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adrenal estrogen

Veronica Gomez-Lobo, Anne-Marie Amies Oelschlager
Disorders (differences) of sexual development encompass a variety of conditions with atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex. Three of the most common differences of sex development conditions include congenital adrenal hyperplasia, complete androgen insensitivity, and Turner syndrome. Obstetrician-gynecologists who care for affected individuals in their practice must be familiar with the genetic, endocrine, and anatomic considerations of the most common conditions to provide optimal care...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Nikos Seferos, Loukas Petrokokkinos, Antonia Kotsiou, George Rallis, Christine Tesseromatis
: Stress, via corticosteroids release, influences bone mass density. Hypericum perforatum (Hp) a traditional remedy possess antidepressive activity (serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and wound healing properties. Hp preparation contains mainly hypericin, hyperforin, hyperoside and flavonoids exerting oestrogen-mimetic effect. Cold swimming represents an experimental model of stress associating mental strain and corporal exhaustion. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the Hp effect on femur and mandible bone mass changes in rats under cold forced swimming procedure...
2016: Stomatologija
A Monica Agoston, Maria Teresa Gonzalez-Bolanos, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Nancy Vanderburg, Kyriakie Sarafoglou
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a disorder characterized by impaired cortisol synthesis leading to excessive production of adrenal androgens. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to excess androgens may increase neural vulnerability to insult and affect cognitive functions, particularly dopamine-dependent neural circuits responsible for executive functioning (EF). Our study aimed to investigate relationship between more pronounced androgen exposure and EF-related behaviors in children with CAH, as well as sex differences in these associations...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Brasilina Caroccia, Teresa M Seccia, Matthias Barton, Gian Paolo Rossi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Hypertension
Jurate Aleknaviciute, Joke H M Tulen, Mirjam Timmermans, Yolanda B de Rijke, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Frank H de Jong, Steven A Kushner
STUDY QUESTION: Does adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induce gonadotropin release in premenopausal women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Administration of ACTH stimulates gonadotropin release, most likely by stimulation of the production of cortisol, in premenopausal women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In animal models, acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been shown to induce gonadotropin release in the presence of sufficiently high estrogen levels...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
Timothy K O'Rourke, Matthew S Wosnitzer
Opioid-induced androgen deficiency (OPIAD) was initially recognized as a possible consequence of opioid use roughly four decades ago. Long-acting opioid use carries risks of addiction, tolerance, and systemic side effects including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with consequent testosterone depletion leading to multiple central and peripheral effects. Hypogonadism is induced through direct inhibitory action of opioids on receptors within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as well as testosterone production within the testes...
October 2016: Current Urology Reports
Nesa Marti, José A Galván, Amit V Pandey, Mafalda Trippel, Coya Tapia, Michel Müller, Aurel Perren, Christa E Flück
Recently, dihydrotestosterone biosynthesis through the backdoor pathway has been implicated for the human testis in addition to the classic pathway for testosterone (T) synthesis. In the human ovary, androgen precursors are crucial for estrogen synthesis and hyperandrogenism in pathologies such as the polycystic ovary syndrome is partially due to ovarian overproduction. However, a role for the backdoor pathway is only established for the testis and the adrenal, but not for the human ovary. To investigate whether the backdoor pathway exists in normal and PCOS ovaries, we performed specific gene and protein expression studies on ovarian tissues...
July 25, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Cleanthe Spanaki, Dimitra Kotzamani, Andreas Plaitakis
Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase1 (GDH1) (E.C. is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD+ and/or NADP+ to NADH and/or NADPH. It links amino acid with carbohydrate metabolism, contributing to Krebs cycle anaplerosis, energy production, ammonia handling and redox homeostasis. Although GDH1 was one of the first major metabolic enzymes to be studied decades ago, its role in cell biology is still incompletely understood...
July 16, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Pu Hu, Ji Liu, Ali Yasrebi, Juliet D Gotthardt, Nicholas T Bello, Zhiping P Pang, Troy A Roepke
CRH neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) play a central role in regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and are directly influenced by 17β-estradiol (E2). Although compelling evidence has suggested the existence of membrane-associated estrogen receptors (mERs) in hypothalamic and other central nervous system neurons, it remains unknown whether E2 impacts CRH neuronal excitability through this mechanism. The purpose of the current study is to examine the existence and function of mER signaling in PVN CRH neurons...
September 2016: Endocrinology
Yun-lai Wang, Si-yao Ru, Qing Fang, Gun-qiang Li, Yong-fu Pan, Yao Yao, Fan Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Danggui Shaoyao San and Guizhi Fuling Wan for treating primary dysmenorrhea of liver depression and blood stasis syndrome by biological network method. METHODS: Targets of the formula were collected from. PubMed database, and targets of primary dysmenorrhea were searched from Gene Card database. Then, the "formula-syndromes-disease" network was constructed and analyzed with Cytoscape software. Molecular docking approach was used to verify estrogen-like effect of ingredients...
November 2015: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
Keizo Ohnaka
Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA), an adrenal androgen, has attracted much attention as an anti-aging hormone as well as a marker for senescence because of its unique change along with aging. DHEA is reported to have beneficial effects such as anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-atherosclerosis. It is also shown that DHEA has anti-osteoporosis effects to increase bone mineral density in randomized controlled trials(RCTs). As osteoblasts express aromatase which will convert androgen to estrogen, DHEA may act protectively against osteoporosis through its metabolites...
July 2016: Clinical Calcium
Hiroshi Miyazaki, Kimitaka Takitani, Maki Koh, Akiko Inoue, Hiroshi Tamai
In humans, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate ester metabolite DHEA-S are secreted predominantly from the adrenal cortex, and dehydroepiandrosterone is converted to steroid hormones, including androgens and estrogens, and neurosteroid. Dehydroepiandrosterone exerts protective effects against several pathological conditions. Although there are reports on the association between dehydroepiandrosterone and vitamins, the exact relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone and vitamin E remains to be determined...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Gert Lubec, Volker Korz
Adrenal and gonadal steroid receptor activities are significantly involved and interact in the regulation of learning, memory and stress. Thus, a coordinated expression of steroid receptor genes during a learning task can be expected. Although coexpression of steroid receptors in response to behavioral tasks has been reported the correlative connection is unclear. According to the inverted U-shape model of the impact of stress upon learning and memory we hypothesized that glucocorticoid (GR) receptor expression should be correlated to corticosterone levels in a linear or higher order manner...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mijie Kim, Yong Joo Park, Huiyeon Ahn, Byeonghak Moon, Kyu Hyuck Chung, Seung Min Oh
OBJECTIVES: Aromatase inhibitors that block estrogen synthesis are a proven first-line hormonal therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer. Although it is known that standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) induces anti-carcinogenic effects like the aromatase inhibitors, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis have not been studied yet. Therefore, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis and aromatase activity was studied using a H295R cell model, which was a good in vitro model to predict effects on human adrenal steroidogenesis...
2016: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Yves Morel, Florence Roucher, Ingrid Plotton, Claire Goursaud, Véronique Tardy, Delphine Mallet
Progesterone, estrogens, androgens and glucocorticoids are involved in pregnancy from implantation to parturition. Their biosynthesis and their metabolism result from complex pathways involving the fetus, the placenta and the mother. The absence of expression of some steroïdogenic enzymes as CYP17 in placenta and in adrenal fetal zone and the better determination of the onset and variation of others especially HSD3B2 during the pregnancy explain the production of the steroid hormones. Moreover the consequences of some disorders of steroidogenesis (especially aromatase, POR, CYP11A1 and 21-hydroxylase deficiencies) in fetus and mother during the pregnancy have permit to elucidate these complex pathways...
June 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
Kimitaka Takitani, Hiroshi Miyazaki, Maki Koh, Kanta Kishi, Akiko Inoue, Hiroshi Tamai
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S) are the most abundant adrenal steroids in humans. DHEA has a critical role as a steroidal precursor of androgens and/or estrogens, and in human studies and animal experiments, both DHEA and DHEA-S have multiple beneficial effects. However, there are few reports regarding the relationship between DHEA and nutrient status, especially for vitamins. Therefore, we elucidated the effect of DHEA administration on retinol status. Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet containing 0...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Megan E Brown, Sarah J Converse, Jane N Chandler, Charles Shafer, Janine L Brown, Carol L Keefer, Nucharin Songsasen
Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females...
May 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Lin Juan, Ma Huamei, Su Zhe, Li Yanhong, Chen Hongshan, Chen Qiuli, Zhang Jun, Guo Song, Du Minlian
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify variables that might interfere with reaching the near final height (NFH) in Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 82 (24 males and 58 females) classic (23 salt-wasting form [SW] and 59 simple-virilizing form [SV]) CAH 21-OHD patients seen in our institution between 1989 and 2015 with 10.6 (0.5~25.5) years of follow-up who reached their NFH was conducted...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Christa E Flück, Amit V Pandey
Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1), in human placenta metabolizes androgens to estrogens and uses reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate through cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) for energy requirements for its metabolic activities. Mutations in the human POR lead to congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to loss of activities of several steroid metabolizing enzymatic reactions conducted by cytochrome P450 proteins located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Effect of POR mutations on different P450 activities depend on individual partner proteins...
March 23, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tamara Escajadillo, Hongxia Wang, Linda Li, Donghui Li, Marion B Sewer
Oxysterol binding protein-related protein 2 (ORP2) is a lipid binding protein that has been implicated in various cellular processes, including lipid sensing, cholesterol efflux, and endocytosis. We recently identified ORP2 as a member of a protein complex that regulates glucocorticoid biosynthesis. Herein, we examine the effect of silencing ORP2 on adrenocortical function and show that the ORP2 knockdown cells exhibit reduced amounts of multiple steroid metabolites, including progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and cortisol, but have increased concentrations of androgens, and estrogens...
May 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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