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adrenal estrogen

Diana C Koester, David E Wildt, Janine L Brown, Karen Meeks, Adrienne E Crosier
Cheetahs in managed zoological collections do not reproduce efficiently, a problem that may be related to environmental/management stressors. In this study, we examined 17 adult female cheetahs to determine the influence of two environmental factors, (1) being housed on- or off-exhibit and (2) number of adult conspecifics (males and/or females) in nearby enclosures, on profiles and concentrations of ovarian and adrenal hormones. Secondarily, we assessed a subset of group-housed siblings (n = 5 in groups of 2 or 3) for effects of long-term cohabitation...
November 28, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Mahmood Soveid, Ghanbar Ali Rais-Jalali
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia comprises a group of disorders resulting from defects in enzymes required for the synthesis of cortisol. The clinical presentation depends on the specific enzyme defect. We report a rare case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. A 26-year-old female patient referred with hypertension and hypokalemia. She also had primary amenorrhea and lack of sexual development. The karyotype was 46, XY. Hormonal evaluation showed low serum levels of all steroid hormones, requiring alpha-hydroxylation, which included cortisol, 17 alpha-hydroxy progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estradiol, and testosterone...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Lisa A Martin, Alison G Porter, Vincent A Pelligrini, Peter A Schnatz, Xuezhi Jiang, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Janet E Hall, Sarah Verbiest, Jill Olmstead, Ryan Fair, Alberto Falorni, Luca Persani, Aleksandar Rajkovic, Khanjan Mehta, Lawrence M Nelson
Most clinicians are not prepared to provide integrated personal care to address all the clinical needs of women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Design thinking is an engineering methodology used to develop and evaluate novel concepts for systems operation. Here we articulate the need for a seamlessly integrated mobile health system to support genomic research as well as patient care. We also review the pathophysiology and management of primary ovarian insufficiency. Molecular understanding regarding the pathogenesis is essential to developing strategies for prevention, earlier diagnosis, and appropriate management of the disorder...
November 9, 2016: Panminerva Medica
Junxiao Ren, Yanmin Li, Naiyi Xu, Hong Li, Cuicui Li, Ruili Han, Yanbin Wang, Zhuanjian Li, Xiangtao Kang, Xiaojun Liu, Yadong Tian
The melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAP and MRAP2) are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that regulate the biological functions of the melanocortin receptor (MCR) family. MCRs comprise five receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles in mammals. Five MCR members and two MRAPs were also predicted in the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome. However, little is known about their expression, regulation and biological functions. In this study, we cloned the MRAP and MRAP2 genes. Sequencing analysis revealed that the functional domains of MRAP and MRAP2 were conserved among species, suggesting that the physiological roles of chicken MRAP and MRAP2 could be similar to their mammalian counterparts...
January 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Jeffery S Babischkin, Graham W Aberdeen, Gerald J Pepe, Eugene D Albrecht
We have shown that fetal adrenal fetal zone (FZ) volume and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHAS) levels were increased, whereas definitive and transitional zone (DZ/TZ) volume was unaltered, in baboons in which estrogen levels were suppressed by the administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. The interaction of the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) with its accessory protein (MRAP) is essential for trafficking MC2R to the adrenal cell surface for binding to ACTH. The present study determined whether the estrogen-dependent regulation of fetal adrenocortical development is mediated by ACTH and/or expression/interaction of MC2R and MRAP...
December 2016: Endocrinology
Rafaela S C Takeshita, Michael A Huffman, Keiko Mouri, Keiko Shimizu, Fred B Bercovitch
Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) is the main steroid product of the primate fetal adrenal during mid to late gestation and it plays a major role in providing estrogens needed for parturition. We tested the hypothesis that this hormone can indicate fetal health status and attempted to use fecal DHEAS (fDHEAS) to predict pregnancy outcome in Japanese macaques. The subjects were 16 adult females and 3 neonatal Japanese macaques living in captivity at the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University. We classified females that gave birth to healthy infants as successful and females that gave birth to dead infants as stillbirth (late fetal loss) and miscarriage (early fetal loss)...
October 19, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Veronica Gomez-Lobo, Anne-Marie Amies Oelschlager
Disorders (differences) of sexual development encompass a variety of conditions with atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex. Three of the most common differences of sex development conditions include congenital adrenal hyperplasia, complete androgen insensitivity, and Turner syndrome. Obstetrician-gynecologists who care for affected individuals in their practice must be familiar with the genetic, endocrine, and anatomic considerations of the most common conditions to provide optimal care...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Nikos Seferos, Loukas Petrokokkinos, Antonia Kotsiou, George Rallis, Christine Tesseromatis
: Stress, via corticosteroids release, influences bone mass density. Hypericum perforatum (Hp) a traditional remedy possess antidepressive activity (serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and wound healing properties. Hp preparation contains mainly hypericin, hyperforin, hyperoside and flavonoids exerting oestrogen-mimetic effect. Cold swimming represents an experimental model of stress associating mental strain and corporal exhaustion. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the Hp effect on femur and mandible bone mass changes in rats under cold forced swimming procedure...
2016: Stomatologija
A Monica Agoston, Maria Teresa Gonzalez-Bolanos, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Nancy Vanderburg, Kyriakie Sarafoglou
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a disorder characterized by impaired cortisol synthesis leading to excessive production of adrenal androgens. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to excess androgens may increase neural vulnerability to insult and affect cognitive functions, particularly dopamine-dependent neural circuits responsible for executive functioning (EF). Our study aimed to investigate relationship between more pronounced androgen exposure and EF-related behaviors in children with CAH, as well as sex differences in these associations...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Brasilina Caroccia, Teresa M Seccia, Matthias Barton, Gian Paolo Rossi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Hypertension
Jurate Aleknaviciute, Joke H M Tulen, Mirjam Timmermans, Yolanda B de Rijke, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Frank H de Jong, Steven A Kushner
STUDY QUESTION: Does adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induce gonadotropin release in premenopausal women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Administration of ACTH stimulates gonadotropin release, most likely by stimulation of the production of cortisol, in premenopausal women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In animal models, acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been shown to induce gonadotropin release in the presence of sufficiently high estrogen levels...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
Timothy K O'Rourke, Matthew S Wosnitzer
Opioid-induced androgen deficiency (OPIAD) was initially recognized as a possible consequence of opioid use roughly four decades ago. Long-acting opioid use carries risks of addiction, tolerance, and systemic side effects including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with consequent testosterone depletion leading to multiple central and peripheral effects. Hypogonadism is induced through direct inhibitory action of opioids on receptors within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as well as testosterone production within the testes...
October 2016: Current Urology Reports
Nesa Marti, José A Galván, Amit V Pandey, Mafalda Trippel, Coya Tapia, Michel Müller, Aurel Perren, Christa E Flück
Recently, dihydrotestosterone biosynthesis through the backdoor pathway has been implicated for the human testis in addition to the classic pathway for testosterone (T) synthesis. In the human ovary, androgen precursors are crucial for estrogen synthesis and hyperandrogenism in pathologies such as the polycystic ovary syndrome is partially due to ovarian overproduction. However, a role for the backdoor pathway is only established for the testis and the adrenal, but not for the human ovary. To investigate whether the backdoor pathway exists in normal and PCOS ovaries, we performed specific gene and protein expression studies on ovarian tissues...
July 25, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Cleanthe Spanaki, Dimitra Kotzamani, Andreas Plaitakis
Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase1 (GDH1) (E.C. is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD+ and/or NADP+ to NADH and/or NADPH. It links amino acid with carbohydrate metabolism, contributing to Krebs cycle anaplerosis, energy production, ammonia handling and redox homeostasis. Although GDH1 was one of the first major metabolic enzymes to be studied decades ago, its role in cell biology is still incompletely understood...
July 16, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Pu Hu, Ji Liu, Ali Yasrebi, Juliet D Gotthardt, Nicholas T Bello, Zhiping P Pang, Troy A Roepke
CRH neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) play a central role in regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and are directly influenced by 17β-estradiol (E2). Although compelling evidence has suggested the existence of membrane-associated estrogen receptors (mERs) in hypothalamic and other central nervous system neurons, it remains unknown whether E2 impacts CRH neuronal excitability through this mechanism. The purpose of the current study is to examine the existence and function of mER signaling in PVN CRH neurons...
September 2016: Endocrinology
Yun-lai Wang, Si-yao Ru, Qing Fang, Gun-qiang Li, Yong-fu Pan, Yao Yao, Fan Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Danggui Shaoyao San and Guizhi Fuling Wan for treating primary dysmenorrhea of liver depression and blood stasis syndrome by biological network method. METHODS: Targets of the formula were collected from. PubMed database, and targets of primary dysmenorrhea were searched from Gene Card database. Then, the "formula-syndromes-disease" network was constructed and analyzed with Cytoscape software. Molecular docking approach was used to verify estrogen-like effect of ingredients...
November 2015: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
Keizo Ohnaka
Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA), an adrenal androgen, has attracted much attention as an anti-aging hormone as well as a marker for senescence because of its unique change along with aging. DHEA is reported to have beneficial effects such as anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-atherosclerosis. It is also shown that DHEA has anti-osteoporosis effects to increase bone mineral density in randomized controlled trials(RCTs). As osteoblasts express aromatase which will convert androgen to estrogen, DHEA may act protectively against osteoporosis through its metabolites...
July 2016: Clinical Calcium
Hiroshi Miyazaki, Kimitaka Takitani, Maki Koh, Akiko Inoue, Hiroshi Tamai
In humans, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate ester metabolite DHEA-S are secreted predominantly from the adrenal cortex, and dehydroepiandrosterone is converted to steroid hormones, including androgens and estrogens, and neurosteroid. Dehydroepiandrosterone exerts protective effects against several pathological conditions. Although there are reports on the association between dehydroepiandrosterone and vitamins, the exact relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone and vitamin E remains to be determined...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Gert Lubec, Volker Korz
Adrenal and gonadal steroid receptor activities are significantly involved and interact in the regulation of learning, memory and stress. Thus, a coordinated expression of steroid receptor genes during a learning task can be expected. Although coexpression of steroid receptors in response to behavioral tasks has been reported the correlative connection is unclear. According to the inverted U-shape model of the impact of stress upon learning and memory we hypothesized that glucocorticoid (GR) receptor expression should be correlated to corticosterone levels in a linear or higher order manner...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mijie Kim, Yong Joo Park, Huiyeon Ahn, Byeonghak Moon, Kyu Hyuck Chung, Seung Min Oh
OBJECTIVES: Aromatase inhibitors that block estrogen synthesis are a proven first-line hormonal therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer. Although it is known that standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) induces anti-carcinogenic effects like the aromatase inhibitors, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis have not been studied yet. Therefore, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis and aromatase activity was studied using a H295R cell model, which was a good in vitro model to predict effects on human adrenal steroidogenesis...
2016: Environmental Health and Toxicology
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