond
#7
K Terziyski, A Draganova
Characterized by periodic crescendo-decrescendo pattern of breathing alternating with central apneas, Central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes Breathing represents a highly prevalent, yet underdiagnosed comorbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF). A diverse body of evidence demonstrates increased morbidity and mortality in the presence of CSB. CSB has been described in both CHF patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction, regardless of drug treatment. Risk factors for CSB are older age, male gender, high BMI, atrial fibrillation and hypocapnia...
February 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380702/biological-and-genetic-features-of-neuroblastoma-and-their-clinical-importance
#8
Nevim Aygun
Neuroblastoma derived from primitive cells of the sympathetic nervous system typically develops in the adrenal medulla or paraspinal ganglia. Neuroblastoma usually occurs sporadically, but familial cases are also observed. ALK and PHOX2B germline mutations can cause hereditary neuroblastoma, while a common genetic variation in chromosome 6p22 is associated to sporadic neuroblastoma. However, the aetiology of sporadic neuroblastoma is not exactly known. This embryonic malignancy generally represents the second most common solid tumour after central nervous system tumours throughout the world in childhood...
January 28, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301234/the-effect-of-coatings-and-nerve-growth-factor-on-attachment-and-differentiation-of-pheochromocytoma-cells
#9
Anna Orlowska, Pallale Tharushi Perera, Mohammad Al Kobaisi, Andre Dias, Huu Khuong Duy Nguyen, Shahram Ghanaati, Vladimir Baulin, Russell J Crawford, Elena P Ivanova
Cellular attachment plays a vital role in the differentiation of pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PC12 cells are noradrenergic clonal cells isolated from the adrenal medulla of Rattus norvegicus and studied extensively as they have the ability to differentiate into sympathetic neuron-like cells. The effect of several experimental parameters including (i) the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF); (ii) substratum coatings, such as poly-L-lysine (PLL), fibronectin (Fn), and laminin (Lam); and (iii) double coatings composed of PLL/Lam and PLL/Fn on the differentiation process of PC12 cells were studied...
December 31, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289646/differential-contribution-of-pomc-and-agrp-neurons-to-the-regulation-of-regional-autonomic-nerve-activity-by-leptin
#10
Balyssa B Bell, Shannon M Harlan, Donald A Morgan, Deng-Fu Guo, Kamal Rahmouni
OBJECTIVES: The autonomic nervous system is critically involved in mediating the control by leptin of many physiological processes. Here, we examined the role of the leptin receptor (LepR) in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in mediating the effects of leptin on regional sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity. METHODS: We analyzed how deletion of the LepR in POMC neurons (POMCCre /LepRfl/fl mice) or AgRP neurons (AgRPCre /LepRfl/fl mice) affects the ability of leptin to increase sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity...
February 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163522/the-vagus-nerve-in-the-neuro-immune-axis-implications-in-the-pathology-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
REVIEW
Bruno Bonaz, Valérie Sinniger, Sonia Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162649/effects-of-sympathectomy-on-ovarian-follicular-development-and-steroid-secretion
#12
Maritza P Garrido, Daniela Fernandois, Mauricio Venegas, Alfonso H Paredes
Recently, the influence of adrenergic activity over ovarian function, and thus fertility, has begun to gain importance. Previous studies have shown that adrenergic activity through norepinephrine (NE) participates in the control of follicular development and steroidal secretion from the ovary, among other functions. To examine this phenomenon, the denervation of the gonad has been widely used to observe changes in the ovary's performance. Nevertheless, the effect of the absence of adrenergic nerves in the ovary has only been studied in short times periods...
February 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052004/hypoxia-regulated-catecholamine-secretion-in-chromaffin-cells
#13
REVIEW
Colin A Nurse, Shaima Salman, Angela L Scott
Adrenal catecholamine (CAT) secretion is a general physiological response of animals to environmental stressors such as hypoxia. This represents an important adaptive mechanism to maintain homeostasis and protect vital organs such as the brain. In adult mammals, CAT secretory responses are triggered by activation of the sympathetic nervous system that supplies cholinergic innervation of adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMC) via the splanchnic nerve. In the neonate, the splanchnic innervation of AMC is immature or absent, yet hypoxia stimulates a non-neurogenic CAT secretion that is critical for adaptation to extra-uterine life...
October 19, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815595/sigma-1-receptor-ligands-inhibit-catecholamine-secretion-from-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-due-to-block-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#14
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Nolan D Hartley, Kyle J Horning, Kevin P M Currie
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) are the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system and key mediators of the physiological stress response. Acetylcholine (ACh) released from preganglionic splanchnic nerves activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on chromaffin cells causing membrane depolarization, opening voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC), and exocytosis of catecholamines and neuropeptides. The serotonin transporter is expressed in ACCs and interacts with 5-HT1A receptors to control secretion...
October 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791474/acetylcholine-nicotinic-receptor-subtypes-in-chromaffin-cells
#15
REVIEW
Manuel Criado
In the adrenal gland, acetylcholine released on stimulation of the sympathetic splanchnic nerve activates neuronal-type nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in chromaffin cells and triggers catecholamine secretion. At least two subtypes of nAChRs have been described in bovine chromaffin cells. The main subtype, a heteromeric assembly of α3, β4 and perhaps α5 subunits, is involved in the activation step of the catecholamine secretion process and is not blocked by the snake toxin α-bungarotoxin. The other is α-bungarotoxin-sensitive, and its functional role has not yet been well defined...
January 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776261/roles-of-na-ca-2-and-k-channels-in-the-generation-of-repetitive-firing-and-rhythmic-bursting-in-adrenal-chromaffin-cells
#16
REVIEW
Christopher J Lingle, Pedro L Martinez-Espinosa, Laura Guarina, Emilio Carbone
Adrenal chromaffin cells (CCs) are the main source of circulating catecholamines (CAs) that regulate the body response to stress. Release of CAs is controlled neurogenically by the activity of preganglionic sympathetic neurons through trains of action potentials (APs). APs in CCs are generated by robust depolarization following the activation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors that are highly expressed in CCs. Bovine, rat, mouse, and human CCs also express a composite array of Na+ , K+ , and Ca2+ channels that regulate the resting potential, shape the APs, and set the frequency of AP trains...
January 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762161/muscarinic-receptors-in-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-physiological-role-and-regulation-of-ion-channels
#17
REVIEW
Masumi Inoue, Hidetada Matsuoka, Keita Harada, Lung-Sen Kao
Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells in mammals are innervated by sympathetic preganglionic nerve fibers, as are sympathetic ganglion neurons. Acetylcholine in the ganglion neurons is well established as mediating fast and slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials through nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), respectively. The role of muscarinic AChRs during neuronal transmission in chromaffin cells varies among different mammals. Furthermore, the ion channel mechanisms associated with the muscarinic AChR-mediated increase in excitability of chromaffin cells are complicated and different from the excitation of ganglion neurons, which has been ascribed to the inhibition of M-type K+ channels...
January 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735418/gap-junction-communication-between-chromaffin-cells-the-hidden-face-of-adrenal-stimulus-secretion-coupling
#18
REVIEW
Nathalie C Guérineau
From birth to death, catecholamine secretion undergoes continuous adjustments, allowing the organism to adapt to homeostasis changes. To cope with these stressful conditions, the neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla play an immediate and crucial role. Chromaffin cell-driven catecholamine release is chiefly controlled by a neurogenic command that arises from the sympathetic nervous system, which releases acetylcholine at the splanchnic nerve terminal-chromaffin cell synapses. In addition to receiving several synaptic inputs individually, chromaffin cells are coupled by gap junctions...
January 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697655/functional-ulnar-nerve-paraganglioma-first-documented-occurrence-in-the-extremity-with-hitherto-undescribed-associated-extensive-glomus-cell-hyperplasia-and-tumorlet-formation
#19
Louis Tsun Cheung Chow, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Simon Kwok Chuen Wong
Extra-adrenal paraganglioma has never been described in the extremities. A 34-year-old woman complained of an enlarging mass in the right forearm for 18 months. Imaging showed a circumscribed vascular tumor attached to the ulnar nerve; biopsy revealed features of paraganglioma. The resected tumor consisted of zellballen pattern of chief cells staining positively for chromogranin with surrounding S100-positive sustentacular cells. The chief cells contained many neurosecretory granules and mitochondria, whereas the sustentacular cells contained a large amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and some microfilaments...
February 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678348/nacl-and-osmolarity-produce-different-responses-in-organum-vasculosum-of-the-lamina-terminalis-neurons-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure
#20
Brian J Kinsman, Kirsteen N Browning, Sean D Stocker
KEY POINTS: Changes in extracellular osmolarity stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion through a central osmoreceptor; however, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater sympathoexcitatory and pressor response than infusion of hypertonic mannitol/sorbitol. Neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) sense changes in extracellular osmolarity and NaCl. In this study, we discovered that intracerebroventricular infusion or local OVLT injection of hypertonic NaCl increases lumbar sympathetic nerve activity, adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure whereas equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol did not alter any variable...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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