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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741787/gonadal-hormones-modulate-the-hpa-axis-and-the-sns-in-response-to-psychosocial-stress
#1
Efrat Barel, Randa Abu-Shkara, Raul Colodner, Refaat Masalha, Lila Mahagna, Or Chen Zemel, Ami Cohen
Exposure to stress activates both the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). A growing body of research points to the contribution of sex hormones (testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone), the end products of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, in modulating stress reactivity. The present study aimed at investigating the potential modulating role of sex hormones on HPA and SNS reactivity to psychosocial stress. The reactivity, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test, was analyzed by measuring the levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase (markers for SNS activity) in four saliva samples each of 21 men and 37 women (17 not using oral contraceptives and in their luteal phase, and 20 women using oral contraceptives)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725582/circulating-thyrotropin-is-upregulated-by-estradiol
#2
Salvatore Benvenga, Flavia Di Bari, Roberta Granese, Irene Borrielli, Grazia Giorgianni, Loredana Grasso, Maria Le Donne, Roberto Vita, Alessandro Antonelli
After encountering two women with serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels greater in periovulatory phase than in other days of the menstrual cycle, we hypothesized that TSH levels could be sensitive to changes in circulating estrogens in women. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum TSH increases after an induced acute increase of serum estradiol, and compare serum TSH increase with that of prolactin (PRL) which is a classic estradiol-upregulated pituitary hormone. In this retrospective study, we resorted to stored frozen sera from 55 women who had undergone the GnRH agonist (buserelin)-acute stimulation test of ovarian steroidogenesis...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704202/role-of-hpa-and-the-hpg-axis-interaction-in-testosterone-mediated-learned-helpless-behavior
#3
Birgit Ludwig, Bhaskar Roy, Yogesh Dwivedi
Affective disorders show sex-specific differences in prevalence, symptoms, and complications. One hypothesis for this discrepancy is the interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The present study investigates the influence of androgen on the behavioral phenotype and explores how it interacts with HPA axis genes. Gonadectomized (GDX) and GDX rats treated with testosterone propionate (T) were tested for learned helplessness (LH) behavior and compared with tested controls (TC)...
April 28, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570448/a-comparative-study-of-the-effect-of-stress-on-the-cognitive-parameters-in-women-with-increased-body-mass-index-before-and-after-menopause
#4
M B Ramesh, S Ammu, A K Nayanatara, N A Vinodini, K C Pratik, N Anupama, K Bhagyalakshmi
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is a critical public health problem for women. The negative effect of stress on memory and cognitive functions has been widely explored for decades in numerous research projects using a wide range of methodology. Deterioration of memory and other brain functions is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen fluctuations and withdrawal have myriad direct effects on the central nervous system that have the potential to influence cognitive functions...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553041/aromatase-deficiency-due-to-a-novel-mutation-in-cyp19a1-gene
#5
Edip Ünal, Ruken Yıldırım, Funda Feryal Taş, Vasfiye Demir, Hüseyin Onay, Yusuf Kenan Haspolat
BACKGROUND: Aromatase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder with an unknown incidence. Aromatase converts androgens into estrogen in the gonadal and extra-gonadal tissues. Aromatase deficiency causes ambiguous genitalia in the female fetus and maternal virilization (hirsutism, acne, cliteromegaly, deep voice) during the pregnancy due to increased concentration of androgens. METHODS AND RESULTS: The-nineteen-month-old girl was assessed due to ambiguous genitalia There were findings of maternal virilization during pregnancy...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528519/serum-dhea-and-its-sulfate-are-associated-with-incident-fall-risk-in-older-men-the-mros-sweden-study
#6
Claes Ohlsson, Maria Nethander, Magnus K Karlsson, Björn E Rosengren, Eva Ribom, Dan Mellström, Liesbeth Vandenput
The adrenal-derived hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) are the most abundant circulating hormones and their levels decline substantially with age. Many of the actions of DHEAS are considered to be mediated through metabolism into androgens and estrogens in peripheral target tissues. The predictive value of serum DHEA and DHEAS for the likelihood of falling is unknown. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the associations between baseline DHEA and DHEAS levels and incident fall risk in a large cohort of older men...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496516/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-evidence-of-efficacy-for-adrenal-and-gonadal-hormone-replacement-therapy-in-anorexia-nervosa
#7
Sridhar Vajapeyam, Kirsten Ecklund, Robert V Mulkern, Henry A Feldman, Jennifer M O'Donnell, Amy D DiVasta, Clifford J Rosen, Catherine M Gordon
PURPOSE: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)+estrogen/progestin therapy for adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) has the potential to arrest bone loss. The primary aim of this study was to test the effects of DHEA+estrogen/progestin therapy in adolescent girls with AN on bone marrow in the distal femur using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy. METHODS: Seventy adolescent girls with AN were enrolled in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial at two urban hospital-based programs...
May 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480386/hypertrophic-osteoarthropathy-estrogens-prostaglandine-2-prostaglandin-a-2-and-the-inflammatory-reflex
#8
Ad Brouwers, Pieter G Dingjan, Ben Dujardin, Everardus J van Zoelen, Paul Lips, Louis J Gooren
It has been claimed that hyperestrogenism occurs in hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA), but not in simple clubbing. However, one of our patients had simple clubbing and hyperestrogenism. We therefore measured estrogens, androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and gonadotropins in five patients with HOA and in 18 patients with simple clubbing. Of the patients with HOA, 80% had a high urinary estriol concentration. In their serum, 80% had high estrone, 0% high estradiol, and 40% high SHBG. Of the patients with simple clubbing, 89% had a high urinary estriol concentration...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460795/evidence-the-u-s-autism-epidemic-initiated-by-acetaminophen-tylenol-is-aggravated-by-oral-antibiotic-amoxicillin-clavulanate-augmentin-and-now-exponentially-by-herbicide-glyphosate-roundup
#9
Peter Good
Because certain hereditary diseases show autistic behavior, and autism often runs in families, researchers seek genes underlying the pathophysiology of autism, thus core behaviors. Other researchers argue environmental factors are decisive, citing compelling evidence of an autism epidemic in the United States beginning about 1980. Recognition that environmental factors influence gene expression led to synthesis of these views - an 'epigenetic epidemic' provoked by pervasive environmental agents altering expression of vulnerable genes, inducing characteristic autistic biochemistries in many mothers and infants...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458364/transgenerational-effects-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-1-development-and-physiology-across-3-generations-of-rats
#10
Jan A Mennigen, Lindsay M Thompson, Mandee Bell, Marlen Tellez Santos, Andrea C Gore
BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic environmental contaminants and known endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Previous studies demonstrated that developmental exposure to the weakly estrogenic PCB mixture Aroclor 1221 (A1221) in Sprague-Dawley rats altered sexual development, adult reproductive physiology and body weight. The current study tested the hypothesis that prenatal A1221 exposure not only disrupts these endpoints within an exposed individual's (F1 generation) lifespan, but may also affect subsequent generations (F2 -F3 )...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452421/the-short-cosyntropintest-revisited-new-normal-reference-range-using-lcmsms
#11
Grethe Å Ueland, Paal Methlie, Marianne Øksnes, Hrafnkell B Thordarson, Jørn Sagen, Ralf Kellmann, Gunnar Mellgren, Maria Ræder, Per Dahlqvist, Sandra R Dahl, Per M Thorsby, Kristian Løvås, Eystein S Husebye
Background: The cosyntropin test is used to diagnose adrenal insufficiency (AI) and non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH). Current cutoffs for cortisol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) are derived from non-standardized immunoassays. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS) offers direct measurement of steroids, prompting the need to re-establish normal ranges. Aim: Define cutoff values for cortisol and 17-OHP in serum by LCMSMS 30 and 60 minutes after intravenous administration of 250 µg tetracosactide acetate (Synachten©) to healthy volunteers, and compare LCMSMS with routine immunoassays...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429410/the-human-fetal-adrenal-produces-cortisol-but-no-detectable-aldosterone-throughout-the-second-trimester
#12
Zoe C Johnston, Michelle Bellingham, Panagiotis Filis, Ugo Soffientini, Denise Hough, Siladitya Bhattacharya, Marc Simard, Geoffrey L Hammond, Peter King, Peter J O'Shaughnessy, Paul A Fowler
BACKGROUND: Human fetal adrenal glands are highly active and, with the placenta, regulate circulating progesterone, estrogen and corticosteroids in the fetus. At birth the adrenals are essential for neonate salt retention through secretion of aldosterone, while adequate glucocorticoids are required to prevent adrenal insufficiency. The objective of this study was to carry out the first comprehensive analysis of adrenal steroid levels and steroidogenic enzyme expression in normal second trimester human fetuses...
February 12, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409762/effects-of-antihistamines-on-the-h295r-steroidogenesis-autocrine-up-regulation-following-3%C3%AE-hsd-inhibition
#13
Cecilie Hurup Munkboel, Stine Bjerregaard Hasselstrøm, David Møbjerg Kristensen, Bjarne Styrishave
Millions of people of all ages suffer from allergies worldwide and as a consequence antihistamines are among the most commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals in the world. We investigated the disruptive effects of three antihistamines, promethazine (PMZ), cetirizine (CET) and fexofenadine (FEX) on the H295R steroidogenesis. A multi-steroid LC-MS/MS method was used to quantify 13 steroid hormones in the steroidogenesis. In addition, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine if exposure to antihistamines altered gene expression in the cell line...
April 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385440/11%C3%AE-hsd-1-in-human-fetal-membranes-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-preterm-birth
#14
Wangsheng Wang, Zi-Jiang Chen, Leslie Myatt, Kang Sun
Human parturition is a complex process involving interactions between the myometrium and signals derived from the placenta, fetal membranes and fetus. Signals originating from fetal membranes are crucial components that trigger parturition, which is clearly illustrated by the labor-initiating consequence of membrane rupture. It has been recognized for a long time that among fetal tissues in late gestation the fetal membranes possess the highest capacity for cortisol regeneration by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1)...
January 29, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362019/the-influence-of-azaperone-treatment-at-weaning-on-reproductive-function-in-sows-ovarian-activity-and-endocrine-profiles-during-the-weaning-to-ovulation-interval
#15
T Schwarz, A Zięcik, M Murawski, J Nowicki, R Tuz, B Baker, P M Bartlewski
Azaperone can reduce stress caused by weaning and relocation of breeding sows, but its effects on reproductive processes are still poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to describe and compare the endocrine and ovarian activity in ultrasonographically monitored second parity sows, with or without azaperone treatment at weaning (2 mg/kg BW i.m.). The intervals from weaning to the onset of estrus and ovulation were both greater (P<0.05) in azaperone-treated (n=12) than in control sows (n=12) by ~12 h...
January 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338944/histological-and-morphofunctional-parameters-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-system-are-sensitive-to-daidzein-treatment-in-the-adult-rat
#16
Svetlana Trifunović, Milica Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nataša Nestorović, Nataša Ristić, Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Lazo Pendovski, Verica Milošević
The isoflavone, daidzein is a biologically active, plant-derived compound that interacts with estrogen receptors. Data from previous studies have suggested that daidzein exerts beneficial effects in many diseases; however, as an endocrine disrupter, it may also alter the functioning of the endocrine system. Data regarding the effect of daidzein on the morphofunctional and histological parameters of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is still lacking. Therefore, using the newCAST stereological software, we investigated the effects of chronic (21 days) daidzein treatment on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons within the hypothalamus and corticotropes (ACTH cells) in the pituitary, while image analysis was employed to-examine the intensity of fluorescence of CRH in the median eminence (ME) and adrenocorticotropin hormone in the pituitary in adult orchidectomized (Ovx) rats...
February 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324451/aromatase-deficiency-due-to-a-homozygous-cyp19a1-mutation-in-a-46-xx-egyptian-patient-with-ambiguous-genitalia
#17
Inas Mazen, Ken McElreavey, Aya Elaidy, Alaa K Kamel, Mohamed S Abdel-Hamid
Aromatase deficiency (AD) is a very rare disorder resulting from mutations in the CYP19A1 gene encoding aromatase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays a pivotal role in androgen conversion to estrogens. AD is inherited in an autosomal recessive trait, and to date only 35 cases have been described in the literature. Herein, we depict a new patient reared as a male, who presented at the age of 21 years with no palpable testis, hypoplastic scrotum, penis-like phallus (3 cm), and penoscrotal hypospadias. The patient was born to consanguineous parents, his karyotype was 46,XX, and SRY was negative...
2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208362/feminizing-effects-of-exposure-to-corexit-enhanced-water-accommodated-fraction-of-crude-oil-in-vitro-on-sex-determination-in-alligator-mississippiensis
#18
Cameron E Williams, Nicole A McNabb, Arnold Brunell, Russell H Lowers, Yoshinao Katsu, Demetri D Spyropoulos, Satomi Kohno
Deepwater Horizon spilled over 200 million gallons of oil into the waters of the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. In an effort to contain the spill, chemical dispersants were applied to minimize the amount of oil reaching coastal shorelines. However, the biological impacts of chemically-dispersed oil are not well characterized, and there is a particular lack of knowledge concerning sublethal long-term effects of exposure. This study examined potential estrogenic effects of CWAF, Corexit 9500-enhanced water-accommodated fraction of oil, by examining its effect on estrogen receptors and sex determination in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis...
December 5, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197012/co-culture-of-h295r-adrenocortical-carcinoma-and-bewo-choriocarcinoma-cells-to-study-feto-placental-interactions-focus-on-estrogen-biosynthesis
#19
Andrée-Anne Hudon Thibeault, J Thomas Sanderson, Cathy Vaillancourt
Estrogens are produced in large amounts during pregnancy, as a result of a tightly regulated cooperation between the maternal and fetal adrenal cortex, which produce androgen precursors, and the placental villous trophoblast, which transforms these precursors into estrogens. These estrogens play an important role in proper placental function, in adaptation of the mother to pregnancy, as well as in adequate fetal development. Disruption of estrogen production is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and fetal malformation or altered fetal programming...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183089/successful-treatment-of-estrogen-excess-in-primary-bilateral-macronodular-adrenocortical-hyperplasia-with-leuprolide-acetate
#20
Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Andreas G Moraitis, Vladimir Valera Romero, Fabio R Faucz, Spyridon A Mastroyannis, Annabel Berthon, Richard A Failor, Maria Merino, Andrew P Demidowich, Constantine A Stratakis
Primary bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PBMAH) is an uncommon cause of adrenal Cushing syndrome (CS) in which cortisol and occasionally other steroid hormones can be secreted under the influence of aberrantly expressed G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the adrenal cortex. We describe the unique case of a 64-year-old postmenopausal female with PBMAH whose adrenal lesions expressed luteinizing hormone receptors (LHr). She presented initially with CS and underwent right adrenalectomy; a few years later she presented with macromastia and mastodynia, possibly due to estrogen excess from her remaining left adrenocortical masses...
February 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
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