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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527781/steroid-metabolism-in-breast-cancer-where-are-we-and-what-are-we-missing
#1
REVIEW
Donita Africander, Karl-Heinz Storbeck
It is well-known that breast cancer is hormone-dependent and that steroid hormones exert their mitogenic effects by binding to estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors. Vital to our understanding and treatment of this malignancy, is the local metabolism of steroid hormones in breast cancer tissue. This review summarises our current knowledge on steroid producing pathways in the adrenal, ovary and breast, while focussing on the availability of specific circulating hormone precursors and steroidogenic enzymes involved in the local synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones in the breast...
May 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454492/evaluation-of-the-isoflavones-and-estrogen-effects-on-the-rat-adrenal
#2
Darci Souza Marinho, Michele Longoni Calió, Miriam Aparecida Santos, Gui Mi Ko, Cristiane Paula Teixeira, Adriana Ferraz Carbonel, Telma Lisbôa-Nascimento, Rodrigo Aquino Castro, Ricardo Santos Simões, Clélia Rejane Antônio Bertoncini
The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry and the gene expression of Ki-67, VEGF and caspase 3 and the stress oxidative in the adrenal gland of ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen or isoflavones. We used 15 Wistar rats ovariectomized treated with isoflavones or estrogen during 30 days. At the end of the treatment, the left adrenal gland was removed for subsequent histological studies and the right was used to evaluate gene expression of angiogenesis (VEGF-A), cell proliferation (Ki-67), apoptose (caspase 3 clivated) and oxidative stress...
April 28, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408299/ovarian-hormones-modify-anxiety-behavior-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-after-chronic-social-isolation-stress
#3
Dinah L Ramos-Ortolaza, Raura J Doreste-Mendez, John K Alvarado-Torres, Annelyn Torres-Reveron
Chronic social isolation could lead to a disruption in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in anxiety and depressive-like behaviors but cycling estrogens could modify these behaviors. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in ovarian hormones during the normal cycle could interact with social isolation to alter anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. In parallel, we examined the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of Sprague Dawley normal cycling female rats...
April 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389808/overcoming-aromatase-inhibitor-resistance-in-breast-cancer-possible-mechanisms-and-clinical-applications
#4
Toru Hanamura, Shin-Ichi Hayashi
Estrogen plays crucial roles in the progression of hormone-dependent breast cancers through activation of nuclear estrogen receptor α (ER). Estrogen is produced locally from circulating inactive steroids and adrenal androgens in postmenopausal women. However, conversion by aromatase is a rate-limiting step in intratumoral estrogen production in breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) inhibit the growth of hormone-dependent breast cancers by blocking the conversion of adrenal androgens to estrogen and by unmasking the inhibitory effect of androgens, acting via the androgen receptor (AR)...
April 7, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381250/transcriptional-signatures-of-steroid-hormones-in-the-striatal-neurons-and-astrocytes
#5
Marcin Piechota, Michał Korostynski, Slawomir Golda, Joanna Ficek, Danuta Jantas, Ziolkowska Barbara, Ryszard Przewlocki
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of steroids actions in the brain mainly involve the binding and nuclear translocation of specific cytoplasmic receptors. These receptors can act as transcription factors and regulate gene expression. However, steroid-dependent transcriptional regulation in different types of neural cells is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare transcriptional alterations induced by various steroid receptor agonists in primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons from mouse brain...
April 5, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341321/reprint-of-repeated-adolescent-activity-based-anorexia-influences-central-estrogen-signaling-and-adulthood-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-rats
#6
Tien-Jui Lee, Kimberly P Kinzig
Anorexia nervosa (AN) typically presents in adolescence and is highly comorbid with anxiety and depression, which often persist after elimination of AN symptomology. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm allows for evaluation of behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of AN-like behaviors, including voluntary anorexia, hyperactivity, and disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Because ABA in adolescent females results in increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood and the estrogen signaling system has been shown to play a role in anxiety and food intake, we investigated the role of ovarian hormones in adolescent ABA-treated rats, and long-term effects of mid- and late adolescent ABA exposure on behavior and estrogen signaling...
March 21, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323944/from-pregnancy-to-preeclampsia-a-key-role-for-estrogens
#7
Nadia Berkane, Philippe Liere, Jean-Paul Oudinet, Alexandre Hertig, Guillaume Lefèvre, Nicola Pluchino, Michael Schumacher, Nathalie Chabbert-Buffet
Preeclampsia (PE) results in placental dysfunction and is one of the primary causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. During pregnancy, estrogen is produced primarily in the placenta by conversion of androgen precursors originating from maternal and fetal adrenal glands. These processes lead to increased plasma estrogen concentrations compared with levels in nonpregnant women. Aberrant production of estrogens could play a key role in PE symptoms because they are exclusively produced by the placenta and they promote angiogenesis and vasodilation...
April 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286207/virtual-screening-applications-in-short-chain-dehydrogenase-reductase-research
#8
REVIEW
Katharina R Beck, Teresa Kaserer, Daniela Schuster, Alex Odermatt
Several members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzyme family play fundamental roles in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis as well as in the metabolism of steroids, oxysterols, bile acids, and retinoids in peripheral tissues, thereby controlling the local activation of their cognate receptors. Some of these SDRs are considered as promising therapeutic targets, for example to treat estrogen-/androgen-dependent and corticosteroid-related diseases, whereas others are considered as anti-targets as their inhibition may lead to disturbances of endocrine functions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diseases...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279754/estrogen-receptors-er%C3%AE-and-er%C3%AE-participation-in-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activation-by-hemorrhagic-stress
#9
Luana Maria Silva-Alves, Procópio Cleber Gama de Barcelos Filho, Celso Rodrigues Franci
The sympato-adrenal-system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are anatomically and functionally connected with participation of several brain areas that express estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). We assessed the neuronal activity of these areas for FOS expression and the action of PPT (ERα agonist) or DPN (ERβ agonist) in HPA axis activity during hemorrhagic stress. Ovariectomized Wistar rats treated with vehicle (DMSO) or ER agonists were catheterized for blood collection. Animals received (control) or not (hemorrhagic) immediate reposition with the same volume of saline...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276592/low-serum-dheas-predicts-increased-fracture-risk-in-older-men-the-mros-sweden-study
#10
Claes Ohlsson, Maria Nethander, Andreas Kindmark, Östen Ljunggren, Mattias Lorentzon, Björn E Rosengren, Magnus K Karlsson, Dan Mellström, Liesbeth Vandenput
The adrenal-derived hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) are the most abundant circulating hormones and their levels decline substantially with age. DHEAS is considered an inactive precursor, which is converted into androgens and estrogens via local metabolism in peripheral target tissues. The predictive value of serum DHEAS for fracture risk is unknown. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the associations between baseline DHEAS levels and incident fractures in a large cohort of older men...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126832/effect-of-%C3%AE-agonist-on-the-dexamethasone-induced-expression-of-aromatase-by-the-human-monocyte-cells
#11
Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno, Hiroshi Wachi
Emerging evidence suggests that sex steroids are important for human skin health. In particular, estrogen improves skin thickness, elasticity and moisture of older women. The major source of circulating estrogen is the ovary; however, local estrogen synthesis and secretion have important roles in, for example, bone metabolism and breast cancer development. We hypothesized that infiltrated peripheral monocytes are one of the sources of estrogen in skin tissues. We also hypothesized that, during atopic dermatitis under stress, a decline in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and facilitation of the (hypothalamus)-sympathetic-adrenomedullary system (SAM) attenuates estrogen secretion from monocytes...
February 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098598/science-of-intracrinology-in-postmenopausal-women
#12
Fernand Labrie, Alain Bélanger, Georges Pelletier, Céline Martel, David F Archer, Wulf H Utian
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the marked differences between classical endocrinology that distributes hormones to all tissues of the body through the bloodstream and the science of intracrinology, whereby each cell of each peripheral tissue makes a small and appropriate amount of estrogens and androgens from the inactive precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA being mainly of adrenal origin. Because only the inactivated sex steroids are released in the blood, influence in the other tissues is avoided...
June 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081469/anti-osteoporotic-effects-of-an-antidepressant-tianeptine-on-ovariectomized-rats
#13
Osama A Alkhamees, Abdulaziz S Al-Roujayee, Hatem M Abuohashish, Mohammed M Ahmed
In the current investigation, the potential alleviating effects of tianeptine against bone loss induced in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was determined. Two weeks following a bilateral ovariectomy operation, tianeptine treatment (12.5 and 25mg/kg/twice/d) was initiated and continued for twenty-eight consecutive days. Changes in serum and urinary bone turnover biomarkers and osteoclastogenesis-inducing factors were estimated. The femoral bone mineral content was estimated using inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry...
March 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061972/estrogen-receptors-modulation-of-anxiety-like-behavior
#14
A P Borrow, R J Handa
Estrogens exert profound effects on the expression of anxiety in humans and rodents; however, the directionality of these effects varies considerably within both clinical and preclinical literature. It is believed that discrepancies regarding the nature of estrogens' effects on anxiety are attributable to the differential effects of specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes. In this chapter we will discuss the relative impact on anxiety and anxiety-like behavior of each of the three main ERs: ERα, which has a generally anxiogenic effect, ERβ, which has a generally anxiolytic effect, and the G-protein-coupled ER known as GPR30, which has been found to both increase and decrease anxiety-like behavior...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045098/effects-of-elevated-%C3%AE-estradiol-levels-on-the-functional-morphology-of-the-testis-new-insights
#15
Myles Leavy, Matthias Trottmann, Bernhard Liedl, Sven Reese, Christian Stief, Benjamin Freitag, John Baugh, Giulio Spagnoli, Sabine Kölle
Elevated estradiol levels are correlated with male infertility. Causes of hyperestrogenism include diseases of the adrenal cortex, testis or medications affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effects of estradiol treatment on testicular cellular morphology and function, with reference to the treatment regimen received. Testes samples (n = 9) were obtained post-orchiectomy from male-to-female transsexuals within the age range of 26-52 years. Each patient had a minimum of 1-6 years estradiol treatment...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024269/aromatase-changes-in-depression-a-postmortem-and-animal-experimental-study
#16
Juan-Li Wu, Yang He, Radovan Hrubý, Rawien Balesar, Yang-Jian Qi, Lei Guo, Zhong Ren, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Man-Li Huang, Dick F Swaab, Ai-Min Bao
A hyperactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a prominent feature in depression. It has been shown that androgens inhibit HPA activity and that estrogens stimulate it. We have therefore investigated, in human postmortem hypothalamus, whether depression features an increase in aromatase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the conversion of androgens to estrogens. In addition, we have tested the effect of an aromatase inhibitor on depression-like symptoms in a frequently used animal model for depression...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013353/changes-in-stress-stimulated-allopregnanolone-levels-induced-by-neonatal-estradiol-treatment-are-associated-with-enhanced-dopamine-release-in-adult-female-rats-reversal-by-progesterone-administration
#17
Patrizia Porcu, Valeria Lallai, Andrea Locci, Sandro Catzeddu, Valeria Serra, Maria Giuseppina Pisu, Mariangela Serra, Laura Dazzi, Alessandra Concas
BACKGROUND: Allopregnanolone plays a role in the stress response and homeostasis. Alterations in the estrogen milieu during the perinatal period influence brain development in a manner that persists into adulthood. Accordingly, we showed that a single administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) on the day of birth decreases brain allopregnanolone concentrations in adult female rats. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the persistent decrease in allopregnanolone concentrations, induced by neonatal EB treatment, might affect sensitivity to stress during adulthood...
December 24, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959413/17%C3%AE-%C3%A2-hydroxylase-17-20%C3%A2-lyase-deficiency-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-a-case-report
#18
Simiao Xu, Shuhong Hu, Xuefeng Yu, Muxun Zhang, Yan Yang
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1 (CYP17A1) gene located on chromosome 10q24.3, which leads to a deficiency in 17α‑hydroxylase/17,20‑lyase. The disorder is characterized by low blood levels of estrogens, androgens and cortisol, which leads to a compensatory increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone levels that stimulate the production of mineralocorticoid precursors. This subsequently leads to hypertension, hypokalemia, primary amenorrhea and sexual infantilism...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942913/genomic-and-rapid-effects-of-aldosterone-what-we-know-and-do-not-know-thus-far
#19
Milla Marques Hermidorff, Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Mauro César Isoldi
Aldosterone is the most known mineralocorticoid hormone synthesized by the adrenal cortex. The genomic pathway displayed by aldosterone is attributed to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling. Even though the rapid effects displayed by aldosterone are long known, our knowledge regarding the receptor responsible for such event is still poor. It is intense that the debate whether the MR or another receptor-the "unknown receptor"-is the receptor responsible for the rapid effects of aldosterone. Recently, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1) was elegantly shown to mediate some aldosterone-induced rapid effects in several tissues, a fact that strongly places GPER-1 as the unknown receptor...
January 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936531/endocrinology-update-hirsutism
#20
Joel J Heidelbaugh
Hirsutism is defined as excessive terminal hair growth, such as coarse sexual or secondary hair, that typically appears in a male growth pattern in androgen-dependent areas of the female body. It can occur in men and women. Common etiologies include polycystic ovary syndrome, idiopathic hyperandrogenemia, idiopathic hirsutism, adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, androgen-secreting tumors, iatrogenic hirsutism, acromegaly, Cushing syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, and hypo- or hyperthyroidism. Diagnostic guidelines are predominantly aimed at premenopausal women but an appropriate evaluation for underlying endocrinopathies in postmenopausal women and men may be required...
December 2016: FP Essentials
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